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oncorhynchus mykiss

Sami Johan Taipale, Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen, Gordon William Holtgrieve, Elina Talvikki Peltomaa
The first few months of life is the most vulnerable period for fish and their optimal hatching time with zooplankton prey is favored by natural selection. Traditionally, however, prey abundance (i.e., zooplankton density) has been considered important, whereas prey nutritional composition has been largely neglected in natural settings. High-quality zooplankton, rich in both essential amino acids (EAAs) and fatty acids (FAs), are required as starting prey to initiate development and fast juvenile growth. Prey quality is dependent on environmental conditions, and, for example, eutrophication and browning are two major factors defining primary producer community structures that will directly determine the nutritional quality of the basal food sources (algae, bacteria, terrestrial matter) for zooplankton...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Paula A Santana, Nicolás Salinas, Claudio A Álvarez, Luis A Mercado, Fanny Guzmán
In this work, the potential antimicrobial role and mechanism of action of α-helix domain of trout and salmon IL-8 against Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. By an in silico analysis of the primary structure of IL-8 from Oncorhynchus mykiss and salmo salar, it was evidenced that γ-core motif was present, as in the vast majority of kinocidins. The α-helix domain of IL-8 (αIL-8) was synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis and showed a tendency to form an α-helix conformation, as revealed by circular dichroism...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sara Fernandez, Miguel M Sandin, Paul G Beaulieu, Laura Clusa, Jose L Martinez, Alba Ardura, Eva García-Vázquez
Background: Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture...
2018: PeerJ
Kristina Beijer, Maria Jönsson, Siraz Shaik, Daphné Behrens, Björn Brunström, Ingvar Brandt
Antifungal azoles are widely used in medicine, agriculture, and material protection and several antifungal azoles have been found in environmental samples. Although these compounds were designed to inhibit fungal enzymes such as lanosterol-14-demethylase (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51), it is well established that the inhibitory actions of azoles are not specific for fungal CYP isozymes. We refined a gill filament assay to determine the inhibition of CYP1, measured as reduced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill tissue ex vivo...
February 21, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Laura M Langan, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
A novel method for the establishment and long-term maintenance of ex vivo cultures from intestinal regions of the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), is reported. Adherence of cells was observed within hours, epithelial island formation recorded at 48 h and rapid proliferation with confluence achieved between 9-14 days. In addition to metabolic characterisation, basic morphology of growing cells was characterised using histology, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
March 7, 2018: Biology Open
Simona Rimoldi, Genciana Terova, Chiara Ascione, Riccardo Giannico, Fabio Brambilla
Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance...
2018: PloS One
Yusuf Saibu, Ankur Jamwal, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (μ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC50 ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source...
March 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Eugene Choi, Derek Alsop, Joanna Y Wilson
In this study, we examined if rainbow trout chronically exposed to acetaminophen (10 and 30 μgL-1 ) showed histological changes that coincided with functional changes in the kidney, gill and liver. Histological changes in the kidney included movement and loss of nuclei, non-uniform nuclei size, non-uniform cytoplasmic staining, and loss of tubule integrity. Histological effects were more severe at the higher concentration and coincided with concentration dependent increases in urine flow rate and increased urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein...
February 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Nikolaj R Andersen, Alfred Jokumsen
Salmonid individuals show a relatively high variability in the time required to abandon the gravel nest where they hatch, the so-called "emergence time". Different behavioral and physiological traits have been shown to be associated to that emergence time in wild salmonids. In general, early- and late-emerging fish have traits resembling those of proactive and reactive stress coping styles, respectively. Proactive fish are considered to be more resilient to stress and probably to disease, so it was hypothesized that fish with different emergence time have different ability to resist repeated episodes of stress without suffering deleterious effects on their welfare or health status...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Weiwei Yao, Yuansheng Chen
Colorado River is a unique ecosystem and provides important ecological services such as habitat for fish species as well as water power energy supplies. River management for this ecosystem requires assessment and decision support tools for fish which involves protecting, restoring as well as the forecasting of future conditions. In this paper, a habitat and population model was developed and used to determine the levels of fish habitat suitability and population density in Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead...
February 22, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
N Shahi, S K Mallik, M Sahoo, S Chandra, A K Singh
"Warm water lactococcosis" in farm-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in the northern Himalayan region of India, caused by bacterium Lactococcus garvieae is described in this study. Nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the organs of haemorrhagic septicaemia rainbow trout and were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification. Cell surface characteristics and virulence of the bacterial isolates are also described. All the nine bacterial isolates had homogenous biochemical characteristics and were Gram-positive, short chains forming (two to eight cells long), α-haemolytic, non-motile ovoid cocci...
February 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S J Poynter, A Monjo, S J DeWitte-Orr
Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a family of five surface receptors whose functions in mammals are associated with innate immunity; however, their role in fish immunity requires further elucidation. The present study identifies, performs sequence analysis, and constitutive transcript expression analysis for three SR-A family members, SCARA3, SCARA4 an SCARA5, from rainbow trout. This work will provide a basis for future studies on SR-A function and their role in innate immunity in this economically important fish...
February 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Eric Duchaud, Tatiana Rochat, Christophe Habib, Paul Barbier, Valentin Loux, Cyprien Guérin, Inger Dalsgaard, Lone Madsen, Hanne Nilsen, Krister Sundell, Tom Wiklund, Nicole Strepparava, Thomas Wahli, Greta Caburlotto, Amedeo Manfrin, Gregory D Wiens, Erina Fujiwara-Nagata, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Jean-François Bernardet, Pierre Nicolas
Flavobacterium psychrophilum , the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10) infecting farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Charles B Yackulic, Josh Korman, Michael D Yard, Maria Dzul
Introduced species are frequently implicated in declines of native species. In many cases, however, evidence linking introduced species to native declines is weak. Failure to make strong inferences regarding the role of introduced species can hamper attempts to predict population viability and delay effective management responses. For many species, mark-recapture analysis is the more rigorous form of demographic analysis. However, to our knowledge, there are no mark-recapture models that allow for joint modeling of interacting species...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
John O Onukwufor, Chris M Wood
In the context of the osmorespiratory compromise, hypoxia and temperature have been little studied relative to exercise, and diffusive water flux rates (as assessed by 3 H 2 O efflux) have received almost no attention. We investigated the effects of fish size, hypoxia, exercise and acute temperature increase on diffusive water flux rates and net sodium loss rates in juvenile rainbow trout. Trout weighing 13-50 g were used to determine the effects of fish size under normoxia. Thereafter 25-50 g trout were selected to assess the effects of different hypoxia levels (3...
February 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation...
2018: PloS One
Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Mahyar Yasari, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol. In the first experiment, 240 fish were stocked in 12 tanks and acclimatized to experimental conditions for 2 weeks. Then, the fish of each tank were subjected to one concentration of either eugenol (12, 20, 30, 50, 80, and 130 μL/L) or myrcene (100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μL/L) concentrations. Induction time of and recovery time from anesthesia were recorded for each fish separately...
February 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoping He, Aimee Lee S Houde, Bryan D Neff, Daniel D Heath
Non-native species may be introduced either intentionally or unintentionally, and their impact can range from benign to highly disruptive. Non-native salmonids were introduced into Lake Ontario, Canada, to provide recreational fishing opportunities; however, the establishment of those species has been proposed as a significant barrier to the reintroduction of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) due to intense interspecific competition. In this study, we compared population differences of Atlantic salmon in transcriptome response to interspecific competition...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Y Zhang, T M Healy, W Vandersteen, P M Schulte, A P Farrell
This study compared parr from three strains of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to examine intraspecific variation in metabolic traits, hypoxia tolerance and upper thermal tolerance in this species. At the strain level, variation in absolute aerobic scope (AAS), critical oxygen level (O2crit ), incipient lethal oxygen saturation (ILOS) and critical thermal maximum (CTmax ) generally exhibited consistent differences among the strains, suggesting the possibility of functional associations among these traits...
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Irene Soleto, Uwe Fischer, Carolina Tafalla, Aitor G Granja
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, being key modulators in the initiation of specific responses. Although teleost fish present the main elements of a fully developed adaptive immune system, not many studies have focused on identifying specific DC subsets in teleost species. Previous work from our group identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin a DC subpopulation co-expressing CD8α and major histocompatibility complex II β on the cell surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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