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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718765/a-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-center-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#1
Shin-Ya Takemura, Yoshinori Aso, Toshihide Hige, Allan Wong, Zhiyuan Lu, C Shan Xu, Patricia K Rivlin, Harald F Hess, Ting Zhao, Toufiq Parag, Stuart Berg, Gary Huang, William Katz, Donald J Olbris, Stephen Plaza, Lowell Umayam, Roxanne Aniceto, Lei-Ann Chang, Shirley Lauchie, Omotara Ogundeyi, Christopher Ordish, Aya Shinomiya, Christopher Sigmund, Satoko Takemura, Julie Tran, Glenn C Turner, Gerald M Rubin, Louis K Scheffer
Understanding memory formation, storage and retrieval requires knowledge of the underlying neuronal circuits. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative learning. We reconstructed the morphologies and synaptic connections of all 983 neurons within the three functional units, or compartments, that compose the adult MB's α lobe, using a dataset of isotropic 8-nm voxels collected by focused ion-beam milling scanning electron microscopy. We found that Kenyon cells (KCs), whose sparse activity encodes sensory information, each make multiple en passant synapses to MB output neurons (MBONs) in each compartment...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686887/can-the-exposure-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apiadae-larvae-to-a-field-concentration-of-thiamethoxam-affect-newly-emerged-bees
#2
Priscila Sepúlveda Friol, Aline Fernanda Catae, Daiana Antonia Tavares, Osmar Malaspina, Thaisa Cristina Roat
The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A...
June 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676744/trace-conditioning-in-drosophila-induces-associative-plasticity-in-mushroom-body-kenyon-cells-and-dopaminergic-neurons
#3
Kristina V Dylla, Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error) during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom bodies (MBs), while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502772/representations-of-novelty-and-familiarity-in-a-mushroom-body-compartment
#4
Daisuke Hattori, Yoshinori Aso, Kurtis J Swartz, Gerald M Rubin, L F Abbott, Richard Axel
Animals exhibit a behavioral response to novel sensory stimuli about which they have no prior knowledge. We have examined the neural and behavioral correlates of novelty and familiarity in the olfactory system of Drosophila. Novel odors elicit strong activity in output neurons (MBONs) of the α'3 compartment of the mushroom body that is rapidly suppressed upon repeated exposure to the same odor. This transition in neural activity upon familiarization requires odor-evoked activity in the dopaminergic neuron innervating this compartment...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489528/reciprocal-synapses-between-mushroom-body-and-dopamine-neurons-form-a-positive-feedback-loop-required-for-learning
#5
Isaac Cervantes-Sandoval, Anna Phan, Molee Chakraborty, Ronald L Davis
Current thought envisions dopamine neurons conveying the reinforcing effect of the unconditioned stimulus during associative learning to the axons of Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells for normal olfactory learning. Here, we show using functional GFP reconstitution experiments that Kenyon cells and dopamine neurons from axoaxonic reciprocal synapses. The dopamine neurons receive cholinergic input via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from the Kenyon cells; knocking down these receptors impairs olfactory learning revealing the importance of these receptors at the synapse...
May 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472083/gene-expression-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-mkast-suggest-its-late-pupal-and-adult-specific-functions-in-the-honeybee-brain
#6
Atsuhiro Yamane, Hiroki Kohno, Tsubomi Ikeda, Kumi Kaneko, Atsushi Ugajin, Toshiyuki Fujita, Takekazu Kunieda, Takeo Kubo
In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center) comprise intrinsic neurons, termed Kenyon cells (KCs). We previously showed that the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) MBs comprise four types of KCs, in addition to the previously known three types of KCs: class I large-type KCs (lKCs), class I small-type KCs (sKCs) and class II KCs, novel class I 'middle-type' KCs (mKCs), which are characterized by the preferential expression of a gene, termed mKast. Although mKast was originally discovered during the search for genes whose expression is enriched in the optic lobes (OLs) in the worker brain, subsequent analysis revealed that the gene is expressed in an mKC-preferential manner in the MBs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#7
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#8
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396840/suppression-of-a-single-pair-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila-triggers-aversive-associations
#9
Yutaro Ueoka, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Tetsuya Tabata
Memory includes the processes of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. In the study of aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster, flies are first exposed to an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) that is associated with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), then to another odor (CS-) without the US, before allowing the flies to choose to avoid one of the two odors. The center for memory formation is the mushroom body which consists of Kenyon cells (KCs), dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and mushroom body output neurons (MBONs)...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215558/optimal-degrees-of-synaptic-connectivity
#10
Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Kameron Decker Harris, Richard Axel, Haim Sompolinsky, L F Abbott
Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988494/a-high-bandwidth-dual-channel-olfactory-stimulator-for-studying-temporal-sensitivity-of-olfactory-processing
#11
Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals encounter fine-scale temporal patterns of odorant mixtures that contain information about the distance and number of odorant sources. To study the role of such temporal cues for odorant detection and source localization, one needs odorant delivery devices that are capable of mimicking the temporal stimulus statistics of natural odor plumes. However, current odorant delivery devices either lack temporal resolution or are limited to a single odorant channel. Here, we present an olfactory stimulator that features precise control of high-bandwidth stimulus dynamics, which allows generating arbitrary fluctuating binary odorant mixtures...
December 17, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976720/oscillatory-integration-windows-in-neurons
#12
Nitin Gupta, Swikriti Saran Singh, Mark Stopfer
Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#13
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#14
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571359/visual-attention-in-flies-dopamine-in-the-mushroom-bodies-mediates-the-after-effect-of-cueing
#15
Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478620/gene-expression-profiles-and-neural-activities-of-kenyon-cell-subtypes-in-the-honeybee-brain-identification-of-novel-middle-type-kenyon-cells
#16
REVIEW
Kumi Kaneko, Shota Suenami, Takeo Kubo
In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. The gene expression profiles of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells are distinct, suggesting that each exhibits distinct cellular characteristics...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466338/circuit-analysis-of-a-drosophila-dopamine-type-2-receptor-that-supports-anesthesia-resistant-memory
#17
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455861/retinal-homeobox-promotes-cell-growth-proliferation-and-survival-of-mushroom-body-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-brain
#18
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centers of olfactory learning and memory in the fly 'forebrain', develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357353/characterization-of-nicotine-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-mushroom-bodies-reveals-a-strong-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-subunit-involvement-in-nicotine-induced-currents
#19
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351839/analysis-of-the-differentiation-of-kenyon-cell-subtypes-using-three-mushroom-body-preferential-genes-during-metamorphosis-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#20
Shota Suenami, Rajib Kumar Paul, Hideaki Takeuchi, Genta Okude, Tomoko Fujiyuki, Kenichi Shirai, Takeo Kubo
The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain...
2016: PloS One
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