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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238889/immunomodulatory-effects-of-rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-and-its-derivative-compound-rhodomyrtone-on-head-kidney-macrophages-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#1
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Mariana Teles, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai, Lluís Tort, Camino Fierro-Castro
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236731/the-effect-of-exposure-to-farmed-salmon-on-piscine-orthoreovirus-infection-and-fitness-in-wild-pacific-salmon-in-british-columbia-canada
#2
Alexandra Morton, Richard Routledge, Stacey Hrushowy, Molly Kibenge, Frederick Kibenge
The disease Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) is causing substantial economic losses to the Norwegian salmon farming industry where the causative agent, piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is reportedly spreading from farmed to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with as yet undetermined impacts. To assess if PRV infection is epidemiologically linked between wild and farmed salmon in the eastern Pacific, wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) from regions designated as high or low exposure to salmon farms and farmed Atlantic salmon reared in British Columbia (BC) were tested for PRV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236159/rapid-detection-of-sublethal-toxicity-using-locomotor-activity-of-rainbow-trout-juveniles
#3
Tomas Makaras, Gintaras Svecevičius, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Danguolė Montvydienė
This study examined changes in locomotor activity of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles exposed to sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) (as a single pollutant) and landfill leachate (as an complex mixture of mainly organic compounds, including trace amounts of metals). Fish were first examined for baseline behavior patterns for 3 h to determine the appropriate duration of acclimation and the control level. The average velocity of fish was found to be the most informative among other endpoints throughout the 3 h long acclimation...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#4
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194863/associations-of-stream-geomorphic-conditions-and-prevalence-of-alternative-reproductive-tactics-among-sockeye-salmon-populations
#5
Lukas B DeFilippo, Daniel E Schindler, Jackie L Carter, Timothy E Walsworth, Timothy J Cline, Wesley A Larson, Thomas Buehrens
In many species, males may exhibit alternative life histories to circumvent the costs of intrasexual competition and female courtship. While the evolution and underlying genetic and physiological mechanisms behind alternative reproductive tactics are well studied, there has been less consideration of the ecological factors that regulate their prevalence. Here, we examine six decades of age composition records from thirty-six populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to quantify associations between spawning habitat characteristics and the prevalence of precocious sneakers known as 'jacks'...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190806/size-conditional-smolting-and-the-response-of-carmel-river-steelhead-to-two-decades-of-conservation-efforts
#6
Juan Lopez Arriaza, David A Boughton, Kevan Urquhart, Marc Mangel
Threshold effects are common in ecosystems and can generate counterintuitive outcomes in management interventions. A threshold effect proposed for steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is size-conditional smolting and marine survival. Steelhead are anadromous, maturing in the ocean but migrating to freshwater to spawn, where their offspring reside for one or more years before smolting-physiologically transforming to a saltwater form-and migrating to the ocean. In conditional smolting, juveniles transform only if growth exceeds a threshold body size prior to migration season, and subsequent marine survival correlates with size at ocean entry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188048/effects-of-cooking-techniques-on-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-content-of-farmed-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177582/the-invasive-cestode-parasite-ligula-from-salmonids-and-bullies-on-the-south-island-new-zealand
#8
Clément Lagrue, Bronwen Presswell, Nick Dunckley, Robert Poulin
Freshwater ecosystems are often impacted by biological invasions, including the introduction of exotic parasites capable of infecting native species. Here, we report the occurrence of the introduced tapeworm Ligula sp. from common bully, Gobiomorphus cotidianus, and quinnat salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Lake Hawea, South Island, New Zealand. This parasite has a complex life cycle, reaching its adult stage in fish-eating birds. Worms recovered from the body cavity of fish hosts reached huge sizes (60-300 mm long); however, their low prevalence in fish populations suggests that infections are rare or localised...
November 25, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162695/parallel-epigenetic-modifications-induced-by-hatchery-rearing-in-a-pacific-salmon
#9
Jérémy Le Luyer, Martin Laporte, Terry D Beacham, Karia H Kaukinen, Ruth E Withler, Jong S Leong, Eric B Rondeau, Ben F Koop, Louis Bernatchez
Wild stocks of Pacific salmonids have experienced sharp declines in abundance over the past century. Consequently, billions of fish are released each year for enhancing abundance and sustaining fisheries. However, the beneficial role of this widely used management practice is highly debated since fitness decrease of hatchery-origin fish in the wild has been documented. Artificial selection in hatcheries has often been invoked as the most likely explanation for reduced fitness, and most studies to date have focused on finding signatures of hatchery-induced selection at the DNA level...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160217/morphological-and-molecular-confirmation-of-myxobolus-cerebralis-myxospores-infecting-wild%C3%A2-caught-and-cultured-trout-in-north-carolina-se-usa
#10
Carlos F Ruiz, Jacob M Rash, Cova R Arias, Doug A Besler, Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Matthew R Womble, Jackson R Roberts, Micah B Warren, Candis L Ray, Stacey Lafrentz, Stephen A Bullard
We used microscopy and molecular biology to provide the first documentation of infections of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), the etiological agent of whirling disease, in trout (Salmonidae) from North Carolina (USA) river basins. A total of 1085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 696 brown trout Salmo trutta, and 319 brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from 43 localities across 9 river basins were screened. Myxospores were observed microscopically in pepsin-trypsin digested heads of rainbow and brown trout from the Watauga River Basin...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159930/molecular-testing-of-adult-pacific-salmon-and-trout-oncorhynchus-spp-for-several-rna-viruses-demonstrates-widespread-distribution-of-piscine-orthoreovirus-in-alaska-and-washington
#11
M K Purcell, R L Powers, J Evered, J Kerwin, T R Meyers, B Stewart, J R Winton
This research was initiated in conjunction with a systematic, multiagency surveillance effort in the United States (U.S.) in response to reported findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) RNA in British Columbia, Canada. In the systematic surveillance study reported in a companion paper, tissues from various salmonids taken from Washington and Alaska were surveyed for ISAV RNA using the U.S.-approved diagnostic method, and samples were released for use in this present study only after testing negative...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159824/the-external-phenotype-skeleton-link-in-post-hatch-farmed-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#12
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Skeletal deformities in farmed fish are a recurrent problem. External malformations are easily recognized, but there is little information on how external malformations relate to malformations of the axial skeleton: the external phenotype-skeleton link. Here, this link is studied in post-hatch to first-feed life stages of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) raised at 4, 8 and 12°C. Specimens were whole-mount-stained for cartilage and bone, and analysed by histology. In all temperature groups, externally normal specimens can have internal malformations, predominantly fused vertebral centra...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#13
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148587/experimental-infection-by-yersinia-ruckeri-o1-biotype-2-induces-brain-lesions-and-neurological-signs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#14
H K Strøm, M Ohtani, B Nowak, T S Boutrup, B Jones, M K Raida, A M Bojesen
Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 10(7)  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of olfactory organ at 3 dpi...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#15
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137620/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-in-vibrio-anguillarum-results-in-virulence-attenuation-and-immunoprotection-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Xiangyu Mou, Edward J Spinard, Shelby L Hillman, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V...
November 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-changes-in-immune-gene-expression-following-bacterial-infection-or-stimulation-with-pro-inflammatory-molecules
#17
Kimberly A Veenstra, Eakapol Wangkahart, Tiehui Wang, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
In mammals, visceral adipose is increasingly seen as playing an important role in immune function with numerous pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating proteins and peptides being identified in adipocytes. Adipose is also now known as a tissue that has an important role in the regulation of peritoneal immune responses. Despite this, only lately has consideration been given to visceral adipose as an important immune tissue in fish, especially in the context of intraperitoneal vaccination. The present study demonstrates that fish visceral adipose is capable of expressing a large range of immune molecules in response to stimulation with a live bacterium (A...
November 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121973/in-vitro-investigations-on-extracellular-proteins-secreted-by-aphanomyces-invadans-the-causative-agent-of-epizootic-ulcerative-syndrome
#18
Muhammad Majeed, Gokhlesh Kumar, Sarah Schlosser, Mansour El-Matbouli, Mona Saleh
BACKGROUND: Proteases produced by many microorganisms, including oomycetes, are crucial for their growth and development. They may also play a critical role in disease manifestation. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome is one of the most destructive fish diseases known. It is caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans and leads to mass mortalities of cultured and wild fish in many countries. The areas of concern are Australia, China, Japan, South and Southeast Asian countries and the USA. Extracellular proteases produced by this oomycete are believed to trigger EUS pathogenesis in fish...
November 9, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119793/a-comprehensive-approach-to-assess-feathermeal-as-an-alternative-protein-source-in-aquafeed
#19
Mohammad Sedigh Jasour, Liane Wagner, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Bodil K Larsen, Ines Greco, Vibeke Orlien, Karsten Olsen, Hanne T Rasmussen, Niels H Hjermitslev, Marianne Hammershøj, Anne J T Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard
The effect of partially replacing fishmeal in aquafeed with feathermeal (FTH) at three levels (0%: FTH0, 8%: FTH8, 24%: FTH24) and two extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) were evaluated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with respect to growth performance, metabolism response, and oxidative status of the feed proteins. Multivariate data analyses revealed that FTH24 correlated positively with high levels of: oxidation products, amino acids (AA) racemization, glucogenic AAs level in liver, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR); and low AAs digestibility...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111472/assessment-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-activity-gene-expression-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-on-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-tissues-exposed-to-biopesticide
#20
Gonca Alak, Arzu Ucar, Veysel Parlak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Ismail Hakkı Taş, Doğukan Ölmez, Esat Mahmut Kocaman, Mustafa Yılgın, Muhammed Atamanalp, Telat Yanık
The goal of this study was to determinate toxicity mechanism of biopesticide with antioxidant enzymes parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)), transcriptional changes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A), sod, cat, and gpx in liver and gill tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss. For this aim, plant-based (natural pesticides, azadirachtin (AZA)) and synthetic pesticides (deltamethrin (DLM)) were exposed on the fish at different concentrations (0...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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