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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471717/differential-response-in-novel-stem-cell-niches-of-the-brain-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Aditi Falnikar, Jarred Stratton, Ruihe Lin, Carrie E Andrews, Ashley Tyburski, Victoria A Trovillion, Chelsea Gottschalk, Biswarup Ghosh, Lorraine Iacovitti, Melanie B Elliott, Angelo C Lepore
Populations of neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a number of defined niches in the adult CNS where they continually give rise to mature cell types throughout life, including newly-born neurons. In addition to prototypical niches of the subventricular zone and subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, novel stem cell niches that are also neurogenic have recently been identified in multiple midline structures, including circumventricular organs (CVOs) of the brain. These resident NSCs may have the potential for reparative processes in pathologies such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#2
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467404/basal-condensation-of-numb-and-pon-complex-via-phase-transition-during-drosophila-neuroblast-asymmetric-division
#3
Zelin Shan, Yuting Tu, Ying Yang, Ziheng Liu, Menglong Zeng, Huisha Xu, Jiafu Long, Mingjie Zhang, Yu Cai, Wenyu Wen
Uneven distribution and local concentration of protein complexes on distinct membrane cortices is a fundamental property in numerous biological processes, including Drosophila neuroblast (NB) asymmetric cell divisions and cell polarity in general. In NBs, the cell fate determinant Numb forms a basal crescent together with Pon and is segregated into the basal daughter cell to initiate its differentiation. Here we discover that Numb PTB domain, using two distinct binding surfaces, recognizes repeating motifs within Pon in a previously unrecognized mode...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463514/ecdysone-signaling-regulates-specification-of-neurons-with-a-male-specific-neurite-in-drosophila
#4
Binglong Zhang, Kosei Sato, Daisuke Yamamoto
Some mAL neurons in the male brain form the ipsilateral neurite (ILN[+]) in a manner dependent on FruBM, a male-specific transcription factor. FruBM represses robo1 transcription, allowing the ILN to form. We found that the proportion of ILN[+]-mALs in all observed single cell clones dropped from ∼90% to ∼30% by changing the heat-shock timing for clone induction from 4-5 days after egg laying (AEL) to 6-7 days AEL, suggesting that the ILN[+]-mALs are produced predominantly by young neuroblasts. Upon EcR-A knockdown, ILN[+]-mALs were produced at a high rate (∼60%), even when heat shocked at 6-7 days AEL, yet EcR-B1 knockdown reduced the proportion of ILN[+]-mALs to ∼30%...
February 20, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457462/determination-of-site-specific-phosphorylation-ratios-in-proteins-with-targeted-mass-spectrometry
#5
Lennard J M Dekker, Lona Zeneyedpour, Sandor Snoeijers, Jos Joore, Sieger Leenstra, Theo M Luider
We show that parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) can be used for exact quantification of phosphorylation ratios of proteins using stable isotope labelled peptides. We have compared two different PRM approaches on a digest of a U87 cell culture, namely direct-PRM (tryptic digest measured by PRM without any further sample preparation) and TiO2-PRM (tryptic digest enriched with TiO2 cartridges, followed by PRM measurement); these approaches are compared for the following phosphorylation sites: Neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK S5480-p), Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta (CAMK2D T337-p) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR S1166-p)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449593/hemopexin-is-required-for-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-olfactory-bulb-pathway
#6
Yanling Zhu, Yang Qiu, Mengjia Chen, Yi Zhang, Li Cao, Zhida Su, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Yinyan Pu, Cheng He
The neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) reside within a specialized niche critical for neurogenesis. Hemopexin, a plasma glycoprotein, has been extensively studied as a heme scavenger at the systemic level. However, little is known about its function in the central nervous system, especially in neurogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that deletion of hemopexin leads to neurogenic abnormalities in the SVZ/olfactory bulb (OB) pathway. The lateral ventricle is enlarged in hemopexin-deficient mice, and more apoptosis was observed in Dcx+ cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447953/dendrite-growth-and-the-effect-of-ectopic-rheb-expression-on-cortical-neurons
#7
Aidan M Sokolov, Caitlin M Seluzicki, Mary C Morton, David M Feliciano
Ras homology enriched in brain (Rheb) is a GTPase that activates the protein kinase mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). Rheb mutations cause intellectual delay and megalencephaly. mTOR hyperactivation causes a constellation of neurodevelopmental disorders called "mTOR-opathies" that are frequently accompanied by hyperexcitable cortical malformations. Cortical malformations within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and somatosensory cortex (SSC) frequently colocalize with hyperexcitability. Although Rheb and mTOR are implicated in the formation of cortical lesions, seizure activity, and defects in neuronal migration, the contribution of Rheb to changes in neuron size and dendrite morphology is not well established...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447906/cell-death-in-neural-precursor-cells-and-neurons-before-neurite-formation-prevents-the-emergence-of-abnormal-neural-structures-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#8
Yusuke Hara, Tatsuya Sudo, Yu Togane, Hiromi Akagawa, Hidenobu Tsujimura
Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438802/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-embryonic-neuronal-motility-and-cell-cell-contact-role-of-mglur5-and-trpc3-channels
#9
Pauli M Turunen, Lauri M Louhivuori, Verna Louhivuori, Jyrki P Kukkonen, Karl E Åkerman
Cell-cell communication plays a central role in the guidance of migrating neuronal precursor cells during the development of the cerebral cortex. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) have previously been shown to be one of the central factors regulating neuronal migration. In this study the effects of eCBs on different parameters, expected to affect embryonic cortical neuronal motility have been analyzed in neurosphere derived neuroblasts using time-lapse microscopy. Increased endogenous production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) causes bursts of neuroblast motility...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436670/hypothyroidism-increases-cyclooxygenase-2-levels-and-pro-inflammatory-response-and-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jin Young Chung, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
The present study investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the dentate gyrus to elucidate the roles of COX‑2 in the hypothyroid hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats by treating with 0.03% 2‑mercapto‑1‑methyl‑imidazole dissolved in drinking water for 5 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Hypothyroidism rats exhibited decreased triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in the serum, while the levels of thyroid‑stimulating hormone and the weight of thyroid glands were significantly higher in the hypothyroid rats compared with those in the vehicle‑treated group...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417712/structure-and-cis-regulatory-analysis-of-a-drosophila-grainyhead-neuroblast-enhancer
#11
Alexander Kuzin, Svetlana Smith, Thomas Brody, Ward F Odenwald
Evolutionary analysis of cis-regulatory DNA reveals that enhancers consist of clusters of conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) that are made up of both unique and repeated sequence elements. Our goal has been to address aspects of Drosophila neuroblast (NB) enhancer structure, including the basis for their spatial and temporal regulation and the functional significance of their individual CSBs. A search for temporally restricted CNS NB enhancers identified one within the transcription factor grainyhead (grh) gene locus...
February 8, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416059/layer-specific-lipid-signatures-in-the-human-subventricular-zone-demonstrated-by-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#12
Mandana Hunter, Nicholas J Demarais, Richard L M Faull, Angus C Grey, Maurice A Curtis
The subventricular zone is a key site of adult neurogenesis and is also implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancers. In the subventricular zone, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation of nascent stem cells and neuroblasts are regulated at least in part by lipids. The human subventricular zone is distinctly layered and each layer contains discrete cell types that support the processes of neuroblast migration and neurogenesis. We set out to determine the lipid signatures of each subventricular layer in the adult human brain (n = 4)...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415052/progressive-derivation-of-serially-homologous-neuroblast-lineages-in-the-gnathal-cns-of-drosophila
#13
Christof Rickert, Karin Lüer, Olaf Vef, Gerhard M Technau
Along the anterior-posterior axis the central nervous system is subdivided into segmental units (neuromeres) the composition of which is adapted to their region-specific functional requirements. In Drosophila melanogaster each neuromere is formed by a specific set of identified neural stem cells (neuroblasts, NBs). In the thoracic and anterior abdominal region of the embryonic ventral nerve cord segmental sets of NBs resemble the ground state (2nd thoracic segment, which does not require input of homeotic genes), and serial (segmental) homologs generate similar types of lineages...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393205/microglial-activation-induces-generation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-the-subventricular-zone-after-focal-demyelination-in-the-corpus-callosum
#14
Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Hiroya Shimauchi-Ohtaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
Neuroblasts derived from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream into the olfactory bulb to generate interneurons under normal physiological conditions. When demyelination occurs, NSCs or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the SVZ provide newly formed oligodendrocytes to demyelinated lesions. The plasticity of NSC/NPC lineages may tend to oligodendrogenesis under the influence of demyelinated lesions. The mechanisms, however, still remain unknown. This study revealed that focal demyelination in the corpus callosum caused activation of the microglia, not only at the site of demyelination but also in the SVZ, and dramatically increased the generation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the SVZ...
January 25, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391466/potential-benefits-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-electroacupuncture-on-the-trophic-factors-associated-with-neurogenesis-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke
#15
Yu Ri Kim, Sung Min Ahn, Malk Eun Pak, Hong Ju Lee, Da Hee Jung, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and electroacupuncture (EA) on neurogenesis and related trophic factors remain unclear. Bone marrow MSCs (mBMSC) were transplanted into the striatum of mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and EA stimulation was applied at two acupoints, Baihui and Dazhui. EA treatment significantly improved motor function, and a synergistic effect of combined mBMSC and EA treatment was observed. Combined mBMSC and EA treatment reduced prominent atrophic changes in the striatum and led to proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the surrounding areas of the striatum (SVZ + striatum) of MCAO mice...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374056/a-dual-role-of-the-extracellular-domain-of-drosophila-crumbs-for-morphogenesis-of-the-embryonic-neuroectoderm
#16
Shradha Das, Elisabeth Knust
Epithelia are highly polarised tissues and several highly conserved polarity protein complexes serve to establish and maintain polarity. The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb), the central component of the Crb protein complex, is required, among others, for the maintenance of polarity in most epithelia in the Drosophila embryo. However, different epithelia exhibit different phenotypic severity upon loss of crb Using a transgenomic approach allowed us to more accurately define the role of crb in different epithelia...
January 26, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364113/apkc-mediated-displacement-and-actomyosin-mediated-retention-polarize-miranda-in-drosophila-neuroblasts
#17
Matthew Robert Hannaford, Anne Ramat, Nicolas Loyer, Jens Januschke
Cell fate assignment in the nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates often hinges on the unequal distribution of molecules during progenitor cell division. We address asymmetric fate determinant localization in the developing Drosophila nervous system, specifically the control of the polarized distribution of the cell fate adapter protein Miranda. We reveal a step-wise polarization of Miranda in larval neuroblasts and find that Miranda's dynamics and cortical association are differently regulated between interphase and mitosis...
January 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361557/two-distinct-mechanisms-silence-chinmo-in-drosophila-neuroblasts-and-neuroepithelial-cells-to-limit-their-self-renewal
#18
Caroline Dillard, Karine Narbonne-Reveau, Sophie Foppolo, Elodie Lanet, Cédric Maurange
Whether common principles regulate the self-renewing potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) throughout the developing central nervous system is still unclear. In the Drosophila ventral nerve cord and central brain, asymmetrically dividing NSCs, called neuroblasts (NBs), progress through a series of sequentially expressed transcription factors that limits self-renewal by silencing a genetic module involving the transcription factor Chinmo. Here, we find that Chinmo also promotes neuroepithelium growth in the optic lobe during early larval stages by boosting symmetric self-renewing divisions while preventing differentiation...
December 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355945/essential-role-of-hippocampal-noradrenaline-in-the-regulation-of-spatial-working-memory-and-tdp-43-tissue-pathology
#19
Roberta Pintus, Margherita Riggi, Cecilia Cannarozzo, Andrea Valeri, Gioacchino de Leo, Maurizio Romano, Rosario Gulino, Giampiero Leanza
Extensive loss of noradrenaline-containing neurons and fibers is a nearly invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the exact noradrenergic contribution to cognitive and histopathological changes in AD is still unclear. Here, this issue was addressed following selective lesioning and intrahippocampal implantation of embryonic noradrenergic progenitors in developing rats. Starting from about 3 months and up to 12 months post-surgery, animals underwent behavioural tests to evaluate sensory-motor, as well as spatial learning and memory, followed by post-mortem morphometric analyses...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339781/draxin-regulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-postnatal-dentate-gyrus-by-inhibiting-dcc-induced-apoptosis
#20
Hiroshi Tawarayama, Hirohisa Yamada, Ruhul Amin, Yuiko Morita-Fujimura, Helen M Cooper, Yohei Shinmyo, Masakado Kawata, Shuntaro Ikawa, Hideaki Tanaka
Hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) is controlled by diffusible molecules that modulate neurogenic processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying hippocampal neurogenesis, we investigated the function of draxin, originally identified as a neural chemorepellent, in the regulation of neuronal survival in the DG. Draxin was expressed in Tbr2 (+) late progenitors and NeuroD1 (+) neuroblasts in the dentate granule cell lineage, whereas expression of its receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) was mainly detectable in neuroblasts...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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