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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525936/heavy-metal-and-arsenic-concentrations-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-farmed-in-a-dam-reservoir-on-the-firat-euphrates-river-risk-based-consumption-advisories
#1
Memet Varol, Gülderen Kurt Kaya, Alper Alp
The concentrations of ten metals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Karakaya Dam Reservoir (Turkey) on the Firat River were determined. The metal concentrations in rainbow trout did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. Biomagnification factors (BMF) of ten metals were <1, indicating that these metals were not biomagnified. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of each metal was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake (TDI). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals were lower than 1, indicating no health risk for consumers due to the intake of either individual metal or combined metals...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525709/sensory-and-behavioral-responses-of-a-model-fish-to-oil-sands-process-affected-water-with-and-without-treatment
#2
Megan Reichert, Brian Blunt, Tia Gabruch, Tanja Zerulla, Allison Ralph, Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Bruce R Sutherland, Keith Tierney
If oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is to be returned to the environment, a desire is that it not adversely affect aquatic life. We investigated whether a relevant model fish (rainbow trout; Oncorhynchus mykiss) could detect OSPW using its olfactory sense (smell), and whether exposure to it would result in behavioural changes. We also investigated whether ozonation of OSPW, which lowers the concentration of organic compounds attributed with toxicity (naphthenic acids), would ameliorate any observed adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525337/molecular-characterization-and-detection-of-enterotoxins-methicillin-resistance-genes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-fish-and-ground-beef
#3
S Arslan, F Özdemir
A total of 120 samples including 40 freshwaterfish(Oncorhynchus mykiss), 40 seawater fish (Sparus aurata) and 40 ground beef samples were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and a PCR for the species-specific fragment (Sa442) and thermonuclease gene (nucA). The presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxin genes (eta, etb, tsst), methicillin resistance gene (mecA) and some phenotypic virulence factors was also tested...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524261/application-of-low-frequency-sonophoresis-and-reduction-of-antibiotics-in-the-aquatic-systems
#4
C Cobo Labarca, J Radinger, V Schöning, R Ariav, R Jung, K D Thompson, W Kloas, K Knopf
A major concern in aquaculture is the use of chemical therapeutics, such as antibiotics, because of their impact on the environment as well as on the fish product. As a potential tool for reducing antibiotic use, we tested the application of low-frequency ultrasound as a method for enhancing antibiotic uptake. Rainbow trout juveniles (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to two different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC), flumequine (FLU) and florfenicol (FLO), administered by bath after the application of ultrasound...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515781/evolutionary-restoration-potential-evaluated-through-the-use-of-a-trait-linked-genetic-marker
#5
Travis M Apgar, Devon E Pearse, Eric P Palkovacs
Human-driven evolution can impact the ecological role and conservation value of impacted populations. Most evolutionary restoration approaches focus on manipulating gene flow, but an alternative approach is to manipulate the selection regime to restore historical or desired trait values. Here we examined the potential utility of this approach to restore anadromous migratory behavior in coastal California steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. We evaluated the effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental variables on the observed frequency of alleles at a genomic marker tightly associated with migratory behavior across 39 steelhead populations from across California, USA...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500613/functional-diets-modulate-lncrna-coding-rnas-and-gene-interactions-in-the-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Camille Détrée, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
The advent of functional genomics has sparked the interest in inferring the function of non-coding regions from the transcriptome in non-model species. However, numerous biological processes remain understudied from this perspective, including intestinal immunity in farmed fish. The aim of this study was to infer long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) expression profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed for 30 days with functional diets based on pre- and probiotics. For this, whole transcriptome sequencing was conducted through Illumina technology, and lncRNAs were mined to evaluate transcriptional activity in conjunction with known protein sequences...
May 12, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#7
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495868/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulates-collagen-synthesis-in-cultured-rainbow-trout-cardiac-fibroblasts
#8
Elizabeth F Johnston, Todd E Gillis
Cold acclimation of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, causes collagen to increase within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the myocardium, while warm acclimation has the opposite effect. The mechanism responsible for this remodeling response is not known. In mammals, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) stimulates collagen deposition within the myocardial ECM. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 regulates trout myocardial ECM turnover and predicted that TGF-β1 would induce collagen deposition in cultured rainbow trout cardiac fibroblasts...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494297/episodic-acidification-of-5-rivers-in-canada-s-oil-sands-during-snowmelt-a-25-year-record
#9
A C Alexander, P A Chambers, D S Jeffries
Episodic acidification during snowmelt is a natural phenomenon that can be intensified by acidic deposition from heavy industry. In Canada's oil sands region, acid deposition is estimated to be as much as 5% of the Canadian total and large tracks of northeastern Alberta are considered acid-sensitive because of extensive peatland habitats with poorly weathered soils. To identify the frequency, duration and severity of acidification episodes during snowmelt (the predominant hydrological period for delivery of priority pollutants from atmospheric oil sands emissions to surface waters), a 25-year record (1989 to 2014) of automated water quality data (pH, temperature, conductivity) was assembled for 3 rivers along with a shorter record (2012-2014) for another 2 rivers...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491036/pharmacological-activity-and-clinical-use-of-pdrn
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Squadrito, Alessandra Bitto, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Domenica Altavilla
PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490148/characterisation-of-aroma-active-and-off-odour-compounds-in-german-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-part-ii-case-of-fish-meat-and-skin-from-earthen-ponds-farming
#11
Mohamed Ahmed Abbas Mahmoud, Andrea Buettner
Odorous molecules in earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture farming in Germany were investigated with a special focus on musty-earthy off-odorants. To this aim, fish meat and skin were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE) and were mildly concentrated; extracts were subsequently analysed by means of one- and two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and olfactometry (GC-MS/O and 2D-HRGC-MS/O). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extracts revealed the presence of 76 odorants of which 75 were successfully identified...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488290/can-solid-phase-microextraction-replace-solvent-extraction-for-water-analysis-in-fish-bioconcentration-studies-with-highly-hydrophobic-organic-chemicals
#12
Leonard Böhm, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Christian Schlechtriem
With regard to a refinement of water analysis in fish bioconcentration studies, automated solidy-phase microextraction (SPME) was used as alternative approach to conventional solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction, LLE) for the extraction of 3 hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log KOW 5.5-7.8) from flow-through studies with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results proved that total concentrations extracted by SPME combined with internal standards and LLE are equal. Results further verify the possibility for a simultaneous extraction of total and freely dissolved HOC concentrations by SPME...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488193/effects-of-chronic-high-stocking-density-on-liver-proteome-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Mahdi Naderi, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Amir Parviz Salati, Alireza Ghaedi
The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m(-3) and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m(-3)). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish...
May 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476893/bigger-is-not-better-cortisol-induced-cardiac-growth-and-dysfunction-in-salmonids
#14
Ida B Johansen, Erik Sandblom, Peter V Skov, Albin Gräns, Andreas Ekström, Ida G Lunde, Marco A Vindas, Lili Zhang, Erik Höglund, Michael Frisk, Ivar Sjaastad, Göran E Nilsson, Øyvind Øverli
Stress and elevated cortisol levels are associated with pathological heart growth and cardiovascular disease in humans and other mammals. We recently established a link between heritable variation in post-stress cortisol production and cardiac growth also in salmonid fish. A conserved stimulatory effect of the otherwise catabolic steroid hormone cortisol is likely implied, but has to date not been established experimentally. Furthermore, whereas cardiac growth is associated with failure of the mammalian heart, pathological cardiac hypertrophy has not previously been described in fish...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476670/functional-diets-modulate-the-acute-phase-protein-response-in-oncorhynchus-mykiss-subjected-to-chronic-stress-and-challenged-with-vibrio-anguillarum
#15
Darlyng Castro-Osses, Crisleri Carrera-Naipil, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Ana Teresa Gonçalves
The acute phase response to pathogens alters the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, activate the synthesis of acute phase proteins. These proteins neutralize, prevent, and indicate tissue damage, thereby influencing the specific immune response and allowing the organism to regain homeostasis. Functional diets based in pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish health and resistance to diseases, but there is an information gap on the mechanisms involved in these effects and if these diets are efficient when fish are raised under high stocking densities...
May 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476648/the-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-benzo-a-pyrene-and-phenanthrene-inhibit-intestinal-lipase-activity-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Stefan de Gelder, Øystein Sæle, Bas T H de Veen, Joëlle Vos, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are detected in aquafeeds where fish oils are (partially) replaced by vegetable oils. The highly lipophilic PAHs solubilize readily in oil droplets and micelles in the intestinal lumen that can affect enzymatic lipid digestion by altering lipase activity. We therefore investigated the effect of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), on bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) activity in desalted luminal extracts of the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the triacylglycerides rapeseed oil and fish oil as substrates...
May 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476561/mathematical-descriptions-of-indeterminate-growth
#17
Christopher D Powell, Secundino López, André Dumas, Dominique P Bureau, Sarah E Hook, James France
Two models were derived in an effort to better describe the indeterminate nature of growth exhibited by ectotherms. The models are characterized by their non-sigmoidal shape and are based on three assumptions: quantity of growth machinery works at a rate dependent on feed intake; the relationship between growth rate and intake level follows the law of diminishing returns; and growth is irreversible. The Michaelis-Menten and Mitscherlich equations are used in their formulation. To investigate their potential, the models were fitted to six datasets, representing repeated measures of live body weights of two species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462206/formulation-and-shelf-life-of-fish-burgers-served-to-preschool-children
#18
Giorgio Smaldone, Raffaele Marrone, Tiziana Zottola, Lucia Vollano, Giulio Grossi, Maria Luisa Cortesi
Consumer is very careful about healthiness; in this context nutritionists often highlight the importance of fish for human nutrition because of their protein and fatty acid composition. In order to stimulate utilisation and consumption of fish species by unusual target groups such as children, the aim of this research was to formulate and to evaluate shelf-life and nutritional values of fish preparations stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Fish species used for trail were Trachurus trachurus and Oncorhynchus mykiss fished and farmed in Basilicata region respectively...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446619/candidate-genes-mediating-magnetoreception-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#19
Robert R Fitak, Benjamin R Wheeler, David A Ernst, Kenneth J Lohmann, Sönke Johnsen
Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field in orientation and navigation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie magnetoreception. Recent studies have focused on two possibilities: (i) magnetite-based receptors; and (ii) biochemical reactions involving radical pairs. We used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to a magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour. We identified 181 differentially expressed genes, including increased expression of six copies of the frim gene, which encodes a subunit of the universal iron-binding and trafficking protein ferritin...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438492/metabolism-of-14-c-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-14-c-d4-or-14-c-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane-14-c-d5-orally-gavaged-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Jeanne Y Domoradzki, Jacob M Sushynski, Lisa M Thackery, Timothy A Springer, Timothy L Ross, Kent B Woodburn, Jeremy A Durham, Debra A McNett
Critical factors (uptake, distribution, metabolism and elimination) for understanding the bioaccumulation/biomagnification potential of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) siloxanes in fish were investigated to address whether these chemicals meet the "B" criteria of the Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) classification. A metabolism study was conducted in rainbow trout whereby a 15mg [(14)C]D4 /kg bw or [(14)C]D5/kg bw as a single bolus oral dose was administered via gavage...
April 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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