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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223495/secretagogin-dependent-matrix-metalloprotease-2-release-from-neurons-regulates-neuroblast-migration
#1
János Hanics, Edit Szodorai, Giuseppe Tortoriello, Katarzyna Malenczyk, Erik Keimpema, Gert Lubec, Zsófia Hevesi, Mirjam I Lutz, Márk Kozsurek, Zita Puskár, Zsuzsanna E Tóth, Ludwig Wagner, Gábor G Kovács, Tomas G M Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany, Alán Alpár
The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is viewed as a glia-enriched conduit of forward-migrating neuroblasts in which chemorepulsive signals control the pace of forward migration. Here we demonstrate the existence of a scaffold of neurons that receive synaptic inputs within the rat, mouse, and human fetal RMS equivalents. These neurons express secretagogin, a Ca(2+)-sensor protein, to execute an annexin V-dependent externalization of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) for reconfiguring the extracellular matrix locally...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216069/neuronal-differentiation-in-the-early-human-retinogenesis
#2
Anita Rancic, Natalija Filipovic, Josipa Marin Lovric, Snjezana Mardesic, Mirna Saraga-Babic, Katarina Vukojevic
AIM: Our study investigates the differentiation of retinal stem cells towards different neuronal subtypes during the critical period of human eye development. METHODS: Expression of the neuronal marker neurofilament 200 (NF200), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was seen by immunofluorescence in the 5th-12th - week stage of development in the human eye. Data was analysed by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc tests. RESULTS: NF200, TH and ChAT cells appeared in the 5th/6th week and gradually increased during further development...
February 16, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212538/sevoflurane-preconditioning-induced-endogenous-neurogenesis-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-promoting-microglial-activation
#3
Li Li, Hexige Saiyin, Jingmo Xie, Lixiang Ma, Lei Xue, Wei Wang, Weimin Liang, Qiong Yu
Brain ischemia causes irreversible damage to functional neurons in cases of infarct. Promoting endogenous neurogenesis to replace necrotic neurons is a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemia patients. The neuroprotective role of sevoflurane preconditioning implies that it might also enhance endogenous neurogenesis and functional restoration in the infarct region. By using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, we discovered that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202484/glioblastoma-with-primitive-neuronal-pattern-in-a-girl-aged-3-months-a-rare-diagnosis-at-an-unusual-age
#4
Chi Hau Tan, Teik Beng Phung, Chris Xenos
A girl aged 3 months presented with multiple seizures within 12 hours and was noted to have a palpable swelling over the right temporal region. MRI of the brain revealed a large right frontotemporal tumour, suggestive of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour. She underwent a stealth-guided craniotomy and debulking of the tumour. Histopathology and immunochemistry of the specimen, however, indicated a high-grade tumour with glioblastoma and neuroblastic components. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy following the surgery and is well at 7-month follow-up...
February 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196689/subependymal-zone-derived-oligodendroblasts-respond-to-focal-demyelination-but-fail-to-generate-myelin-in-young-and-aged-mice
#5
Ilias Kazanis, Kimberley A Evans, Evangelia Andreopoulou, Christina Dimitriou, Christos Koutsakis, Ragnhildur Thora Karadottir, Robin J M Franklin
Two populations of oligodendrogenic progenitors co-exist within the corpus callosum (CC) of the adult mouse. Local, parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (pOPCs) and progenitors generated in the subependymal zone (SEZ) cytogenic niche. pOPCs are committed perinatally and retain their numbers through self-renewing divisions, while SEZ-derived cells are relatively "young," being constantly born from neural stem cells. We compared the behavior of these populations, labeling SEZ-derived cells using hGFAP:Cre(Ert2) mice, within the homeostatic and regenerating CC of the young-adult and aging brain...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195036/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibition-induced-neuroprotection-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhagic-stroke
#6
Yingying Zhao, Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Yongbo Zhang, Soonmi Won, Jinmei Sun, Shan Ping Yu, Jimei Li, Ling Wei
Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating disease that lacks effective therapies. In the present investigation, we tested 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) as a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ICH was induced by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum of 8 to 10-week old C57BL/6 mice. BIO (8 µg/kg, i.p.) was administered following either an acute delivery (0 - 2 hr delay) or a prolonged regimen (every 48 hrs starting at 3 days postICH)...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194885/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-of-neurogenesis-the-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Inga B Fricke, Sonja Schelhaas, Bastian Zinnhardt, Thomas Viel, Sven Hermann, Sébastien Couillard-Després, Andreas H Jacobs
Bioluminescence imaging in transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase in Doublecortin(+) (Dcx) neuroblasts might serve as a powerful tool to study the role of neurogenesis in models of brain injury and neurodegeneration using non-invasive, longitudinal in vivo imaging. Therefore, we aimed to use BLI in B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J Dcx-Luc (Doublecortin-Luciferase, Dcx-Luc) mice to investigate its suitability to assess neurogenesis in a unilateral injection model of Parkinson's disease. We further aimed to assess the blood brain barrier leakage associated with the intranigral 6-OHDA injection to evaluate its impact on substrate delivery and bioluminescence signal intensity...
February 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188805/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-axis-mediates-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-induced-proliferation-and-survival-of-murine-auditory-neuroblasts
#8
Marina Bruno, Ilaria Maria Rizzo, Ricardo Romero-Guevara, Caterina Bernacchioni, Francesca Cencetti, Chiara Donati, Paola Bruni
Hearing loss affects millions of people in the world. In mammals the auditory system comprises diverse cell types which are terminally differentiated and with no regenerative potential. There is a tremendous research interest aimed at identifying cell therapy based solutions or pharmacological approaches that could be applied therapeutically alongside auditory devices to prevent hair cell and neuron loss. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive sphingolipid that plays key role in the regulation of many physiological and pathological functions...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188219/distinct-effects-of-mir-210-reduction-on-neurogenesis-increased-neuronal-survival-of-inflammation-but-reduced-proliferation-associated-with-mitochondrial-enhancement
#9
Ludmila A Voloboueva, Xiaoyun Sun, Lijun Xu, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Rona G Giffard
Neurogenesis is essential to brain development, and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). However, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by post-injury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174207/heparin-binding-epidermal-growth-factor-like-growth-factor-promotes-neuroblastoma-differentiation
#10
Angela L Gaviglio, Erik H Knelson, Gerard C Blobe
High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low Schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival...
February 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163081/-pentazocine-attenuates-sh-sy5y-cell-death-oxidative-stress-and-microglial-migration-induced-by-conditioned-medium-from-activated-microglia
#11
Kathrin Heiss, Marco Raffaele, Luca Vanella, Paolo Murabito, Orazio Prezzavento, Agostino Marrazzo, Giuseppina Aricò, Carlo Castruccio Castracani, Ignazio Barbagallo, Agata Zappalà, Roberto Avola, Giovanni Li Volti
BACKGROUND: Sigma receptors (σ1R) are expressed both in neurons and microglia and can be considered as a promising target for developing pharmacological strategies for neuroprotection in various experimental models. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of (+)-pentazocine, a putative σ 1R agonist, in an in vitro model of neuron/microglia crosstalk following hypoxia/reoxygenation. METHODS: Microglia (BV2 cells) was exposed (3h) to 1% oxygen and reoxygenation was allowed for 24h...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153772/%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-promotes-neuronal-migration-along-vascular-scaffolds-in-the-post-stroke-brain
#12
Teppei Fujioka, Naoko Kaneko, Itsuki Ajioka, Kanako Nakaguchi, Taichi Omata, Honoka Ohba, Reinhard Fässler, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Kazunobu Sawamoto
Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration...
January 9, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139724/accumulated-quiescent-neural-stem-cells-in-adult-hippocampus-of-the-mouse-model-for-the-mecp2-duplication-syndrome
#13
Zhifang Chen, Xiao Li, Jingjing Zhou, Bo Yuan, Bin Yu, Dali Tong, Cheng Cheng, Yinqi Shao, Shengnan Xia, Ran Zhang, Jingwen Lyu, Xiuya Yu, Chen Dong, Wen-Hao Zhou, Zilong Qiu
Duplications of Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) -containing segments lead to the MECP2 duplication syndrome, in which severe autistic symptoms were identified. Whether adult neurogenesis may play a role in pathogenesis of autism and the role of MECP2 on state determination of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unclear. Using a MECP2 transgenic (TG) mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome, we found that adult hippocampal quiescent NSCs were significantly accumulated in TG mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice, the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reduced and the neuroblasts were increased in adult hippocampi of MECP2 TG mice...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137283/the-hunchback-temporal-transcription-factor-establishes-but-is-not-required-to-maintain-early-born-neuronal-identity
#14
Keiko Hirono, Minoree Kohwi, Matt Q Clark, Ellie S Heckscher, Chris Q Doe
BACKGROUND: Drosophila and mammalian neural progenitors typically generate a diverse family of neurons in a stereotyped order. Neuronal diversity can be generated by the sequential expression of temporal transcription factors. In Drosophila, neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the temporal transcription factors Hunchback (Hb), Kruppel, Pdm, and Castor. Hb is necessary and sufficient to specify early-born neuronal identity in multiple lineages, and is maintained in the post-mitotic neurons produced during each neuroblast expression window...
January 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127945/in-vivo-conversion-of-astrocytes-to-myelinating-cells-by-mir-302-367-and-valproate-to-enhance-myelin-repair
#15
Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Leila Zare, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Javan
Enhancement of repair potential for degenerative brain diseases has been a research priority during recent years. Considering recent advancements in the field of direct transdifferentiation, conversion of astrocytes as a prominent component of glial scars to the progenitor cells that contribute to the repair mechanisms seems interesting. Recently, we have reported miR-302/367-mediated in vivo conversion of astrocytes into neuroblasts and neurons. In the current study, we used miR-302/367 and valproate (VPA) to show the possibility of conversion of astrocytes to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and myelinating cells in a cuprizone (CPZ)-induced model of demyelination...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126840/neuroblast-niche-position-is-controlled-by-pi3-kinase-dependent-de-cadherin-adhesion
#16
Susan E Doyle, Matthew C Pahl, Karsten H Siller, Lindsay Ardiff, Sarah E Siegrist
Correct positioning of stem cells within their niche is essential for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. Yet how stem cells acquire and maintain niche position remains largely unknown. Here, we show that a subset of brain neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila utilize PI3-kinase and DE-cadherin to build adhesive contact for NB niche positioning. NBs remain within their native microenvironment when levels of PI3-kinase activity and DE-cadherin are elevated in NBs. This occurs through PI3-kinase dependent regulation of DE-Cadherin mediated cell adhesion between NBs and neighboring cortex glia, and between NBs and their GMC daughters...
January 26, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123074/abnormal-neurogenesis-and-cortical-growth-in-congenital-heart-disease
#17
Paul D Morton, Ludmila Korotcova, Bobbi K Lewis, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Shruti D Ramachandra, David Zurakowski, Jiangyang Zhang, Susumu Mori, Joseph A Frank, Richard A Jonas, Vittorio Gallo, Nobuyuki Ishibashi
Long-term neurological deficits due to immature cortical development are emerging as a major challenge in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, cellular mechanisms underlying dysregulation of perinatal corticogenesis in CHD remain elusive. The subventricular zone (SVZ) represents the largest postnatal niche of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We show that the piglet SVZ resembles its human counterpart and displays robust postnatal neurogenesis. We present evidence that SVZ NSPCs migrate to the frontal cortex and differentiate into interneurons in a region-specific manner...
January 25, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121069/a-stiff-extracellular-matrix-is-associated-with-malignancy-in-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumors
#18
Irene Tadeo, Ana P Berbegall, Samuel Navarro, Victoria Castel, Rosa Noguera
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: Improved prognosis for patients with peripheral neuroblastic tumors (PNB) depends on enhanced pretreatment risk stratification combined with research into new therapeutic targets. This study investigated the potential contribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) elements toward this endeavor. METHODS: We characterized certain elements such as reticulin fibers, collagen type I fibers, and elastic fibers by digital pathology in almost 400 untreated PNB...
January 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118374/dynamic-expression-of-sox2-gata3-and-prox1-during-primary-auditory-neuron-development-in-the-mammalian-cochlea
#19
Koji Nishimura, Teppei Noda, Alain Dabdoub
Primary auditory neurons (PANs) connect cochlear sensory hair cells in the mammalian inner ear to cochlear nucleus neurons in the brainstem. PANs develop from neuroblasts delaminated from the proneurosensory domain of the otocyst and keep maturing until the onset of hearing after birth. There are two types of PANs: type I, which innervate the inner hair cells (IHCs), and type II, which innervate the outer hair cells (OHCs). Glial cells surrounding these neurons originate from neural crest cells and migrate to the spiral ganglion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115261/injection-of-sdf-1-loaded-nanoparticles-following-traumatic-brain-injury-stimulates-neural-stem-cell-recruitment
#20
Laura N Zamproni, Mayara V Mundim, Marimelia A Porcionatto, Anne des Rieux
Recruiting neural stem cell (NSC) at the lesion site is essential for central nervous system repair. This process could be triggered by the local delivery of the chemokine SDF-1. We compared two PLGA formulations for local brain SDF-1 delivery: SDF-1 loaded microspheres (MS) and SDF-1 loaded nanoparticles (NP). Both formulations were able to encapsulate more than 80% of SDF-1 but presented different release profiles, with 100% of SDF-1 released after 6days for the MS and with 25% of SDF-1 released after 2 weeks for NP...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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