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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802192/soft-diet-feeding-impairs-neural-transmission-between-mitral-cells-and-interneurons-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#1
Tomohiro Noguchi, Chizuru Utsugi, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
(Objective) The subventricular zone in mice generates a lot of neuroblasts even during adulthood. These neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into inhibitory interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Olfactory sensory neurons receive information from various odorants and transmit it to the olfactory bulb. Our previous study showed that soft-diet feeding impairs neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, in turn leading to the reduction of odor-induced behaviors and Fos-immunoreactivities, the latter of which are markers of neural activity, at the olfactory bulb after exposure to odors...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#2
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793250/mir-7-buffers-differentiation-in-the-developing-drosophila-visual-system
#3
Elizabeth E Caygill, Andrea H Brand
The 40,000 neurons of the medulla, the largest visual processing center of the Drosophila brain, derive from a sheet of neuroepithelial cells. During larval development, a wave of differentiation sweeps across the neuroepithelium, converting neuroepithelial cells into neuroblasts that sequentially express transcription factors specifying different neuronal cell fates. The switch from neuroepithelial cells to neuroblasts is controlled by a complex gene regulatory network and is marked by the expression of the proneural gene l'sc...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776046/jak-inhibitors-modulate-production-of-replication-competent-zika-virus-in-human-hofbauer-trophoblasts-and-neuroblastoma-cells
#4
Christina Gavegnano, Leda C Bassit, Bryan D Cox, Hui-Mien Hsiao, Erica L Johnson, Mehul Suthar, Rana Chakraborty, Raymond F Schinazi
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has been implicated in causing brain deformations, birth defects, and microcephaly in fetuses, and associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for transmission of ZIKV across the placenta to the fetus are incompletely understood. Herein, we define key events modulating infection in clinically relevant cells, including primary placental macrophages (human Hofbauer cells; HC), trophoblasts, and neuroblastoma cells. Consistent with previous findings, HC and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751427/unremitting-watery-diarrhoea-in-early-childhood-period
#5
Palittiya Sintusek, Thanita Thammarakcharoen, Shanop Shuangshoti, Boosba Vivatvakin
Chronic watery diarrhoea can be a presentation of gastrointestinal disease itself or a less-evident systemic disease. A 17-month-old boy presented with intractable diarrhoea, failure to gain weight, refractory tachycardia and severe hypertension. The ability to recognise and make a quick diagnosis of secretory type of diarrhoea dictated the outcome of patients with this ailment. Catecholamine hypersecretion was considered with the additional clues of refractory tachycardia and hypertension, a well-recognised phenomenon of neuroblastic tumours...
July 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746879/daple-coordinates-planar-polarized-microtubule-dynamics-in-ependymal-cells-and-contributes-to-hydrocephalus
#6
Maki Takagishi, Masato Sawada, Shinya Ohata, Naoya Asai, Atsushi Enomoto, Kunihiko Takahashi, Liang Weng, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Shigeyuki Matsui, Kozo Kaibuchi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Masahide Takahashi
Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746827/monocyte-depletion-early-after-stroke-promotes-neurogenesis-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-in-adult-brain
#7
Cecilia Laterza, Somsak Wattananit, Naomi Uoshima, Ruimin Ge, Roy Pekny, Daniel Tornero, Emanuela Monni, Olle Lindvall, Zaal Kokaia
Ischemic stroke, caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, leads to long-lasting formation of new striatal neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult rodents. Concomitantly with this neurogenic response, SVZ exhibits activation of resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes. Here we show that depletion of circulating monocytes, using the anti-CCR2 antibody MC-21 during the first week after stroke, enhances striatal neurogenesis at one week post-insult, most likely by increasing short-term survival of the newly formed neuroblasts in the SVZ and adjacent striatum...
July 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744838/effects-of-hydroxyurea-exposure-on-the-rat-cerebellar-neuroepithelium-an-immunohistochemical-and-electron-microscopic-study-along-the-anteroposterior-and-mediolateral-axes
#8
Lucía Rodríguez-Vázquez, Joaquín Martí
We present a histological study of the cell death of cerebellar neuroepithelial neuroblasts following treatment with the cytotoxic agent hydroxyurea (HU) during the embryonic life. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of HU (300 mg/kg) at embryonic days 13, 14, or 15 of gestation, and their fetuses were studied from 5 to 35 h after treatment to elucidate the mechanisms of HU-induced fetotoxicity. Quantification of several parameters such as the density of pyknotic, mitotic, and PCNA-immunoreactive cells indicated that HU compromises the survival of the cerebellar neuroepithelium neuroblasts...
July 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743634/early-ciliary-and-prominin-1-dysfunctions-precede-neurogenesis-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#9
Tomás P Bachor, Jana Karbanová, Edgar Büttner, Vicente Bermúdez, Melisa Marquioni-Ramella, Peter Carmeliet, Denis Corbeil, Angela M Suburo
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching epidemic conditions worldwide and increases the risk for cognition impairment and dementia. Here, we postulated that progenitors in adult neurogenic niches might be particularly vulnerable. Therefore, we evaluated the different components of the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) during the first week after chemical induction of type 1 and type 2 diabetes-like (T1DM and T2DM) conditions. Surprisingly, only T2DM mice showed SVZ damage. The initial lesions were localized to ependymal cilia, which appeared disorientated and clumped together...
July 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#10
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733832/seasonal-reorganization-of-hypothalamic-neurogenic-niche-in-adult-sheep
#11
Lucile Butruille, Martine Batailler, Danièle Mazur, Vincent Prévot, Martine Migaud
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated. This process, well established during development, persists in adulthood owing to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) localized in specific brain areas called neurogenic niches. Adult neurogenesis has recently been shown to occur in the hypothalamus, a structure involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction and metabolism, among others. In the adult sheep-a long-lived mammalian model-we have previously reported the existence of such a neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and the median eminence...
July 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728220/-diagnostic-utility-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumors
#12
N Zhang, N Liu, L J He
Objective: To investigation the diagnostic utility of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemically as a marker of peripheral neuroblastic tumors(pNT). Methods: The study included 1 024 cases, 643 primary and metastatic pNT cases, 381 non-pNT cases, including small round cell tumors such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphoma, nephroblastoma, as well as other more common tumors (medulloblastoma, hepatoblastoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, renal clear cell sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lipoblatoma etc)...
July 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728218/-concensus-on-pathologic-diagnosis-of-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumors
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725659/explant-methodology-for-analyzing-neuroblast-migration
#14
Kirsty J Dixon, Alisa Turbic, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
The subventricular zone (SVZ) in the mammalian forebrain contains stem/progenitor cells that migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood. SVZ-derived explant cultures provide a convenient method to assess factors regulating the intermediary stage of neural stem/progenitor cell migration. Here, we describe the isolation of SVZ-derived RMS explants from the neonatal mouse brain, and the conditions required to culture and evaluate their migration.
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720887/olfactory-bulb-plasticity-ensures-proper-olfaction-after-severe-impairment-in-postnatal-neurogenesis
#15
D Díaz, R Muñoz-Castañeda, C Ávila-Zarza, J Carretero, J R Alonso, E Weruaga
The olfactory bulb (OB) neurons establish a complex network that ensures the correct processing of the olfactory inputs. Moreover, the OB presents a lifelong addition of new neurons into its existing circuitry. This neurogenesis is considered essential for the OB function. However, its functional impact on physiology and behavior is still unclear. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of OB plasticity that underlie bulbar physiology in relation to severe damage of neurogenesis. The neurogenesis of young mice was altered by ionizing radiation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716930/conserved-gene-regulatory-module-specifies-lateral-neural-borders-across-bilaterians
#16
Yongbin Li, Di Zhao, Takeo Horie, Geng Chen, Hongcun Bao, Siyu Chen, Weihong Liu, Ryoko Horie, Tao Liang, Biyu Dong, Qianqian Feng, Qinghua Tao, Xiao Liu
The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713906/chronic-administration-of-sumo%C3%A2-1-has-negative-effects-on-novel-object-recognition-memory-as-well-as-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#17
Dae Young Yoo, Dae Won Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, Soo Young Choi, In Koo Hwang
Post‑translational modifications have been associated with developmental and aging processes, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of small ubiquitin‑like modifier 1 (SUMO‑1) on hippocampal dependent memory function, cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. To facilitate the delivery of SUMO‑1 into hippocampal neurons, a transactivator of transcription (Tat)‑SUMO‑1 fusion protein was constructed and mice were divided into two groups: A vehicle (Tat peptide)‑treated group and a Tat‑SUMO‑1‑treated group...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713618/vanillin-and-4-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-attenuate-cognitive-impairment-and-the-reduction-of-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-dentate-gyrus-in-a-mouse-model-of-scopolamine-induced-amnesia
#18
Yang Hee Kim, Joon Ha Park
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA) are natural phenolic compounds, which present in many plants and have diverse biological properties. In this study, we examined effects of vanillin and 4-HBA on learning and memory function, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine (SCO; 1 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), vanillin, and 4-HBA (40 mg/kg/day, orally) were administered for 28 days...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#19
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700942/a-pml-slit-axis-controls-physiological-cell-migration-and-cancer-invasion-in-the-cns
#20
Valeria Amodeo, Deli A, Joanne Betts, Stefano Bartesaghi, Ying Zhang, Angela Richard-Londt, Matthew Ellis, Rozita Roshani, Mikaella Vouri, Sara Galavotti, Sarah Oberndorfer, Ana Paula Leite, Alan Mackay, Aikaterini Lampada, Eva Wessel Stratford, Ningning Li, David Dinsdale, David Grimwade, Chris Jones, Pierluigi Nicotera, David Michod, Sebastian Brandner, Paolo Salomoni
Cell migration through the brain parenchyma underpins neurogenesis and glioblastoma (GBM) development. Since GBM cells and neuroblasts use the same migratory routes, mechanisms underlying migration during neurogenesis and brain cancer pathogenesis may be similar. Here, we identify a common pathway controlling cell migration in normal and neoplastic cells in the CNS. The nuclear scaffold protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML), a regulator of forebrain development, promotes neural progenitor/stem cell (NPC) and neuroblast migration in the adult mouse brain...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
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