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"kenyon cells"

Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Kameron Decker Harris, Richard Axel, Haim Sompolinsky, L F Abbott
Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations...
February 16, 2017: Neuron
Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals encounter fine-scale temporal patterns of odorant mixtures that contain information about the distance and number of odorant sources. To study the role of such temporal cues for odorant detection and source localization, one needs odorant delivery devices that are capable of mimicking the temporal stimulus statistics of natural odor plumes. However, current odorant delivery devices either lack temporal resolution or are limited to a single odorant channel. Here, we present an olfactory stimulator that features precise control of high-bandwidth stimulus dynamics, which allows generating arbitrary fluctuating binary odorant mixtures...
December 17, 2016: Chemical Senses
Nitin Gupta, Swikriti Saran Singh, Mark Stopfer
Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
Kumi Kaneko, Shota Suenami, Takeo Kubo
In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. The gene expression profiles of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells are distinct, suggesting that each exhibits distinct cellular characteristics...
2016: Zoological Letters
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centers of olfactory learning and memory in the fly 'forebrain', develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Shota Suenami, Rajib Kumar Paul, Hideaki Takeuchi, Genta Okude, Tomoko Fujiyuki, Kenichi Shirai, Takeo Kubo
The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain...
2016: PloS One
R Blumröder, A Glunz, B S Dunkelberger, C N Serway, C Berger, B Mentzel, J S de Belle, T Raabe
In the developing Drosophila brain, a small number of neural progenitor cells (neuroblasts) generate in a co-ordinated manner a high variety of neuronal cells by integration of temporal, spatial and cell-intrinsic information. In this study, we performed the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a structural brain mutant called small mushroom bodies (smu), which was isolated in a screen for mutants with altered brain structure. Focusing on the mushroom body neuroblast lineages we show that failure of neuroblasts to generate the normal number of mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells) is the major cause of the smu phenotype...
September 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Haidong Wang, Ivan Meeus, Guy Smagghe
Although it is known that Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause bee mortality, the symptoms of paralysis and the distribution of the virus in different body tissues and their potential to respond with an increase of the siRNA antiviral immune system have not been studied. In this project we worked with Bombus terrestris, which is one of the most numerous bumblebee species in Europe and an important pollinator for wild flowers and many crops in agriculture. Besides the classic symptoms of paralysis and trembling prior to death, we report a new IAPV-related symptom, crippled/immobilized forelegs...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
Qingqing Liu, Xing Yang, Jingsong Tian, Zhongbao Gao, Meng Wang, Yan Li, Aike Guo
Gap junctions are widely distributed in the brains across species and play essential roles in neural information processing. However, the role of gap junctions in insect cognition remains poorly understood. Using a flight simulator paradigm and genetic tools, we found that gap junctions are present in Drosophila Kenyon cells (KCs), the major neurons of the mushroom bodies (MBs), and showed that they play an important role in visual learning and memory. Using a dye coupling approach, we determined the distribution of gap junctions in KCs...
2016: ELife
Christopher Moffat, Stephen T Buckland, Andrew J Samson, Robin McArthur, Victor Chamosa Pino, Karen A Bollan, Jeffrey T-J Huang, Christopher N Connolly
There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Katrin Vogt, Yoshinori Aso, Toshihide Hige, Stephan Knapek, Toshiharu Ichinose, Anja B Friedrich, Glenn C Turner, Gerald M Rubin, Hiromu Tanimoto
Previously, we demonstrated that visual and olfactory associative memories of Drosophila share mushroom body (MB) circuits (Vogt et al., 2014). Unlike for odor representation, the MB circuit for visual information has not been characterized. Here, we show that a small subset of MB Kenyon cells (KCs) selectively responds to visual but not olfactory stimulation. The dendrites of these atypical KCs form a ventral accessory calyx (vAC), distinct from the main calyx that receives olfactory input. We identified two types of visual projection neurons (VPNs) directly connecting the optic lobes and the vAC...
2016: ELife
Yilun Zhang, Tatyana O Sharpee
Most natural odors have sparse molecular composition. This makes the principles of compressed sensing potentially relevant to the structure of the olfactory code. Yet, the largely feedforward organization of the olfactory system precludes reconstruction using standard compressed sensing algorithms. To resolve this problem, recent theoretical work has shown that signal reconstruction could take place as a result of a low dimensional dynamical system converging to one of its attractor states. However, the dynamical aspects of optimization slowed down odor recognition and were also found to be susceptible to noise...
April 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Masaharu Hasebe, Masami Yoshino
The interneurons of the mushroom body, known as Kenyon cells, are essential for the long-term memory of olfactory associative learning in some insects. Some studies have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is strongly related to this long-term memory in Kenyon cells. However, the target molecules and upstream and downstream NO signaling cascades are not completely understood. Here we analyzed the effect of the NO signaling cascade on Na(+)-activated K(+) (KNa) channel activity in Kenyon cells of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Oliver Barnstedt, David Owald, Johannes Felsenberg, Ruth Brain, John-Paul Moszynski, Clifford B Talbot, Paola N Perrat, Scott Waddell
Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior...
March 16, 2016: Neuron
Pavel Sanda, Tiffany Kee, Nitin Gupta, Mark Stopfer, Maxim Bazhenov
Olfactory processing takes place across multiple layers of neurons from the transduction of odorants in the periphery, to odor quality processing, learning, and decision making in higher olfactory structures. In insects, projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe send odor information to the Kenyon cells (KCs) of the mushroom bodies and lateral horn neurons (LHNs). To examine the odor information content in different structures of the insect brain, antennal lobe, mushroom bodies and lateral horn, we designed a model of the olfactory network based on electrophysiological recordings made in vivo in the locust...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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