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Enteric red mouth

J K Chettri, F Mehrdana, E B Hansen, A Ebbensgaard, M T Overgaard, A H Lauritsen, I Dalsgaard, K Buchmann
The antimicrobial peptide CAP18 has been demonstrated to have a strong in vitro bactericidal effect on Yersinia ruckeri, but its activity in vivo has not been described. In this work, we investigated whether CAP18 protects rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against enteric red mouth disease caused by this pathogen either following i.p. injection or by oral administration (in feed). It was found that injection of CAP18 into juvenile rainbow trout before exposure to Y. ruckeri was associated with lowered mortality compared to non-medicated fish although it was less effective than the conventional antibiotic oxolinic acid...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Milena M Monte, Katy Urquhart, Christopher J Secombes, Bertrand Collet
Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tao Liu, Kai-Yu Wang, Jun Wang, De-Fang Chen, Xiao-Li Huang, Ping Ouyang, Yi Geng, Yang He, Yi Zhou, Jie Min
Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), a severe fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries. Here we report for the first time the complete genome of Y. ruckeri (Yersinia ruckeri) SC09, a highly virulent strain isolated from Ictalurus punctatus with severe septicemia. SC09 possesses a single chromosome of 3,923,491 base pairs, which contains 3651 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 19 rRNA genes, and 79 tRNA genes. Among the CDS, we have identified a Ysa locus containing genes encoding all the components of a type III secretion system (T3SS)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
I Salinas, S E LaPatra, E B Erhardt
Determining the earliest age at which farmed fish can be successfully vaccinated is a very important question for fish farmers. Nasal vaccines are novel mucosal vaccines that prevent aquatic infectious diseases of finfish. The present study investigates the ontogeny of the olfactory organ of rainbow trout by histology and aims to establish the earliest age for vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease using the nasal route. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated intranasally (I...
November 2015: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Michael C Nelson, Scott E LaPatra, Timothy J Welch, Joerg Graf
We present the complete, closed, and finished chromosomal and extrachromosomal genome sequences of Yersinia ruckeri strain CSF007-82, the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease in salmonid fish. The chromosome is 3,799,036 bp with a G+C content of 47.5% and encodes 3,530 predicted coding sequences (CDS), 7 ribosomal operons, and 80 tRNAs.
2015: Genome Announcements
Scott LaPatra, Samantha Kao, Erik B Erhardt, Irene Salinas
Farmed fish are susceptible to different infectious disease agents including viruses and bacteria. Thus, multivalent vaccines or vaccination programs against two or more pathogens are valuable tools in aquaculture. Recently, nasal vaccines have been shown to be very effective in rainbow trout. The current study investigates, for the first time, the use of the nasal route in dual vaccination trials against two important aquatic diseases, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease...
February 4, 2015: Vaccine
Yidan Huang, Geovana Brenner Michael, Roswitha Becker, Heike Kaspar, Joachim Mankertz, Stefan Schwarz, Martin Runge, Dieter Steinhagen
Enteric red-mouth disease, caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is an important disease in rainbow trout aquaculture. Antimicrobial agents are frequently used in aquaculture, thereby causing a selective pressure on bacteria from aquatic organisms under which they may develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. In this study, the distribution of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents for 83 clinical and non-clinical epidemiologically unrelated Y. ruckeri isolates from north west Germany was determined...
July 16, 2014: Veterinary Microbiology
Jiwan Kumar Chettri, Sidhartha Deshmukh, Lars Holten-Andersen, Rzgar M Jafaar, Inger Dalsgaard, Kurt Buchmann
Numerous outbreaks of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 2 in rainbow trout farms are currently being recorded despite established vaccination procedures against this disease. This could indicate that the currently used application of single immersion vaccination (using a commercial vaccine AquaVac(®) RELERA™) does not provide full protection. We elucidated by a controlled duplicated experiment if different vaccine administration methods can improve level and extent of protection...
July 15, 2013: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Umaporn Khimmakthong, Sidhartha Deshmukh, Jiwan Kumar Chettri, Anders Miki Bojesen, Per Walter Kania, Inger Dalsgaard, Kurt Buchmann
Understanding of uptake and invasion routes of Yersinia ruckeri, causing Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is essential for improved understanding of the pathogenicity and immune response mechanisms associated this disease. The present work shed light on areas of invasion in rainbow trout by the use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Fish were exposed to live or formalin inactivated bacteria and samples were subsequently taken for histology from various outer and inner surfaces...
June 2013: Microbial Pathogenesis
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD). BACKGROUND: CUTANEOUS T CELL LYMPHOMA: Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a general name for a group of skin affecting disorders caused by malignant white blood cells (T lymphocytes). Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is relatively uncommon and represents slightly more than 2% of all lymphomas in the United States...
2006: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Andrew R Bridle, Ben F Koop, Barbara F Nowak
Simple cost-effective bacterins are the earliest and most successfully used commercial vaccines in fish. In particular, those prepared from Yersinia ruckeri have proven effective at controlling Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) and yersiniosis in rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively. However, the emergence of outbreaks of ERM caused by atypical biotypes of Y. ruckeri and reports of vaccine failure resulting in mass mortality of hatchery Atlantic salmon has reinvigorated interest in vaccines against fish bacterial diseases...
2012: PloS One
S E Keeling, C Johnston, R Wallis, C L Brosnahan, N Gudkovs, W L McDonald
Yersiniosis (enteric red mouth disease) is a contagious bacterial disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri, which primarily affects salmonids. A real-time PCR assay using a molecular beacon has been developed and validated to improve the detection of the causative biotypes of Y. ruckeri. The assay, which targets the glnA (glutamine synthetase) gene, proved to have 100% analytical specificity and analytical sensitivities of 5 fg and 3 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) for DNA and seeded kidney tissue, respectively. The assay was highly repeatable with low % CV for intra- and inter-run experiments, and the optimized parameters transferred easily between different real-time PCR platforms...
February 2012: Journal of Fish Diseases
Harshad C Chauhan, PanduRanga S Lambade, Arnab Sen, Abidali I Dadawala, Pradeep B Ranaware, Bharatsingh Chandel, Dilip V Joshi, Sandeep S Patel, Kumar Pankaj, Nalinkant M Shah, Hemendrasingh N Kher
The authors report on an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) among sheep and goats in the Province of Gujarat, India. Clinical signs observed during outbreaks were typical of PPR. Predominant signs were severe diarrhoea, dyspnoea, mucopurulent discharge from the eyes and nose, erosive rhinitis, necrotic ulcers in the mouth, on the dental pad, tongue, upper and lower lips, fever and depression. Common post-mortem findings included congestion, red hepatisation, raised patches of emphysema in the lungs, haemorrhages and froth exudates in the trachea, severe enteritis and streaks of haemorrhages in the intestine, enlargement and petechial haemorrhages in the spleen and oedema and inflammatory lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes...
January 2011: Veterinaria Italiana
Ertan Emek Onuk, Alper Ciftci, Arzu Findik, Yuksel Durmaz
Bacterial cold water disease, enteric red mouth disease and frunculosis are the common bacterial diseases of fish worldwide. The etiologic agents of these diseases are Flavobacterium (F.) psychrophilum, Yersinia (Y.) ruckeri and Aeromonas (A.) salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, respectively. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) method with YER8/10-Fer3/4-FP1/3 primer pairs which can identify these fish pathogens simultaneously was developed and optimized. In optimized conditions, neither false specific nor nonspecific amplification occurred...
September 2010: Journal of Veterinary Science
M Marcos-López, P Gale, B C Oidtmann, E J Peeler
A risk framework has been developed to examine the influence of climate change on disease emergence in the United Kingdom. The fish immune response and the replication of pathogens are often correlated with water temperature, which manifest as temperature ranges for infection and clinical diseases. These data are reviewed for the major endemic and exotic disease threats to freshwater fish. Increasing water temperatures will shift the balance in favour of either the host or pathogen, changing the frequency and distribution of disease...
October 2010: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Gabriele Rosano, Silvio Taschieri, Jean François Gaudy, Tiziano Testori, Massimo Del Fabbro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prevalence, size, location and content of foramina and bony canals located on the lingual side of the mandibular midline. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prevalence and the size of midline lingual foramina and canals visible above and/or below genial spines and their distances from the mandibular base were measured in 60 dry mandibles from adult human cadavers. In addition, macro-anatomic dissections were performed on another 20 mandibles injected with red latex to investigate the vascular canal contents associated with these midline lingual foramina and canals...
August 2009: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Rola Abdullah Al-Hoqail, Eiman Mohamed Abdel Meguid
This is a study done for the first time to understand the histologic features of the lip deeply, quantitatively, and analytically and identify the differences between the outer, intermediate, and inner parts of the lips. Previous researchers did not tackle the histologic features of the lip from this point of view. Half lip was obtained from different well-preserved cadavers where the upper lip, lower lip, and lip angle were evaluated by coronal histologic sections. A total of 43 slides were studied and photographed using light and digital microscopes (Nikon COOLSCOPE, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), respectively...
May 2009: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mona Saleh, Hatem Soliman, Mansour El-Matbouli
BACKGROUND: Enteric Redmouth (ERM) disease also known as Yersiniosis is a contagious disease affecting salmonids, mainly rainbow trout. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the causative agent, or detection of the Pathogen using fluorescent antibody tests, ELISA and PCR assays. These diagnostic methods are laborious, time consuming and need well trained personnel. RESULTS: A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for detection of Y...
2008: BMC Veterinary Research
Giorgia Gioacchini, Patrick Smith, Oliana Carnevali
The effects of administration of the immunomodulator Ergosan, an algal extract containing alginic acid, in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to AquaVac vaccination, were tested. Juveniles treated with Ergosan, 95 days after the beginning of first solid feeding and control fish fed solely on commercial diet, were vaccinated by immersion in AquaVac solution. The time-course of the effects of vaccination on liver immunorelated gene modulation and on the tolerance to stress manipulation connected with the vaccination was investigated...
June 15, 2008: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
M K Raida, K Buchmann
Protection of rainbow trout fry following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25 degrees C. Rainbow trout fry were acclimatised for 8 weeks at the three temperatures before vaccination. They were subsequently challenged with Y. ruckeri 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination which demonstrated a significant protection of vaccinated fish kept at 15 degrees C. No protective effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25 degrees C could be recorded...
February 20, 2008: Vaccine
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