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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027613/both-decreased-akt-expression-and-mtor-phosphorylation-are-related-to-decreased-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-hippocampal-alveus-of-aged-mice
#1
Bing Chun Yan, Dan Jiang, Jie Wang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Pei Xu, Xing Yu, Moo-Ho Won, Pei Qing Su
BACKGROUND: Aging is an inevitable process which results in many changes. These changes are closely related to the hippocampus which is in charge of long-term learning and episodic memory. AIM: This study was to investigate age-related changes of the cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and Akt/mTOR signaling in the hippocampal alveus of aged mice. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the differences of neurogenesis in the hippocampal alveus between adult (postnatal month 6) and aged (postnatal month 24) mice using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
October 13, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024726/the-antiepileptic-drug-levetiracetam-promotes-neuroblast-differentiation-and-expression-of-superoxide-dismutase-in-the-mouse-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-via-pi3k-akt-signalling
#2
Bing Chun Yan, Hui Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Jie Wang, Pei Xu, Dan Jiang, Xing Yu
Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed to treat certain types of seizures. Few studies have investigated the effects of LEV on hippocampal neurogenesis and its related mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LEV on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We here demonstrate a dose-dependent increase in Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the DG in LEV-treated mice, and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were also significantly increased in the hippocampal DG of mice treated with LEV...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023471/combinatorial-action-of-grainyhead-extradenticle-and-notch-in-regulating-hox-mediated-apoptosis-in-drosophila-larval-cns
#3
Risha Khandelwal, Rashmi Sipani, Sriivatsan Govinda Rajan, Raviranjan Kumar, Rohit Joshi
Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS) by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A) mediated larval neuroblast (pNB) apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer...
October 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016414/prenatal-diagnosis-of-a-melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-mnti-a-case-report-with-a-favorable-outcome-after-chemotherapy-failure-and-incomplete-resection
#4
Audrey Moreau, Louise Galmiche, Kahina Belhous, Gerald Franchi, Vincent Couloigner, Jerome Nevoux, Pierre Antoine Aymard, Arnaud Picard, Veronique Minard-Colin, Natacha Kadlub
We present the case of a woman referred to our department at 34 weeks of pregnancy with a fetal ultrasonographic scan showing a mass that had developed within the right maxilla with invasion of the orbit. A retrospective examination showed that this tumor had been present since the 12th week of pregnancy. At 39+4 weeks of gestation, a boy was born. He presented a black firm aspect in the maxilla. A computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue swelling over the right maxilla, extending into the orbit but without invasion of the globe...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994342/malignant-ectomesenchymoma-series-analysis-of-a-histologically-and-genetically-heterogeneous-tumor
#5
Brannan B Griffin, Pauline M Chou, David George, Lawrence J Jennings, Nicoleta C Arva
AIMS: Malignant ectomesenchymoma is a rare pediatric neoplasm with dual mesenchymal and neuroectodermal elements. Mesenchymal component is usually rhabdomyosarcoma, particularly embryonal subtype, whereas neuroectodermal derivatives are frequently a neuroblastic tumor. Ectomesenchymoma manifests in various sites given the wide migration of neural crest cells during development, though the pelvis/perineum is most often involved. Moreover, no unique unifying molecular abnormality has been determined...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992439/temporal-patterning-in-the-drosophila-cns
#6
Chris Q Doe
A small pool of neural progenitors generates the vast diversity of cell types in the CNS. Spatial patterning specifies progenitor identity, followed by temporal patterning within progenitor lineages to expand neural diversity. Recent work has shown that in Drosophila, all neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express temporal transcription factors (TTFs) that generate molecular and cellular diversity. Embryonic neuroblasts use a lineage-intrinsic cascade of five TTFs that switch nearly every neuroblast cell division; larval optic lobe neuroblasts also use a rapid cascade of five TTFs, but the factors are completely different...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986989/utility-of-phox2b-immunohistochemical-stain-in-neural-crest-tumors-and-non-neural-crest-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Mikako Warren, Ryosuke Matsuno, Henry Tran, Hiroyuki Shimada
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in pediatric tumors. Previously tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilized sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumors with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. METHODS: Phox2b IHC was performed on 159 pediatric tumors including (1) 65 neural crest tumors with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn), and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (2) 23 neural crest tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (3) 27 other neural crest tumors including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (4) 44 non-neural crest tumors...
October 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984196/multitype-bellman-harris-branching-model-provides-biological-predictors-of-early-stages-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#8
Biao Li, Amanda Sierra, Juan Jose Deudero, Fatih Semerci, Andrew Laitman, Marek Kimmel, Mirjana Maletic-Savatic
BACKGROUND: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the process of formation of new neurons, occurs throughout life in the hippocampus. New neurons have been associated with learning and memory as well as mood control, and impaired neurogenesis has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, autism and cognitive decline during aging. Thus, understanding the biological properties of adult neurogenesis has important implications for human health. Computational models of neurogenesis have attempted to derive biologically relevant knowledge, hard to achieve using experimentation...
October 3, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981617/transcription-factors-sp8-and-sp9-coordinately-regulate-olfactory-bulb-interneuron-development
#9
Jiwen Li, Chunyang Wang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Yan Wen, Lei An, Qifei Liang, Zhejun Xu, Song Wei, Weiwei Li, Teng Guo, Guoping Liu, Guangxu Tao, Yan You, Heng Du, Zhuoning Fu, Miao He, Bin Chen, Kenneth Campbell, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, John L Rubenstein, Zhengang Yang
Neural stem cells in the postnatal telencephalic ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) generate new interneurons, which migrate tangentially through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB). The Sp8 and Sp9 transcription factors are expressed in neuroblasts, as well as in the immature and mature interneurons in the V-SVZ-RMS-OB system. Here we show that Sp8 and Sp9 coordinately regulate OB interneuron development: although Sp9 null mutants show no major OB interneuron defect, conditional deletion of both Sp8 and Sp9 resulted in a much more severe reduction of OB interneuron number than that observed in the Sp8 conditional mutant mice, due to defects in neuronal differentiation, tangential and radial migration, and increased cell death in the V-SVZ-RMS-OB system...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981589/notch-activation-by-shootin1-opposing-activities-on-2-ubiquitin-ligases
#10
Tamar Sapir, Talia Levy, Noga Kozer, Irina Shin, Vanessa Zamor, Rebecca Haffner-Krausz, Jane C McGlade, Orly Reiner
The evolutionarily conserved Notch pathway plays an important role in regulation of stem cell renewal and cell fate determination in numerous organs, and as such is a key pathway in normal health and disease processes. Canonical Notch signaling is usually activated by cell contact where transmembrane ligands such as Delta-like and Jagged bind to Notch receptors. Notch activation results in the translocation of the cleaved Notch intracellular domain (NICD) into the nucleus and subsequent activation of transcription...
July 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971571/clinicopathological-features-of-neuroblastic-tumors-with-opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome-follicular-structure-predicts-a-better-neurological-outcome
#11
Hiroko Fukushima, Takeshi Inoue, Yuichi Takama, Naomi Ishii, Takahiro Okuno, Yasutsugu Kobayashi, Akihiro Yoneda, Tetsuro Nakamura, Ichiro Kuki, Junichi Hara
Neuroblastic tumors (NT) with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) display characteristic histological features, such as lymphocytic infiltration with lymphoid follicles, indicating an underlying immune response. We retrospectively assessed NT patients from 2001 to 2016. Five cases of NT with OMS and 76 cases of NT without OMS were histopathologically reviewed in this study. The grade of lymphocytic infiltration was evaluated. The number of follicles was counted and the presence or absence of lymphoid follicles was recorded for each case...
October 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959231/demographic-clinical-and-immunologic-features-of-389-children-with-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Michael R Pranzatelli, Elizabeth D Tate, Nathan R McGee
Pediatric-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a devastating neuroinflammatory, often paraneoplastic, disorder. The objective was to characterize demographic, clinical, and immunologic aspects in the largest cohort reported to date. Cross-sectional data were collected on 389 children in an IRB-approved, observational study at the National Pediatric Myoclonus Center. Non-parametric statistical analysis was used. OMS manifested in major racial/ethnic groups, paralleling US population densities. Median onset age was 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943249/effects-of-crenolanib-a-nonselective-inhibitor-of-pdgfr-in-a-mouse-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#13
Jianping Wang, Xiaojie Fu, Di Zhang, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Menghan Wang, Xi Liu, Xuemei Chen, Weidong Zang, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays a vital role in neurologic recovery after stroke. However, only a small fraction of newly generated neuroblasts from the SVZ will survive long-term. Successful migration and survival of neuroblasts requires angiogenesis, lesion-derived chemo-attractants, and appropriate local microenvironments, which are partly regulated by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of PDGFR inhibition in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943240/control-of-cell-shape-neurite-outgrowth-and-migration-by-a-nogo-a-hspg-interaction
#14
Anissa Kempf, Enrica Boda, Jessica C F Kwok, Rafael Fritz, Valentina Grande, Andrea M Kaelin, Zorica Ristic, Andre Schmandke, Antonio Schmandke, Bjoern Tews, James W Fawcett, Olivier Pertz, Annalisa Buffo, Martin E Schwab
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) critically modulate adhesion-, growth-, and migration-related processes. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein, Nogo-A, inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading in neurons and Nogo-A-responsive cell lines via HSPGs. The extracellular, active 180 amino acid Nogo-A region, named Nogo-A-Δ20, binds to heparin and brain-derived heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) but not to the closely related chondroitin sulfate GAGs. HSPGs are required for Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion, cell spreading, and neurite outgrowth, as well as for RhoA activation...
October 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935704/the-splicing-co-factor-barricade-tat-sf1-is-required-for-cell-cycle-and-lineage-progression-in-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#15
Monika K Abramczuk, Thomas R Burkard, Vivien Rolland, Victoria Steinmann, Peter Duchek, Yanrui Jiang, Sebastian Wissel, Heinrich Reichert, Juergen A Knoblich
Stem cells need to balance self-renewal and differentiation for correct tissue development and homeostasis. Defects in this balance can lead to developmental defects or tumor formation. In recent years, mRNA splicing has emerged as one important mechanism regulating cell fate decisions. Here we address the role of the evolutionary conserved splicing co-factor Barricade (Barc)/Tat-SF1/CUS2 in Drosophila neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage formation. We show that Barc is required for the generation of neurons during Drosophila brain development by ensuring correct neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935605/pyridoxine-improves-hippocampal-cognitive-function-via-increases-of-serotonin-turnover-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-its-association-with-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-interacting-protein-and-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-pathway
#16
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jin Young Chung, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the effects of pyridoxine on hippocampal functions and changes in protein profiles based on the proteomic approach. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline (vehicle) or 350mg/kg pyridoxine twice a day for 21days. RESULTS: Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 was up-regulated, while CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) was down-regulated, in the pyridoxine-treated group...
September 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928652/indomethacin-increases-neurogenesis-across-age-groups-and-improves-delayed-probe-trial-difference-scores-in-middle-aged-rats
#17
James A McGuiness, Rachel B Scheinert, Aditya Asokan, Vivien-Charlott Stadler, Christian S Lee, Asha Rani, Ashok Kumar, Thomas C Foster, Brandi K Ormerod
We tested whether indomethacin or rosiglitazone treatment could rejuvenate spatial ability and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats. Young (4 mo; n = 30), middle-aged (12 mo; n = 31), and aged (18 mo; n = 31) male Fischer 344 rats were trained and then tested in a rapid acquisition water maze task and then fed vehicle (500 μl strawberry milk), indomethacin (2.0 mg/ml), or rosiglitazone (8.0 mg/ml) twice daily for the remainder of the experiment. A week after drug treatment commenced, the rats were given 3 daily BrdU (50 mg/kg) injections to test whether age-related declines in neurogenesis were reversed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916767/the-cancer-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-taxol-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-down-regulation-of-vesicular-zinc
#18
Bo Eun Lee, Bo Young Choi, Dae Kee Hong, Jin Hee Kim, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Haesung Kim, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is increasingly recognized as a major unwanted side effect of an otherwise highly valuable life-saving technology. In part, this awareness is a result of increased cancer survival rates following chemotherapy. Altered hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in mediating CICI. In particular, zinc could act as a key regulator of this process. To test this hypothesis, we administered paclitaxel (Px) to male C57BL/6 mice for set time periods and then evaluated the effects of Px treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis and vesicular zinc...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#19
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899667/bhlh-o-proteins-balance-the-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells-by-regulating-earmuff-expression
#20
Xiaosu Li, Rui Chen, Sijun Zhu
Balancing self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells requires differential expression of self-renewing factors in two daughter cells generated from the asymmetric division of the stem cells. In Drosophila type II neural stem cell (or neuroblast, NB) lineages, the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange (bHLH-O) family proteins, including Deadpan (Dpn) and E(spl) proteins, is required for maintaining the self-renewal and identity of type II NBs, whereas the absence of these self-renewing factors is essential for the differentiation of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated from type II NBs...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
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