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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679561/drosophila-nucleostemin-3-is-required-to-maintain-larval-neuroblast-proliferation
#1
Patrick W Johnson, Chris Q Doe, Sen-Lin Lai
Stem cells must maintain proliferation during tissue development, repair and homeostasis, yet avoid tumor formation. In Drosophila, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) maintain proliferation during embryonic and larval development and terminate cell cycle during metamorphosis. An important question for understanding how tissues are generated and maintained is: what regulates stem cell proliferation versus differentiation? We performed a genetic screen which identified nucleostemin 3 (ns3) as a gene required to maintain neuroblast proliferation...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#2
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663194/centrosome-inheritance-does-not-regulate-cell-fate-in-granule-neuron-progenitors-of-the-developing-cerebellum
#3
Anindo Chatterjee, Kaviya Chinnappa, Narendrakumar Ramanan, Shyamala Mani
An inherent asymmetry exists between the two centrosomes of a dividing cell. One centrosome is structurally more mature (mother centrosome) than the other (daughter centrosome). Post division, one daughter cell inherits the mother centrosome while the other daughter cell inherits the daughter centrosome. Remarkably, the kind of centrosome inherited is associated with cell fate in several developmental contexts such as in radial glial progenitors in the developing mouse cortex, Drosophila neuroblast divisions and in Drosophila male germline stem cells...
April 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661967/detachment-of-chain-forming-neuroblasts-by-fyn-mediated-control-of-cell-cell-adhesion-in-the-postnatal-brain
#4
Kazuma Fujikake, Masato Sawada, Takao Hikita, Yayoi Seto, Naoko Kaneko, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Natsuki Dohi, Natsumi Homma, Satoshi Osaga, Yuchio Yanagawa, Toshihiro Akaike, Jose Manuel García-Verdugo, Mitsuharu Hattori, Kazuya Sobue, Kazunobu Sawamoto
In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661713/review-with-novel-markers-facilitates-precise-categorization-of-41-cases-of-diagnostically-challenging-undifferentiated-small-round-cell-tumors-a-clinicopathologic-immunophenotypic-and-molecular-analysis
#5
Isidro Machado, Akihiko Yoshida, María Gema Nieto Morales, Lucas Faria Abrahão-Machado, Samuel Navarro, Julia Cruz, Javier Lavernia, Antonina Parafioriti, Piero Picci, Antonio Llombart-Bosch
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular studies combined with morphologic findings, a group of round/ovoid cell tumors histologically similar to Ewing sarcomas (ES) but lacking EWSR1-rearrangements may remain unclassifiable. DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 41 Ewing-like tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) previously determined as negative or non-informative for EWSR1-rearrangements by FISH and/or RT-PCR. A new histopathology revision and additional IHC and molecular analyses were carried out in order to investigate whether additional IHC and/or molecular testing in combination with the morphological findings may help in reaching a definitive diagnosis...
November 29, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660375/the-secretome-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-from-arsenic-induced-toxicity-independent-of-a-neuron-like-differentiation-mechanism
#6
Theresa M Curtis, Joseph M Hannett, Rebecca M Harman, Nicholas A Puoplo, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Arsenic exposure through contaminated food, water, and air causes irreversible neural damage and affects millions of people worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that the secreted factors (secretome) from mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) can promote neural recovery after several forms of injury including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to determine if the secretome from adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) prevents arsenic damage to SH-SY5Y cells. To this end, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were pre-treated with the secretome from ADSCs and then challenged with different concentrations of arsenic...
April 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651555/larval-neurogenesis-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-californicus-tetraconata-multicrustacea
#7
Hendrikje Hein, Gerhard Scholtz
Arthropod early neurogenesis shows distinct patterns that have been interpreted in an evolutionary framework. For instance, crustaceans and Hexapoda form the taxon Tetraconata and share the differentiation of specific neural precursors, the neuroblasts, a character which sets them apart from Chelicerata and Myriapoda. Neuroblasts are relatively large stem cells that generate ganglion mother cells by asymmetric divisions. Ganglion mother cells typically divide once to give rise to neurons and glia cells. In hexapods, neuroblasts segregate from the neuroectoderm before they begin their characteristic proliferative activity...
April 12, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625112/the-transcriptional-factor-apt-regulates-neuroblast-differentiation-through-activating-cyce-expression
#8
Yang Shen, Luwei Wang, Susumu Hirose, Zizhang Zhou, Qingxin Liu
In Drosophila, the thoracic neuroblast 6-4 (NB6-4T) divides asymmetrically into a glial precursor and a neuronal precursor, while the abdominal neuroblast 6-4 (NB6-4A) divides symmetrically to produce two glial cells. The underlying mechanism by which NB6-4T and NB6-4A undergo distinct differentiation is still elusive. Here, we find that the transcription factor Apontic (Apt) exclusively expresses in NB6-4T cells and is involved in regulating NB6-4T differentiation. Loss of Apt results in neuronal precursor loss...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619527/neuroblastic-tumors-in-young-adults-as-a-sequela-of-malignant-neuroblastoma-report-of-two-cases
#9
Takuya Adachi, Minato Yokoyama, Yasuhisa Fujii, Yuko Kinowaki, Susumu Kirimura, Kazunori Kubota, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi
Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma share the same histological spectrum which originates from neural crest cells. We present herein two young adult patients with neuroblastic tumors with lymph node metastases. Both the patients were diagnosed incidentally as having retroperitoneal masses, which showed little or no immature cells despite coexistence of lymph node involvement. The tumors were considered to represent spontaneous regression of malignant neuroblastoma. Radiologists should consider the possibility of spontaneous regression of neuroblastic tumors, when poorly enhanced multi-component masses at the retroperitoneum with lymph node involvement are visualized...
April 4, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615565/a-kinase-duet-performance-in-the-asymmetric-division-of-drosophila-neuroblasts
#10
Christopher A Johnston
The ability of progenitor stem cells to divide asymmetrically allows for the production of diverse daughter cell fates.[...].
September 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614674/optical-depolarization-of-dcx-expressing-cells-promoted-cognitive-recovery-and-maturation-of-newborn-neurons-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#11
Ming-Liang Zhao, Shi-Jin Chen, Xiao-Hong Li, Li-Na Wang, Feng Chen, Shi-Jiang Zhong, Cheng Yang, Sheng-Kai Sun, Jian-Jun Li, Hua-Jiang Dong, Yue-Qing Dong, Yi Wang, Chong Chen
Electrical excitability by membrane depolarization is crucial for survival and maturation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. However, traditional technology for membrane depolarization lacks temporal and spatial precision. Optogenetics can be used to activate channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), allowing cationic current to depolarize genetically targeted cells. In this study, we used ChR2-EGFP driven by doublecortin (DCX) to promote survival and maturation of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606615/promoting-myelin-repair-through-in-vivo-neuroblast-reprogramming
#12
Bilal El Waly, Myriam Cayre, Pascale Durbec
Demyelination is frequently observed in a variety of CNS insults and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, adult neural stem cells can generate oligodendrocytes and participate to myelin repair. However, these cells mainly produce migratory neuroblasts that differentiate in the olfactory bulb. Here, we show that, in the demyelination context, a small subset of these neuroblasts can spontaneously convert into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the contribution of neuroblasts to myelin repair can be improved by in vivo forced expression of two transcription factors: OLIG2 and SOX10...
March 27, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601895/chronic-administration-of-amphetamines-disturbs-development-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-young-adult-nonhuman-primates
#13
Rahul R Dutta, Michael A Taffe, Chitra D Mandyam
The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593498/reactive-neuroblastosis-in-huntington-s-disease-a-putative-therapeutic-target-for-striatal-regeneration-in-the-adult-brain
#14
Mahesh Kandasamy, Ludwig Aigner
The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationship between adult neurogenesis, cognitive and motor functions have been an important focus of investigation in the establishment of effective neural replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. While neuronal loss, reactive gliosis and defects in the self-repair capacity have extensively been characterized in neurodegenerative disorders, the transient excess production of neuroblasts detected in the adult striatum of animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) and in post-mortem brain of HD patients, has only marginally been addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579278/subchronic-manganese-exposure-impairs-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-rat-hippocampus
#15
Sherleen Xue-Fu Adamson, Xubo Shen, Wendy Jiang, Vivien Lai, Xiaoting Wang, Jonathan H Shannahan, Jason R Cannon, Jinhui Chen, Wei Zheng
Adult neurogenesis takes place in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) in the frontal cortex and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG), and functions to supply newborn neurons for normal brain functionality. Subchronic Mn exposure is known to disrupt adult neurogenesis in the SVZ. This study was designed to determine whether Mn exposure disturbed neurogenesis within the adult HDG. Adult rats (10 weeks old) received a single dose of BrdU at the end of 4-wk Mn exposure to label the proliferating cells...
March 21, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574630/p2y-12-but-not-p2y-13-purinergic-receptor-controls-postnatal-rat-retinogenesis-in-vivo
#16
Luana de Almeida-Pereira, Marinna Garcia Repossi, Camila Feitosa Magalhães, Rafael de Freitas Azevedo, Juliana da Cruz Corrêa-Velloso, Henning Ulrich, Ana Lúcia Marques Ventura, Lucianne Fragel-Madeira
Adenine nucleotides through P2Y1 receptor stimulation are known to control retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation by modulating expression of the p57KIP2 , a cell cycle regulator. However, the role of Gi protein-coupled P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors also activated by adenine nucleotides in RPC proliferation is still unknown. Gene expression of the purinergic P2Y12 subtype was detected in rat retina during early postnatal days (P0 to P5), while expression levels of P2Y13 were low. Immunohistochemistry assays performed with rat retina on P3 revealed P2Y12 receptor expression in both Ki-67-positive cells in the neuroblastic layer and Ki-67-negative cells in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573831/morphogenetic-movements-affect-local-tissue-organisation-during-embryonic-drosophila-morphogenesis
#17
Annalisa Letizia, Sebastien Tosi, Marta Llimargas
Tissues and organs undergo extensive remodelling to reach their final morphology and physiological activity. The genetic programs underlying tissue formation are well studied, but less is known about how this formation is influenced by extrinsic forces derived from other concomitant morphogenetic events. Here we address this question in Drosophila melanogaster. We analyse tissue organisation in the embryonic epidermis at stage 10 by computational tissue segmentation methods to provide a quantitative description of packing...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567672/origin-and-specification-of-type-ii-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#18
José-Andrés Álvarez, Fernando J Díaz-Benjumea
In Drosophila , neural stem cells or neuroblasts (NBs) acquire different identities according to their site of origin in the embryonic neuroectoderm. Their identity determines the number of times they will divide and the types of daughter cells they will generate. All NBs divide asymmetrically, with type-I NBs undergoing self-renewal and generating another cell that will divide only once more. By contrast, a small set of NBs in the larval brain, type-II NBs, divide differently, undergoing self-renewal and generating an intermediate neural progenitor (INP) that continues to divide asymmetrically several more times, generating larger lineages...
March 22, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548728/rufinamide-an-antiepileptic-drug-improves-cognition-and-increases-neurogenesis-in-the-aged-gerbil-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-via-increasing-expressions-of-igf-1-igf-1r-and-p-creb
#19
Bai Hui Chen, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, In Koo Hwang, Dae Won Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, Bing Chun Yan, Il Jun Kang, Moo-Ho Won
Rufinamide is a novel antiepileptic drug and commonly used in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In the present study, we investigated effects of rufinamide on cognitive function using passive avoidance test and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation), doublecortin (DCX, a marker for neuroblast) and BrdU/NeuN (markers for newly generated mature neurons) immunohistochemistry in aged gerbils. Aged gerbils (24-month old) were treated with 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg rufinamide for 4 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539279/variant-intestinal-cell-kinase-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#20
Julia N Bailey, Laurence de Nijs, Dongsheng Bai, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Miyabi Tanaka, Christopher Patterson, Yu-Chen Lin, Marco T Medina, María E Alonso, José M Serratosa, Reyna M Durón, Viet H Nguyen, Jenny E Wight, Iris E Martínez-Juárez, Adriana Ochoa, Aurelio Jara-Prado, Laura Guilhoto, Yolly Molina, Elsa M Yacubian, Minerva López-Ruiz, Yushi Inoue, Sunao Kaneko, Shinichi Hirose, Makiko Osawa, Hirokazu Oguni, Shinji Fujimoto, Thierry M Grisar, John M Stern, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Bernard Lakaye, Antonio V Delgado-Escueta
BACKGROUND: In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, data are limited on the genetic basis of networks promoting convulsions with diffuse polyspikes on electroencephalography (EEG) and the subtle microscopic brain dysplasia called microdysgenesis. METHODS: Using Sanger sequencing, we sequenced the exomes of six members of a large family affected with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and confirmed cosegregation in all 37 family members. We screened an additional 310 patients with this disorder for variants on DNA melting-curve analysis and targeted real-time DNA sequencing of the gene encoding intestinal-cell kinase ( ICK)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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