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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209878/cell-type-specific-spatiotemporal-expression-of-creatine-biosynthetic-enzyme-s-adenosylmethionine-guanidinoacetate-n-methyltransferase-in-developing-mouse-brain
#1
Masanori Tachikawa, Masahiko Watanabe, Masahiro Fukaya, Kazuhisa Sakai, Tetsuya Terasaki, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Creatine is synthesized by S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT), and the creatine/phosphocreatine shuttle system mediated by creatine kinase (CK) is essential for storage and regeneration of high-energy phosphates in cells. Although the importance of this system in brain development is evidenced by the hereditary nature of creatine deficiency syndrome, the spatiotemporal cellular expression patterns of GAMT in developing brain remain unknown. Here we show that two waves of high GAMT expression occur in developing mouse brain...
December 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205371/characterization-of-the-canine-rostral-ventricular-subventricular-zone-morphological-immunohistochemical-ultrastructural-and-neurosphere-assay-studies
#2
Francisco Fernández-Flores, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Cristina Herranz, Dolors Fondevila, Josep María Canals, Carles Arús, Martí Pumarola
The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193257/fundamental-structural-and-functional-properties-of-aquaporin-ion-channels-found-across-the-kingdoms-of-life
#3
Mohamad Kourghi, Jinxin V Pei, Michael L De Ieso, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Pak Hin Chow, Andrea J Yool
Aquaporin (AQP) channels in the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) family are known to facilitate transmembrane water fluxes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Some classes of AQPs also conduct ions, glycerol, urea, CO2 , nitric oxide, and other small solutes. Ion channel activity has been demonstrated for mammalian AQPs 0, 1, 6, Drosophila big brain (BIB), soybean nodulin 26, and rockcress AtPIP2;1. More classes are likely to be discovered. Newly identified blockers are providing essential tools for establishing physiological roles of some of the AQP dual water and ion channels...
November 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191977/the-tumor-suppressor-brat-controls-neuronal-stem-cell-lineages-by-inhibiting-deadpan-and-zelda
#4
Ilka Reichardt, François Bonnay, Victoria Steinmann, Inga Loedige, Thomas R Burkard, Gunter Meister, Juergen A Knoblich
The TRIM-NHL protein Brain tumor (Brat) acts as a tumor suppressor in the Drosophila brain, but how it suppresses tumor formation is not completely understood. Here, we combine temperature-controlled brat RNAi with transcriptome analysis to identify the immediate Brat targets in Drosophila neuroblasts. Besides the known target Deadpan (Dpn), our experiments identify the transcription factor Zelda (Zld) as a critical target of Brat. Our data show that Zld is expressed in neuroblasts and required to allow re-expression of Dpn in transit-amplifying intermediate neural progenitors...
November 30, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185419/activation-of-discs-large-by-apkc-aligns-the-mitotic-spindle-to-the-polarity-axis-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#5
Ognjen Golub, Brett Wee, Rhonda A Newman, Nicole M Paterson, Kenneth E Prehoda
Asymmetric division generates cellular diversity by producing daughter cells with different fates. In animals, the mitotic spindle aligns with Par complex polarized fate determinants, ensuring that fate determinant cortical domains are bisected by the cleavage furrow. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that couple spindle orientation to polarity during asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neuroblasts. We find that the tumor suppressor Discs large (Dlg) links the Par complex component atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) to the essential spindle orientation factor GukHolder (GukH)...
November 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180821/specific-features-of-svz-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-a-longitudinal-study
#6
S Palma-Tortosa, A García-Culebras, A Moraga, O Hurtado, A Perez-Ruiz, V Durán-Laforet, J de la Parra, M I Cuartero, J M Pradillo, M A Moro, I Lizasoain
Stroke is a devastating disease with an increasing prevalence. Part of the current development in stroke therapy is focused in the chronic phase, where neurorepair mechanisms such as neurogenesis, are involved. In the adult brain, one of the regions where neurogenesis takes place is the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Given the possibility to develop pharmacological therapies to stimulate this process, we have performed a longitudinal analysis of neurogenesis in a model of cortical ischemia in mice...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179213/melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-of-the-upper-arm-a-case-report
#7
Monica Stephany Kirigin, Tihana Džombeta, Sven Seiwerth, Marko Mesić, Jasminka Stepan Giljević, Božo Krušlin
OBJECTIVE: To present a case of a 6-month-old infant with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) in the upper arm. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 6-month-old female presented with a well circumscribed lesion of the upper arm at Children's Hospital Zagreb. Biopsy was performed and microscopy revealed two cell populations consisting of small neuroblastic cells and larger melanin-containing epithelial cells. Excisional biopsy performed one month later confirmed initial diagnosis of MNTI, but the tumor had increased in size since initial biopsy...
November 27, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174574/enhanced-neurogenesis-in-degenerated-hippocampi-following-pretreatment-with-mir-302-367-expressing-lentiviral-vector-in-mice
#8
Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Javan
Astrogliosis is the main landmark of neurodegenerative diseases. In vivo reprogramming of reactive astrocytes to functional neurons opened a new horizon in regenerative medicine. However there is little evidence that show possible application of in vivo reprogramming approaches for enhancement of neurogenesis. Cluster miR-302/367 showed high capability in cell reprogramming. Here we show that application of lentiviral particles expressing cluster miR-302/367 along with systemic valproate (VPA) enhanced the capability of mice brains for neurogenesis in CA3 area following kainic acid (KA) induced hippocampal neurodegeneration...
November 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168879/1p36-deletion-results-in-a-decrease-in-glycosaminoglycans-which-is-associated-with-aggressiveness-in-neuroblastic-tumors
#9
Irene Tadeo, Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio, Ana P Berbegall, Samuel Navarro, Adela Cañete, Rosa Noguera
Despite our deep understanding of neuroblastic tumors, some patients still suffer treatment failure, so pre-treatment risk stratification still requires improvement and the search for new therapeutic targets must continue. Here we correlated prognostic clinical and biological features of neuroblastic tumors with the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans (the main components of the extracellular matrix 'ground substance'), in nearly 400 primary samples. We also studied the relationship between the density of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans and the expression of B3GALT6, an enzyme required for their synthesis...
November 23, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158446/drosophila-embryonic-type-ii-neuroblasts-origin-temporal-patterning-and-contribution-to-the-adult-central-complex
#10
Kathleen T Walsh, Chris Q Doe
Drosophila neuroblasts are an excellent model for investigating how neuronal diversity is generated. Most brain neuroblasts generate a series of ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each make two neurons (type I lineage), but sixteen brain neuroblasts generate a series of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that each produce 4-6 GMCs and 8-12 neurons (type II lineage). Thus, type II lineages are similar to primate cortical lineages, and may serve as models for understanding cortical expansion. Yet the origin of type II neuroblasts remains mysterious: do they form in the embryo or larva? If they form in the embryo, do their progeny populate the adult central complex, as do the larval type II neuroblast progeny? Here we present molecular and clonal data showing that all type II neuroblasts form in the embryo, produce INPs, and express known temporal transcription factors...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153395/ultrasound-mediated-kallidinogenase-loaded-microbubble-targeted-therapy-for-acute-cerebral-infarction
#11
Yanling Liang, Jia Chen, Xuan Zheng, Zhiyi Chen, Yuming Liu, Siying Li, Xiaobo Fang
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective effects of kallidinogenase against acute cerebral infarction have been demonstrated, and the use of microbubbles has been suggested as a therapeutic mechanism for drug delivery. This study was designed to investigate the optimal parameters for preparing kallidinogenase-loaded microbubbles (KLMs) and to evaluate the effects of KLM-targeted therapy on neurogenesis and angiogenesis following experimental acute cerebral infarction in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KLMs were prepared by mechanical shaking...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#13
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129683/non-monotonic-changes-in-progenitor-cell-behavior-and-gene-expression-during-aging-of-the-adult-v-svz-neural-stem-cell-niche
#14
Maria Apostolopoulou, Thomas R Kiehl, Mark Winter, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Nathan C Boles, Christopher S Bjornsson, Kristen L Zuloaga, Susan K Goderie, Yue Wang, Andrew R Cohen, Sally Temple
Neural stem cell activity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) decreases with aging, thought to occur by a unidirectional decline. However, by analyzing the V-SVZ transcriptome of male mice at 2, 6, 18, and 22 months, we found that most of the genes that change significantly over time show a reversal of trend, with a maximum or minimum expression at 18 months. In vivo, MASH1(+) progenitor cells decreased in number and proliferation between 2 and 18 months but increased between 18 and 22 months...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126932/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-enhances-the-therapeutic-potential-of-neonatal-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-post-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Hussein Ghazale, Naify Ramadan, Sara Mantash, Kazem Zibara, Sally El-Sitt, Hala Darwish, Farah Chamaa, Rose Mary Boustany, Stefania Mondello, Wassim Abou-Kheir, Jihane Soueid, Firas Kobeissy
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide with 1.5 million people inflicted yearly. Several neurotherapeutic interventions have been proposed including drug administration as well as cellular therapy involving neural stem cells (NSCs). Among the proposed drugs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, exhibiting neuroprotective properties. In this study, we utilized an innovative intervention of neonatal NSCs transplantation in combination with DHA injections in order to ameliorate brain damage and promote functional recovery in an experimental model of TBI...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124353/oligomer-prone-e57k-mutant-alpha-synuclein-exacerbates-integration-deficit-of-adult-hippocampal-newborn-neurons-in-transgenic-mice
#16
Martin Regensburger, Sebastian R Schreglmann, Svenja Stoll, Edward Rockenstein, Sandra Loskarn, Wei Xiang, Eliezer Masliah, Beate Winner
In the adult mammalian hippocampus, new neurons are constantly added to the dentate gyrus. Adult neurogenesis is impaired in several neurodegenerative mouse models including α-synuclein (a-syn) transgenic mice. Among different a-syn species, a-syn oligomers were reported to be the most toxic species for neurons. Here, we studied the impact of wild-type vs. oligomer-prone a-syn on neurogenesis. We compared the wild-type a-syn transgenic mouse model (Thy1-WTS) to its equivalent transgenic for oligomer-prone E57K-mutant a-syn (Thy1-E57K)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123099/spatio-temporally-separated-cortical-flows-and-spindle-geometry-establish-physical-asymmetry-in-fly-neural-stem-cells
#17
Chantal Roubinet, Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, Arnaud Monnard, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter, Clemens Cabernard
Asymmetric cell division, creating sibling cells with distinct developmental potentials, can be manifested in sibling cell size asymmetry. This form of physical asymmetry occurs in several metazoan cells, but the underlying mechanisms and function are incompletely understood. Here we use Drosophila neural stem cells to elucidate the mechanisms involved in physical asymmetry establishment. We show that Myosin relocalizes to the cleavage furrow via two distinct cortical Myosin flows: at anaphase onset, a polarity induced, basally directed Myosin flow clears Myosin from the apical cortex...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112852/neural-lineage-progression-controlled-by-a-temporal-proliferation-program
#18
Shahrzad Bahrampour, Erika Gunnar, Carolin Jonsson, Helen Ekman, Stefan Thor
Great progress has been made in identifying transcriptional programs that establish stem cell identity. In contrast, we have limited insight into how these programs are down-graded in a timely manner to halt proliferation and allow for cellular differentiation. Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts undergo such a temporal progression, initially dividing to bud off daughters that divide once (type I), then switching to generating non-dividing daughters (type 0), and finally exiting the cell cycle. We identify six early transcription factors that drive neuroblast and type I daughter proliferation...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109240/deficiency-of-the-thyroid-hormone-transporter-mct8-in-neural-progenitors-impairs-cellular-processes-crucial-for-early-corticogenesis
#20
Pieter Vancamp, Marie-Anne Deprez, Michiel Remmerie, Veerle M Darras
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for establishing layered brain structures, a process called corticogenesis, by acting on transcriptional activity of numerous genes. In humans, deficiency of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), involved in cellular uptake of THs prior to their action, results in severe neurological abnormalities, known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome. While the brain lesions predominantly originate prenatally, it remains unclear how and when exactly MCT8 dysfunction affects cellular processes crucial for corticogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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