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Adverse childhood experience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792506/testing-the-validity-of-criminal-risk-assessment-tools-in-sexually-abusive-youth
#1
Steffen Barra, Cornelia Bessler, Markus A Landolt, Marcel Aebi
Although accurate risk appraisals are mandatory to provide effective treatment to juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs), the current knowledge on the validity of risk assessment instruments for JSOs is inconclusive. We compared the predictive validities of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP II), the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised (VRAG-R) scores concerning sexual, nonsexual-violent, and general criminal recidivism (based on both official and nonregistered reoffenses) in a consecutive sample of 597 male JSOs (Mage = 14...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790085/white-matter-microstructure-in-bipolar-disorder-is-influenced-by-the-interaction-between-a-glutamate-transporter-eaat1-gene-variant-and-early-stress
#2
Sara Poletti, Irene Bollettini, Cristina Lorenzi, Alice Vitali, Silvia Brioschi, Alessandro Serretti, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. In mature brains, it is critically involved in neuroplasticity and, at high levels, neurotoxicity. The concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular space are maintained at low physiological levels by molecular glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters-EAATs). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are highly reported in bipolar disorder (BD) and interact with the glutamatergic system in the brain. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of a glutamate transporter polymorphism EAAT2-181A > C (rs4354668) and exposure to ACE on white matter microstructure in patients with BD...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785763/is-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-associated-with-psychotic-experiences-and-psychotic-disorder-outcome-evidence-from-a-6-years-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Umut Kirli, Tolga Binbay, Marjan Drukker, Hayriye Elbi, Bülent Kayahan, Duygu Keskin Gökçelli, Ferda Özkınay, Hüseyin Onay, Köksal Alptekin, Jim van Os
There is little research on genetic risk for the extended psychosis phenotype ranging from psychotic experiences (PEs) to psychotic disorders (PDs). In this general population-based prospective cohort study, the longitudinal associations between BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and the different levels of the extended psychosis phenotype were investigated. Addresses were contacted in a multistage clustered probability sampling frame covering 11 districts and 302 neighborhoods at baseline (n = 4011). A nested case-control study (n = 366) recruited individuals with PEs and PDs as well as individuals with no psychotic symptoms...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785533/stressful-life-events-adhd-symptoms-and-brain-structure-in-early-adolescence
#4
Kathryn L Humphreys, Emily L Watts, Emily L Dennis, Lucy S King, Paul M Thompson, Ian H Gotlib
Despite a growing understanding that early adversity in childhood broadly affects risk for psychopathology, the contribution of stressful life events to the development of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clear. In the present study, we examined the association between number of stressful life events experienced and ADHD symptoms, assessed using the Attention Problems subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist, in a sample of 214 children (43% male) ages 9.11-13.98 years (M = 11...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784755/intergenerational-associations-of-parent-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-child-health-outcomes
#5
Félice Lê-Scherban, Xi Wang, Kathryn H Boyle-Steed, Lee M Pachter
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) robustly predict future morbidity and mortality. Researchers are just beginning to investigate intergenerational effects. We hypothesize there are intergenerational associations between parent ACE exposure and worse child health, health behaviors, and health care access and use. METHODS: We linked data from 2 population-based cross-sectional telephone surveys in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that were used to ask parents about their past exposure to ACEs and their child's health, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781966/health-outcomes-of-youth-in-the-united-states-exposed-to-parental-incarceration-an-integrative-review
#6
Samantha J Boch, Jodi L Ford
In the United States, parental incarceration (PI) has been increasingly recognized as an understudied adverse childhood experience. In response, a rapidly expanding body of research has begun to investigate the effects of PI on youth mental and physical health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize recent quantitative evidence investigating the effects of PI on youths' mental and physical health outcomes. DESIGN AND MEASURES: Electronic strategies were used to find relevant quantitative articles published between September 2006 and 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781947/childhood-trauma-dna-methylation-of-stress-related-genes-and-depression-findings-from-two-monozygotic-twin-studies
#7
Hao Peng, Yun Zhu, Eric Strachan, Emily Fowler, Tamara Bacus, Peter Roy-Byrne, Jack Goldberg, Viola Vaccarino, Jinying Zhao
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation has been associated with both early life stress and depression. This study examined the combined association of DNA methylation at multiple CpG probes in five stress-related genes with depressive symptoms, and tested whether these genes methylation mediated the association between childhood trauma and depression in two monozygotic (MZ) twin studies. METHODS: The current analysis comprised 119 MZ twin pairs (84 male pairs [mean 55 years], and 35 female pairs [mean 36 years])...
May 17, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776799/adverse-childhood-experiences-or-adverse-childhood-socioeconomic-conditions
#8
David C Taylor-Robinson, Viviane S Straatmann, Margaret Whitehead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#9
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766600/effect-of-childhood-adversities-on-alcohol-problems-is-mainly-mediated-by-depression
#10
Raimo K R Salokangas, Tiina From, Sinikka Luutonen, Henri R W Salokangas, Jarmo Hietala
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study how five childhood adversities and trauma (CAT) core domains: emotional abuse (EmoAb), physical abuse (PhyAb), sexual abuse (SexAb), emotional neglect (EmoNeg), physical neglect (PhyNeg), associate with alcohol problems (APs), and whether there are any gender differences in these associations. METHODS: Altogether, 690 adult participants drawn from the general population completed a mailed questionnaire, including the trauma and distress scale, as an indicator of CAT, and questions concerning sociodemographic background, depressive symptoms, and APs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763635/cortical-thickness-and-gyrification-patterns-in-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#11
Marco Mcsweeney, Markus Reuber, Nigel Hoggard, Liat Levita
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are often viewed as manifestations of altered motor and sensory function resulting from psychological responses to adverse experiences. Yet many patients and non-expert healthcare professionals find it difficult to understand how severe disturbances in normal neurological functioning can solely result from underlying psychological mechanisms to the exclusion of other physical causes. Perhaps importantly, recent advances using neuroimaging techniques point to possible structural and functional correlates in PNES...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762636/association-of-maternal-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-with-elevated-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-offspring
#12
Andrea L Roberts, Zeyan Liew, Kristen Lyall, Alberto Ascherio, Marc G Weisskopf
Children whose mothers experienced childhood abuse are more likely to suffer various neurodevelopmental deficits. Whether an association exists specifically for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown. We examined the association of maternal experience of childhood abuse with ADHD in offspring, assessed by maternal report of diagnosis and validated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV in a subsample, in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 49,497 mothers, N offspring cases = 7,607, N offspring controls = 102,151)...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757787/screening-for-childhood-adversity-among-adult-primary-care-patients
#13
Karen A Kalmakis, Mary B Shafer, Genevieve E Chandler, Elizabeth V Aponte, Susan J Roberts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Over half of Americans reports a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), which have been associated with many chronic health conditions. Yet primary care providers infrequently screen patients for ACEs and fail to consider the relationship between ACEs and adult health. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to test the effectiveness and feasibility of a screening interview for ACEs and to confirm the prevalence of ACEs among individuals with chronic health conditions...
April 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753201/physical-sexual-and-emotional-abuse-during-childhood-experiences-of-a-sample-of-sri-lankan-young-adults
#14
Nadeeka K Chandraratne, Asvini D Fernando, Nalika Gunawardena
Abuse during childhood is a human tragedy leading to lifelong adverse health, social, and economic consequences for survivors. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abusive experiences among students (aged 18-19 years) in a Sri Lankan district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 1500 students. Experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse and age at abuse, perpetrators, consequences and severity were assessed using a version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective Version (ICAST-R) which was culturally adapted and validated by the authors for use amongst Sinhalese students...
May 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752809/exploring-the-relationship-between-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life
#15
Faizan Kabani, Kristine Lykens, Hyo Jung Tak
OBJECTIVES: Evidence indicates that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have destructive impacts on quality of life, health outcomes, and health-care expenditures. Studies further demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the number of ACEs and risk for experiencing chronic illness, such as oral diseases later in life. Research is scarce on the prioritization of contextualized public health interventions addressing this important threat. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provided a nationally representative sample of children in the United States, ages 1-17 for dentate status (n = 61,530)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752125/persistent-and-progressive-long-term-lung-disease-in-survivors-of-preterm-birth
#16
REVIEW
Rhea Urs, Sailesh Kotecha, Graham L Hall, Shannon J Simpson
Preterm birth accounts for approximately 11% of births globally, with rates increasing across many countries. Concurrent advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of infants of lower gestational age (GA). However, infants born <32 weeks of GA experience adverse respiratory outcomes, manifesting with increased respiratory symptoms, hospitalisation and health care utilisation into early childhood. The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) - the chronic lung disease of prematurity - further increases the risk of poor respiratory outcomes throughout childhood, into adolescence and adulthood...
April 13, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750769/updates-on-adolescent-dating-and-sexual-violence-prevention-and-intervention
#17
Elizabeth Miller, Kelley A Jones, Heather L McCauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745688/emotion-regulation-mediates-the-relationship-between-aces-and-physical-and-mental-health
#18
Marylene Cloitre, Christina Khan, Margaret-Anne Mackintosh, Donn W Garvert, Clare M Henn-Haase, Erin C Falvey, Jean Saito
OBJECTIVE: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) have consistently been associated with a range of negative psychological and physical outcomes in adulthood. Despite the strength of this association, no studies to date have investigated psychological processes that might underlie this relationship. The current study evaluated emotion regulation as a potential mediator between ACEs and three outcomes: PTSD symptoms, depression and poor physical health, all of which are frequently co-occurring among women with ACEs...
May 10, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741788/cumulative-childhood-risk-is-associated-with-a-new-measure-of-chronic-inflammation-in-adulthood
#19
Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen, Terrie E Moffitt, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Daniel W Belsky, Andrea Danese, HonaLee Harrington, Renate M Houts, Richie Poulton, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Avshalom Caspi
BACKGROUND: Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741714/variety-of-enriching-early-life-activities-linked-to-late-life-cognitive-functioning-in-urban-community-dwelling-african-americans
#20
Thomas Chan, Jeanine M Parisi, Kyle D Moored, Michelle C Carlson
Objectives: The early environment is thought to be a critical period in understanding the cognitive health disparities African Americans face today. Much is known about the positive role enriching environments have in mid- and late-life and the negative function adverse experiences have in childhood; however, little is known about the relationship between enriching childhood experiences and late life cognition. The current study examines the link between variety of enriching early life activities with late life cognitive functioning in a sample of sociodemographic at-risk older adults...
May 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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