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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211057/reproductive-energy-expenditure-and-changes-in-body-morphology-for-a-population-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-with-a-long-distance-migration
#1
T E Bowerman, A Pinson-Dumm, C A Peery, C C Caudill
Energetic demands of a long freshwater migration, extended holding period, gamete development and spawning were evaluated for a population of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Female and male somatic mass decreased by 24 and 21%, respectively, during migration and by an additional 18 and 12% during holding. Between freshwater entry and death after spawning, females allocated 14% of initial somatic energy towards gonad development and 78% for metabolism (46, 25 and 7% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209550/pathogenicity-of-mexican-isolates-of-aeromonas-sp-in-immersion-experimentally-infected-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-1792
#2
Andrea Paloma Zepeda-Velázquez, Vicente Vega-Sánchez, César Ortega-Santana, Miguel Rubio-Godoy, Dany Montes de Oca-Mira, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas
Ten species of Aeromonas have been previously identified in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pathogenicity of 10 Aeromonas isolates belonging to 10 different Aeromonas species in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout fry. Isolates of A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii produced significant mortality (8.8%, 12.2%, 18.8%, and 8.8%, respectively). Isolates of A. caviae and A. sobria produced no significantly mortality (3.3% and 1...
February 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188658/in-vivo-adherence-of-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-to-mucosal-external-surfaces-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fry
#3
A Papadopoulou, I Dalsgaard, A Lindén, T Wiklund
The adherence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum to surfaces of epithelial tissues has been inconclusively suggested as a mechanism, which enables the bacterium to invade the host. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the adherence of the cells of two colony phenotypes, smooth and rough, of F. psychrophilum to mucosal tissues of rainbow trout fry and to test the skin mucus as a nutrient for the growth of F. psychrophilum. Fish were immersed in water containing 10(6 ) CFU( ) mL(-1) F. psychrophilum for each colony phenotype...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188649/a-survey-of-microparasites-present-in-adult-migrating-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-in-south-western-british-columbia-determined-by-high-throughput-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#4
A L Bass, S G Hinch, A K Teffer, D A Patterson, K M Miller
Microparasites play an important role in the demography, ecology and evolution of Pacific salmonids. As salmon stocks continue to decline and the impacts of global climate change on fish populations become apparent, a greater understanding of microparasites in wild salmon populations is warranted. We used high-throughput, quantitative PCR (HT-qRT-PCR) to rapidly screen 82 adult Chinook salmon from five geographically or genetically distinct groups (mostly returning to tributaries of the Fraser River) for 45 microparasite taxa...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187310/proteomic-analysis-of-liver-tissue-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-under-high-rearing-density-after-administration-of-dietary-vitamin-e-and-selenium-nanoparticles
#5
Mahdi Naderi, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Amir Parviz Salati, Alireza Ghaedi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E (vit E) and selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe) on liver proteome profile of rainbow trout under high density condition. To correlate the proteome modifications with physiological aspects, growth, serum metabolites (cortisol, glucose, lactate, ALT, AST, and ALP), and liver antioxidant-related parameters (SOD, GPx, CAT, and MDA) were also examined. A total of 1275 fish (average weight of 42.6±2.3g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 80kgm(-3)...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182704/subunit-vaccine-candidates-against-aeromonas-salmonicida-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
Moonika Haahr Marana, Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Jakob Skov, Jiwan Kumar Chettri, Andreas Holm Mattsson, Inger Dalsgaard, Per Walter Kania, Kurt Buchmann
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164276/behaviour-of-growth-hormone-transgenic-coho-salmon-oncorhynchus-kisutch-in-marine-mesocosms-assessed-by-acoustic-tag-telemetry
#7
T Hollo, B M Watson, S V Johnston, R H Devlin
Underwater acoustic tag telemetry was used to assess behavioural differences between juvenile wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, NT) and growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in a contained simulated ocean environment. T O. kisutch were found across days to maintain higher baseline swimming speeds than NT O. kisutch and differences in response to feeding were detected between T and NT genotypes. This is the first study to assess behaviour of GH transgenic salmonids in a marine environment and has relevance for assessing whether behavioural effects of GH overexpression seen in freshwater environments can be extrapolated to oceanic phases of the life cycle...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161412/proteomic-characterization-of-seminal-plasma-from-alternative-reproductive-tactics-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tswatchysha
#8
Robert Gombar, Trevor E Pitcher, Jason A Lewis, Janeen Auld, Panayiotis O Vacratsis
: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are external fertilizers that display sneak-guard alternative reproductive tactics. The larger hooknose males dominate mating positions, while the smaller jack males utilize sneak tactics to achieve fertilization. Although poorly understood, previous studies have suggested that differences in spermatozoa quality may play a critical role in sperm competition. Considering that the seminal plasma strongly regulates spermatozoa quality and other processes critical for fertilization success, we employed label free quantitative mass spectrometry utilizing ion mobility separation coupled to cross-species bioinformatics to examine the seminal plasma proteome of Chinook salmon...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151980/lhx8-interacts-with-a-novel-germ-cell-specific-nuclear-factor-containing-an-nbl1-domain-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Liyuan Fu, Prasanthi P Koganti, Jian Wang, Lei Wang, Cheng-Lun Wang, Jianbo Yao
Lhx8 is an important transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in germ cells. Lhx8 null mice are infertile due to lack of oocytes and impairment of the transition from primordial follicles to primary follicles. Lhx8 deficiency also affects the expression of many important oocyte-specific genes. In this study, we report the characterization of rainbow trout lhx8 genes and identification of a novel germ cell-specific nuclear factor that interacts with Lhx8. Two lhx8 genes, lhx8a and lhx8b, were identified, encoding proteins of 344 and 361 amino acids, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150752/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-secretory-component-binds-to-commensal-bacteria-and-pathogens
#10
Cecelia Kelly, Fumio Takizawa, J Oriol Sunyer, Irene Salinas
Commensal bacteria co-exist on the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The host's mucosal immune system must tolerate commensals while fighting pathogens. One of the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to maintain homeostasis is the secretion of immunoglobulins (Igs) across epithelial barriers, which is achieved via the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Rainbow trout pIgR is known to transport IgT and IgM across epithelia. However, other biological functions for trout pIgR or trout secretory component (tSC) remain unknown...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144979/organization-of-glomerular-territories-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-post-embryonic-wild-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#11
Cory L Ochs, Tina Suntres, Alexandra Zygowska, Trevor Pitcher, Barbara S Zielinski
The post-embryonic odor imprinting paradigm suggests Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acquire memory to stream-specific amino acid olfactory odors prior to emergence as fry. Because effects of olfactory experience on development can be examined by mapping olfactory sensory neurons extending into distinct territories of glomerular neuropil in the olfactory bulb, glomerular patterning from early yolk-sac larva to fry was documented in wild salmonids, a temporal scale not yet thoroughly explored. Labeling olfactory sensory neurons with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (anti-KLH) revealed seven spatially conserved glomerular territories visible at hatch and well established by the late yolk-sac larva developmental stage...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143585/molecular-characterization-of-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-strains-isolated-from-the-three-types-of-salmonids-farmed-in-chile
#12
René A Manríquez, Tamara Vera, Melina V Villalba, Alejandra Mancilla, Vikram N Vakharia, Alejandro J Yañez, Juan G Cárcamo
BACKGROUND: The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, characterized, and constantly updated at the molecular level. METHODS: In this study, 36 Chilean IPNV isolates collected over 6 years (2006-2011) from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and Oncorhynchus kisutch were genotypically characterized. Salmonid samples were obtained from freshwater, estuary, and seawater sources from central, southern, and the extreme-south of Chile (35° to 53°S)...
January 31, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137252/enhanced-transcriptomic-responses-in-the-pacific-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-oncorhynchi-to-the-non-native-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-suggests-increased-parasite-fitness
#13
Laura M Braden, Ben J G Sutherland, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Outcomes of infections with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis vary considerably among its natural hosts (Salmo, Oncorhynchus spp.). Host-parasite interactions range from weak to strong host responses accompanied by high to low parasite abundances, respectively. Parasite behavioral studies indicate that the louse prefers the host Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), which is characterized by a weak immune response, and that this results in enhanced parasite reproduction and growth rates...
January 30, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131472/impacts-of-road-deicing-salts-on-the-early-life-growth-and-development-of-a-stream-salmonid-salt-type-matters
#14
William D Hintz, Rick A Relyea
The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117301/effect-of-ichthyophonus-on-blood-plasma-chemistry-of-spawning-chinook-salmon-and-their-resulting-offspring-in-a-yukon-river-tributary
#15
T P Floyd-Rump, L A Horstmann-Dehn, S Atkinson, C Skaugstad
Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117300/transmission-potential-of-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-in-apex-ihn%C3%A2-vaccinated-atlantic-salmon
#16
Amy Long, Jon Richard, Laura Hawley, Scott E LaPatra, Kyle A Garver
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) outbreaks have had a significant negative impact on Atlantic salmon Salmo salar production in British Columbia, Canada, since the first outbreak was reported in 1992. In 2005, the APEX-IHN® vaccine was approved for use in Canada for prevention of IHN. The vaccine was proven to be safe and efficacious prior to approval; however, it is unknown as to whether APEX-IHN®-vaccinated Atlantic salmon infected with IHNV can support replication and virus shedding in sufficient quantities to provide an infectious dose to a nearby susceptible host...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112058/a-n-3-pufa-depletion-applied-to-rainbow-trout-fry-oncorhynchus-mykiss-does-not-modulate-its-subsequent-lipid-bioconversion-capacity
#17
Julie Mellery, Jonathan Brel, Junio Dort, Florian Geay, Patrick Kestemont, David S Francis, Yvan Larondelle, Xavier Rollin
Nutritional strategies are currently developed to produce farmed fish rich in n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) whilst replacing fish oil by plant-derived oils in aquafeeds. The optimisation of such strategies requires a thorough understanding of fish lipid metabolism and its nutritional modulation. The present study evaluated the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry previously depleted in n-3 PUFA through a 60-d pre-experimental feeding period with a sunflower oil-based diet (SO) followed by a 36-d experimental period during which fish were fed either a linseed oil-based diet (LO) (this treatment being called SO/LO) or a fish oil-based diet (FO) (this treatment being called SO/FO)...
January 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105714/gyrodactylus-salmonis-infection-impairs-the-olfactory-system-of-rainbow-trout
#18
E Lari, G G Pyle
Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101914/prenatal-stress-exposure-generates-higher-early-survival-and-smaller-size-without-impacting-developmental-rate-in-a-pacific-salmon
#19
Pauline M Capelle, Christina A D Semeniuk, Natalie M Sopinka, John W Heath, Oliver P Love
Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100887/production-of-a-health-beneficial-food-emulsifier-by-enzymatic-partial-hydrolysis-of-phospholipids-obtained-from-the-head-of-autumn-chum-salmon
#20
A K M Azad Shah, Toshihiro Nagao, Hideyuki Kurihara, Koretaro Takahashi
Phospholipids and their partial hydrolysates, namely lysophospholipids (LPLs), have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products as highly efficient emulsifiers. This study was conducted to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-esterified LPLs by enzymatic modification of phospholipids obtained from the head of autumn chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The emulsifying properties of the obtained LPLs were also evaluated. Two different types of substrates of salmon head phospholipids were prepared via silica gel and cold acetone precipitation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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