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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096186/translation-reprogramming-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-driver-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-therapeutic-resistance-in-melanoma
#1
Paola Falletta, Luis Sanchez-Del-Campo, Jagat Chauhan, Maike Effern, Amy Kenyon, Christopher J Kershaw, Robert Siddaway, Richard Lisle, Rasmus Freter, Matthew J Daniels, Xin Lu, Thomas Tüting, Mark Middleton, Francesca M Buffa, Anne E Willis, Graham Pavitt, Ze'ev A Ronai, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler, Michael Hölzel, Colin R Goding
The intratumor microenvironment generates phenotypically distinct but interconvertible malignant cell subpopulations that fuel metastatic spread and therapeutic resistance. Whether different microenvironmental cues impose invasive or therapy-resistant phenotypes via a common mechanism is unknown. In melanoma, low expression of the lineage survival oncogene microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) correlates with invasion, senescence, and drug resistance. However, how MITF is suppressed in vivo and how MITF-low cells in tumors escape senescence are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057868/glucocorticoid-receptor-alters-isovolumetric-contraction-and-restrains-cardiac-fibrosis
#2
Rachel Richardson, Emma Batchen, Adrian Thomson, Rowan Darroch, Xinlu Pan, Eva Rog-Zielinska, Wiktoria Wyrzykowska, Kathleen Scullion, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, Mary Diaz, Carmel Moran, Chris J Kenyon, Gillian A Gray, Karen Chapman
Corticosteroids directly affect the heart and vasculature and are implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Attention has focussed upon the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in mediating pro-fibrotic and other adverse effects of corticosteroids upon the heart. In contrast, the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the heart and vasculature is less well understood. We addressed this in mice with cardiomyocyte and vascular smooth muscle deletion of GR (SMGRKO mice). Survival of SMGRKO mice to weaning was reduced compared with littermate controls...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018990/the-tcf1-bcl6-axis-counteracts-type-i-interferon-to-repress-exhaustion-and-maintain-t-cell-stemness
#3
Tuoqi Wu, Yun Ji, E Ashley Moseman, Haifeng C Xu, Monica Manglani, Martha Kirby, Stacie M Anderson, Robin Handon, Elizabeth Kenyon, Abdel Elkahloun, Weiwei Wu, Philipp A Lang, Luca Gattinoni, Dorian B McGavern, Pamela L Schwartzberg
During chronic viral infections and in cancer, T cells become dysfunctional, a state known as T cell exhaustion. Although it is well recognized that memory CD8 T cells account for the persistence of CD8 T cell immunity after acute infection, how exhausted T cells persist remains less clear. Using chronic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 and tumor samples, we demonstrate that CD8 T cells differentiate into a less exhausted TCF1(high) and a more exhausted TCF1(low) population. Virus-specific TCF1(high) CD8 T cells, which resemble T follicular helper (TFH) cells, persist and recall better than do TCF1(low) cells and act as progenitor cells to replenish TCF1(low) cells...
December 23, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992075/management-of-veno-occlusive-disease-the-multi-disciplinary-approach-to-care
#4
REVIEW
Elisabeth Wallhult, Michelle Kenyon, Sarah Liptrott, Arno Mank, Mairéad Ní Chonghaile, Aleksandra Babic, Jacobine Bijkerk, Caroline Bompoint, Selim Corbacioglu, Roel de Weijer, Claudia Fink, Sarah Marktel, Vivek Soni, Sarah Sprenger, Eugenia Trigoso Arjona, Mohamad Mohty
Although it is considered a relatively rare disorder, veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is one of the main causes of overall, non-relapse mortality associated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This article, based on the consensus opinion of haemato-oncology nurses, haemato-oncologists, and pharmacists from both adult and paediatric services at the VOD International Multi-Disciplinary Advisory Board at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) meeting, Istanbul, 2015, aims to explore the multi-disciplinary approach to care for the management of VOD, with an emphasis on current challenges in this area...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988494/a-high-bandwidth-dual-channel-olfactory-stimulator-for-studying-temporal-sensitivity-of-olfactory-processing
#5
Georg Raiser, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals encounter fine-scale temporal patterns of odorant mixtures that contain information about the distance and number of odorant sources. To study the role of such temporal cues for odorant detection and source localization, one needs odorant delivery devices that are capable of mimicking the temporal stimulus statistics of natural odor plumes. However, current odorant delivery devices either lack temporal resolution or are limited to a single odorant channel. Here, we present an olfactory stimulator that features precise control of high-bandwidth stimulus dynamics, which allows generating arbitrary fluctuating binary odorant mixtures...
December 17, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976720/oscillatory-integration-windows-in-neurons
#6
Nitin Gupta, Swikriti Saran Singh, Mark Stopfer
Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940157/pa2g4-is-a-novel-six1-co-factor-that-is-required-for-neural-crest-and-otic-development
#7
Karen M Neilson, Genevieve Abbruzzesse, Kristy Kenyon, Vanessa Bartolo, Patrick Krohn, Dominique Alfandari, Sally A Moody
Mutations in SIX1 and in its co-factor, EYA1, underlie Branchiootorenal Spectrum disorder (BOS), which is characterized by variable branchial arch, otic and kidney malformations. However, mutations in these two genes are identified in only half of patients. We screened for other potential co-factors, and herein characterize one of them, Pa2G4 (aka Ebp1/Plfap). In human embryonic kidney cells, Pa2G4 binds to Six1 and interferes with the Six1-Eya1 complex. In Xenopus embryos, knock-down of Pa2G4 leads to down-regulation of neural border zone, neural crest and cranial placode genes, and concomitant expansion of neural plate genes...
January 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#8
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764141/memory-elicited-by-courtship-conditioning-requires-mushroom-body-neuronal-subsets-similar-to-those-utilized-in-appetitive-memory
#9
Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678158/human-kidney-pericytes-produce-renin
#10
Ania Stefanska, Christopher Kenyon, Helen C Christian, Charlotte Buckley, Isaac Shaw, John J Mullins, Bruno Péault
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro...
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571359/visual-attention-in-flies-dopamine-in-the-mushroom-bodies-mediates-the-after-effect-of-cueing
#11
Sebastian Koenig, Reinhard Wolf, Martin Heisenberg
Visual environments may simultaneously comprise stimuli of different significance. Often such stimuli require incompatible responses. Selective visual attention allows an animal to respond exclusively to the stimuli at a certain location in the visual field. In the process of establishing its focus of attention the animal can be influenced by external cues. Here we characterize the behavioral properties and neural mechanism of cueing in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cue can be attractive, repulsive or ineffective depending upon (e...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570841/epigenetic-loss-of-mlh1-expression-in-normal-human-hematopoietic-stem-cell-clones-is-defined-by-the-promoter-cpg-methylation-pattern-observed-by-high-throughput-methylation-specific-sequencing
#12
Jonathan Kenyon, Gabrielle Nickel-Meester, Yulan Qing, Gabriela Santos-Guasch, Ellen Drake, PingfuFu, Shuying Sun, Xiaodong Bai, David Wald, Eric Arts, Stanton L Gerson
Normal human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) lose expression of MLH1, an important mismatch repair (MMR) pathway gene, with age. Loss of MMR leads to replication dependent mutational events and microsatellite instability observed in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. Epigenetic CpG methylation upstream of the MLH1 promoter is a contributing factor to acquired loss of MLH1 expression in tumors of the epithelia and proximal mucosa. Using single molecule high-throughput bisulfite sequencing we have characterized the CpG methylation landscape from -938 to -337 bp upstream of the MLH1 transcriptional start site (position +0), from 30 hematopoietic colony forming cell clones (CFC) either expressing or not expressing MLH1...
2016: International Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478620/gene-expression-profiles-and-neural-activities-of-kenyon-cell-subtypes-in-the-honeybee-brain-identification-of-novel-middle-type-kenyon-cells
#13
REVIEW
Kumi Kaneko, Shota Suenami, Takeo Kubo
In the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), it has long been thought that the mushroom bodies, a higher-order center in the insect brain, comprise three distinct subtypes of intrinsic neurons called Kenyon cells. In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. In class-II Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the outer surface of the mushroom body calyces. The gene expression profiles of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells are distinct, suggesting that each exhibits distinct cellular characteristics...
2016: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466338/circuit-analysis-of-a-drosophila-dopamine-type-2-receptor-that-supports-anesthesia-resistant-memory
#14
Sabrina Scholz-Kornehl, Martin Schwärzel
UNLABELLED: Dopamine is central to reinforcement processing and exerts this function in species ranging from humans to fruit flies. It can do so via two different types of receptors (i.e., D1 or D2) that mediate either augmentation or abatement of cellular cAMP levels. Whereas D1 receptors are known to contribute to Drosophila aversive odor learning per se, we here show that D2 receptors are specific for support of a consolidated form of odor memory known as anesthesia-resistant memory...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455861/retinal-homeobox-promotes-cell-growth-proliferation-and-survival-of-mushroom-body-neuroblasts-in-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Karoline F Kraft, Eva M Massey, Dieter Kolb, Uwe Walldorf, Rolf Urbach
The Drosophila mushroom bodies, centers of olfactory learning and memory in the fly 'forebrain', develop from a set of neural stem cells (neuroblasts) that generate a large number of Kenyon cells (KCs) during sustained cell divisions from embryonic to late pupal stage. We show that retinal homeobox (rx), encoding for an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is required for proper development of the mushroom bodies. Throughout development rx is expressed in mushroom body neuroblasts (MBNBs), their ganglion mother cells (MB-GMCs) and young KCs...
November 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391801/expression-and-knockdown-of-zebrafish-folliculin-suggests-requirement-for-embryonic-brain-morphogenesis
#16
Emma J Kenyon, Monique N H Luijten, Harmeet Gill, Nan Li, Matthew Rawlings, James C Bull, Yavor Hadzhiev, Maurice A M van Steensel, Eamonn Maher, Ferenc Mueller
BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy individual and how best to treat those with BHD. As a first approach to developing a vertebrate model for BHD we aimed to identify the temporal and spatial expression of flcn transcripts in the developing zebrafish embryo...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357353/characterization-of-nicotine-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-the-cockroach-periplaneta-americana-mushroom-bodies-reveals-a-strong-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-subunit-involvement-in-nicotine-induced-currents
#17
Emiliane Taillebois, Steeve H Thany
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels expressed in many insect structures, such as mushroom bodies, in which they play a central role. We have recently demonstrated using electrophysiological recordings that different native nicotinic receptors are expressed in cockroach mushroom bodies Kenyon cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that eight genes coding for cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are expressed in the mushroom bodies. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that β1 subunit was the most expressed in the mushroom bodies...
September 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351839/analysis-of-the-differentiation-of-kenyon-cell-subtypes-using-three-mushroom-body-preferential-genes-during-metamorphosis-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#18
Shota Suenami, Rajib Kumar Paul, Hideaki Takeuchi, Genta Okude, Tomoko Fujiyuki, Kenichi Shirai, Takeo Kubo
The adult honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) mushroom bodies (MBs, a higher center in the insect brain) comprise four subtypes of intrinsic neurons: the class-I large-, middle-, and small-type Kenyon cells (lKCs, mKCs, and sKCs, respectively), and class-II KCs. Analysis of the differentiation of KC subtypes during metamorphosis is important for the better understanding of the roles of KC subtypes related to the honeybee behaviors. In the present study, aiming at identifying marker genes for KC subtypes, we used a cDNA microarray to comprehensively search for genes expressed in an MB-preferential manner in the honeybee brain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328692/evaluation-of-pulmonary-and-systemic-toxicity-following-lung-exposure-to-graphite-nanoplates-a-member-of-the-graphene-based-nanomaterial-family
#19
Jenny R Roberts, Robert R Mercer, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Mohindar S Seehra, Usha K Geddam, Ishrat S Chaudhuri, Angelos Kyrlidis, Vamsi K Kodali, Tina Sager, Allison Kenyon, Suzan A Bilgesu, Tracy Eye, James F Scabilloni, Stephen S Leonard, Natalie R Fix, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Breanne Y Farris, Michael G Wolfarth, Dale W Porter, Vincent Castranova, Aaron Erdely
BACKGROUND: Graphene, a monolayer of carbon, is an engineered nanomaterial (ENM) with physical and chemical properties that may offer application advantages over other carbonaceous ENMs, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT). The goal of this study was to comparatively assess pulmonary and systemic toxicity of graphite nanoplates, a member of the graphene-based nanomaterial family, with respect to nanoplate size. METHODS: Three sizes of graphite nanoplates [20 μm lateral (Gr20), 5 μm lateral (Gr5), and <2 μm lateral (Gr1)] ranging from 8-25 nm in thickness were characterized for difference in surface area, structure,, zeta potential, and agglomeration in dispersion medium, the vehicle for in vivo studies...
June 21, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325575/gestation-related-gene-expression-and-protein-localization-in-endometrial-tissue-of-suffolk-and-cheviot-ewes-at-gestation-day-19-after-transfer-of-suffolk-or-cheviot-embryos
#20
M Sequeira, S J Pain, V de Brun, A Meikle, P R Kenyon, H T Blair
The objective of this study was to investigate the gene expression of progesterone and estrogen receptor α (PR, ERα), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1, IGF-2, their receptor (IGFR1), IGF-binding proteins (BP) 1 to 6, insulin receptor, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2), cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), mucin 1 and to localize PR, ERα, IGF-1, IGFR1, PTGS2, and proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium of pregnant (Day 19) Suffolk and Cheviot ewes carrying Suffolk and Cheviot embryos transferred within and reciprocally between breeds...
October 1, 2016: Theriogenology
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