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"kenyon cells"

Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
Kumi Kaneko, Shota Suenami, Takeo Kubo
In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. The gene expression profiles of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells are distinct, suggesting that each exhibits distinct cellular characteristics...
2016: Zoological Letters
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centres of olfactory learning and memory in the fly `forebrain´, develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
July 22, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Shota Suenami, Rajib Kumar Paul, Hideaki Takeuchi, Genta Okude, Tomoko Fujiyuki, Kenichi Shirai, Takeo Kubo
The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain...
2016: PloS One
R Blumröder, A Glunz, B S Dunkelberger, C N Serway, C Berger, B Mentzel, J S de Belle, T Raabe
In the developing Drosophila brain, a small number of neural progenitor cells (neuroblasts) generate in a co-ordinated manner a high variety of neuronal cells by integration of temporal, spatial and cell-intrinsic information. In this study, we performed the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a structural brain mutant called small mushroom bodies (smu), which was isolated in a screen for mutants with altered brain structure. Focusing on the mushroom body neuroblast lineages we show that failure of neuroblasts to generate the normal number of mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells) is the major cause of the smu phenotype...
September 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Haidong Wang, Ivan Meeus, Guy Smagghe
Although it is known that Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) can cause bee mortality, the symptoms of paralysis and the distribution of the virus in different body tissues and their potential to respond with an increase of the siRNA antiviral immune system have not been studied. In this project we worked with Bombus terrestris, which is one of the most numerous bumblebee species in Europe and an important pollinator for wild flowers and many crops in agriculture. Besides the classic symptoms of paralysis and trembling prior to death, we report a new IAPV-related symptom, crippled/immobilized forelegs...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
Qingqing Liu, Xing Yang, Jingsong Tian, Zhongbao Gao, Meng Wang, Yan Li, Aike Guo
Gap junctions are widely distributed in the brains across species and play essential roles in neural information processing. However, the role of gap junctions in insect cognition remains poorly understood. Using a flight simulator paradigm and genetic tools, we found that gap junctions are present in Drosophila Kenyon cells (KCs), the major neurons of the mushroom bodies (MBs), and showed that they play an important role in visual learning and memory. Using a dye coupling approach, we determined the distribution of gap junctions in KCs...
2016: ELife
Christopher Moffat, Stephen T Buckland, Andrew J Samson, Robin McArthur, Victor Chamosa Pino, Karen A Bollan, Jeffrey T-J Huang, Christopher N Connolly
There is growing concern over the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoid insecticides and the long-term consequences of reduced numbers of insect pollinators to essential ecosystem services and food security. Our knowledge of the risk of neonicotinoids to bees is based on studies of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and these findings are extrapolated to clothianidin based on its higher potency at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This study addresses the specificity and consequences of all three neonicotinoids to determine their relative risk to bumblebees at field-relevant levels (2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Katrin Vogt, Yoshinori Aso, Toshihide Hige, Stephan Knapek, Toshiharu Ichinose, Anja B Friedrich, Glenn C Turner, Gerald M Rubin, Hiromu Tanimoto
Previously, we demonstrated that visual and olfactory associative memories of Drosophila share mushroom body (MB) circuits (Vogt et al., 2014). Unlike for odor representation, the MB circuit for visual information has not been characterized. Here, we show that a small subset of MB Kenyon cells (KCs) selectively responds to visual but not olfactory stimulation. The dendrites of these atypical KCs form a ventral accessory calyx (vAC), distinct from the main calyx that receives olfactory input. We identified two types of visual projection neurons (VPNs) directly connecting the optic lobes and the vAC...
2016: ELife
Yilun Zhang, Tatyana O Sharpee
Most natural odors have sparse molecular composition. This makes the principles of compressed sensing potentially relevant to the structure of the olfactory code. Yet, the largely feedforward organization of the olfactory system precludes reconstruction using standard compressed sensing algorithms. To resolve this problem, recent theoretical work has shown that signal reconstruction could take place as a result of a low dimensional dynamical system converging to one of its attractor states. However, the dynamical aspects of optimization slowed down odor recognition and were also found to be susceptible to noise...
April 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Masaharu Hasebe, Masami Yoshino
The interneurons of the mushroom body, known as Kenyon cells, are essential for the long-term memory of olfactory associative learning in some insects. Some studies have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is strongly related to this long-term memory in Kenyon cells. However, the target molecules and upstream and downstream NO signaling cascades are not completely understood. Here we analyzed the effect of the NO signaling cascade on Na(+)-activated K(+) (KNa) channel activity in Kenyon cells of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Oliver Barnstedt, David Owald, Johannes Felsenberg, Ruth Brain, John-Paul Moszynski, Clifford B Talbot, Paola N Perrat, Scott Waddell
Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior...
March 16, 2016: Neuron
Pavel Sanda, Tiffany Kee, Nitin Gupta, Mark Stopfer, Maxim Bazhenov
Olfactory processing takes place across multiple layers of neurons from the transduction of odorants in the periphery, to odor quality processing, learning, and decision making in higher olfactory structures. In insects, projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe send odor information to the Kenyon cells (KCs) of the mushroom bodies and lateral horn neurons (LHNs). To examine the odor information content in different structures of the insect brain, antennal lobe, mushroom bodies and lateral horn, we designed a model of the olfactory network based on electrophysiological recordings made in vivo in the locust...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
A A Panov
It is revealed that the larval brain of Pterostichus niger, an active predator with well-developed long-distance sense organs (the set of antennal sensilla and lateral ocelli, or stemmata) at hatching already contains optic lobes, which include two groups of optic neuropils and complex antennal lobes of glomerular neuropil. It is shown that the central complex of the protocerebrum is represented by a bipartite protocerebral bridge and the upper part of the central body and the mushroom bodies include, numerous Kenyon cells, a well-developed calyx, a peduncular apparatus, and numerous neuroblasts...
September 2015: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
Divya Sitaraman, Yoshinori Aso, Gerald M Rubin, Michael N Nitabach
The Drosophila mushroom body (MB) is an associative learning network that is important for the control of sleep. We have recently identified particular intrinsic MB Kenyon cell (KC) classes that regulate sleep through synaptic activation of particular MB output neurons (MBONs) whose axons convey sleep control signals out of the MB to downstream target regions. Specifically, we found that sleep-promoting KCs increase sleep by preferentially activating cholinergic sleep-promoting MBONs, while wake-promoting KCs decrease sleep by preferentially activating glutamatergic wake-promoting MBONs...
2015: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
David Owald, Scott Waddell
Learning permits animals to attach meaning and context to sensory stimuli. How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood. In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble. During learning reinforcing dopaminergic neurons skew the mushroom body network by driving zonally restricted plasticity at synaptic junctions between the KCs and subsets of the overall small collection of mushroom body output neurons...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tiffany Kee, Pavel Sanda, Nitin Gupta, Mark Stopfer, Maxim Bazhenov
Inhibitory interneurons play critical roles in shaping the firing patterns of principal neurons in many brain systems. Despite difference in the anatomy or functions of neuronal circuits containing inhibition, two basic motifs repeatedly emerge: feed-forward and feedback. In the locust, it was proposed that a subset of lateral horn interneurons (LHNs), provide feed-forward inhibition onto Kenyon cells (KCs) to maintain their sparse firing--a property critical for olfactory learning and memory. But recently it was established that a single inhibitory cell, the giant GABAergic neuron (GGN), is the main and perhaps sole source of inhibition in the mushroom body, and that inhibition from this cell is mediated by a feedback (FB) loop including KCs and the GGN...
October 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Stephen J Huston, Mark Stopfer, Stijn Cassenaer, Zane N Aldworth, Gilles Laurent
Sensory inputs are often fluctuating and intermittent, yet animals reliably utilize them to direct behavior. Here we ask how natural stimulus fluctuations influence the dynamic neural encoding of odors. Using the locust olfactory system, we isolated two main causes of odor intermittency: chaotic odor plumes and active sampling behaviors. Despite their irregularity, chaotic odor plumes still drove dynamic neural response features including the synchronization, temporal patterning, and short-term plasticity of spiking in projection neurons, enabling classifier-based stimulus identification and activating downstream decoders (Kenyon cells)...
October 21, 2015: Neuron
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