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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643815/mechanical-characterization-of-the-vessel-wall-by-data-assimilation-of-intravascular-ultrasound-studies
#1
Gonzalo D Maso Talou, Pablo J Blanco, Gonzalo D Ares, Cristiano Guedes Bezerra, Pedro A Lemos, Raúl A Feijóo
Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and erosion are the most important mechanisms underlying the sudden plaque growth, responsible for acute coronary syndromes and even fatal cardiac events. Advances in the understanding of the culprit plaque structure and composition are already reported in the literature, however, there is still much work to be done toward in-vivo plaque visualization and mechanical characterization to assess plaque stability, patient risk, diagnosis and treatment prognosis. In this work, a methodology for the mechanical characterization of the vessel wall plaque and tissues is proposed based on the combination of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging processing, data assimilation and continuum mechanics models within a high performance computing (HPC) environment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622991/tissue-characterization-of-non-culprit-intermediate-coronary-lesions-in-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes
#2
Helmy Hassan Elghawaby, Mohamed Ashraf Shawky, Ahmed Hossam Mowafi, Akram Mohamed Abd-Elbary, Farouk Mostafa Faris
Background: Disruption of vulnerable plaques is the most common cause of acute coronary syndromes. Intravascular ultrasound facilitates cross-sectional imaging of coronary arteries. We aimed at using IVUS to investigate the morphology and tissue characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques of non-culprit intermediate coronary lesions in non-ST elevation ACS setting. Methods: IVUS assessment of sixty-one intermediate coronary lesions in twenty-eight patients with the diagnosis of Non ST elevation acute coronary syndromes...
March 2018: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606297/ultra-rapid-progression-of-coronary-artery-disease-or-undiagnosed-unstable-plaque-a-brief-review-from-a-case-report
#3
REVIEW
Fernando Montenegro Sá, Catarina Ruivo, Luís Graça Santos, Alexandre Antunes, Francisco Campos Soares, José Baptista, João Morais
Coronary artery disease rarely manifests itself in the first decades of life, which explains why this population is underrepresented in clinical studies. The mechanisms and natural history of the disease seem to differ between this population and older patients. Recent studies suggest a more rapid disease progression in youth, presenting more unstable atherosclerotic plaques, although this correlation has yet to be proven. In this paper, we present the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, with percutaneous coronary intervention of the culprit lesion (70-90% lesion at bifurcation of the circumflex artery with the first marginal obtuse artery and a sub-occlusive lesion of the ramus intermedius)...
March 29, 2018: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600962/targeting-the-accomplice-to-thwart-the-culprit-a-new-target-for-the-prevention-of-amyloid-deposition
#4
David R Borchelt
Inheritance of the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4) substantially increases the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). A large body of evidence has firmly established a role for apoE in modulating the risk of developing the amyloid plaque pathology that is pathognomonic for AD. In this issue of the JCI, Liao and colleagues discovered that antibodies against a nonlipidated form of apoE4 are highly effective in delaying the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in mouse models of AD pathology...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576113/incidence-of-thrombosis-in-perioperative-and-non-operative-myocardial-infarction
#5
T Sheth, M K Natarajan, V Hsieh, N Valettas, M Rokoss, S Mehta, S Jolly, V Tandon, H Bezerra, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: The contribution of thrombosis to the aetiology of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is uncertain. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine the presence of thrombus and plaque morphology in patients experiencing a perioperative MI and matched patients experiencing a non-operative MI using OCT. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, prospective, cohort study. Thirty patients experiencing a perioperative MI and 30 matched patients experiencing a non-operative MI, without ST elevation, underwent OCT to determine the presence of thrombus and culprit lesion plaque morphology...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559479/oral-bruton-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-selectively-block-atherosclerotic-plaque-triggered-thrombus-formation
#6
Kristina Busygina, Janina Jamasbi, Till Seiler, Hans Deckmyn, Christian Weber, Richard Brandl, Reinhard Lorenz, Wolfgang Siess
Interaction of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) with platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib and of collagen with GPVI is essential for thrombus formation on ruptured or eroded atherosclerotic plaques (atherothrombosis). GPIb and GPVI signal through Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) which can irreversibly be blocked by oral application of ibrutinib, an established therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with long term safety. We found that ibrutinib and the novel Btk-inhibitors acalabrutinib and ONO/GS-4059 block GPVI-dependent static platelet aggregation in blood exposed to human plaque homogenate and collagen but not to ADP or arachidonic acid...
March 20, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550316/identification-of-high-risk-plaques-destined-to-cause-acute-coronary-syndrome-using-coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-and-computational-fluid-dynamics
#7
Joo Myung Lee, Gilwoo Choi, Bon-Kwon Koo, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Jinlong Zhang, Kyung-Jin Kim, Yaliang Tong, Hyun Jin Kim, Leo Grady, Joon-Hyung Doh, Chang-Wook Nam, Eun-Seok Shin, Young-Seok Cho, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Jin-Ho Choi, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Evald Christiansen, Koen Niemen, Hiromasa Otake, Martin Penicka, Bernard de Bruyne, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Jagat Narula, Pamela S Douglas, Charles A Taylor, Hyo-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND: ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548539/quantitative-baseline-ct-plaque-characterization-of-unrevascularized-non-culprit-intermediate-coronary-stenosis-predicts-lesion-volume-progression-and-long-term-prognosis-a-serial-ct-follow-up-study
#8
Mengmeng Yu, Wenbin Li, Zhigang Lu, Meng Wei, Jing Yan, Jiayin Zhang
AIMS: To investigate the quantitative baseline CT plaque characterization of unrevascularized non-culpritintermediate coronary stenosis and its association with lesion volume progression and long-term prognosis. METHODS: Patients with baseline coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and at least one unrevascularized non-culprit intermediate coronary stenosis were prospectively enrolled for this study. All patients were followed up by a second CCTA at 1-year to 1...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537372/syntax-score-in-relation-to-intravascular-ultrasound-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-the-assessment-of-atherosclerotic-burden-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Maxime M Vroegindewey, Anne-Sophie Schuurman, Isabella Kardys, Sharda S Anroedh, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Jurgen Ligthart, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Evelyn Regar, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Patrick W Serruys, Eric Boersma, Martijn Akkerhuis
AIMS: To examine the relationship between the anatomical SYNTAX score (SXscore), derived from all three coronary arteries, and coronary wall pathology measured by radiofrequency-intravascular ultrasound (RF-IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a single non-culprit segment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In referred for coronary angiography (N=88) or PCI (N=592) for stable angina or acute coronary syndrome, the SYNTAX score calculator (www.syntaxscore.com) was used to determine SXscore before PCI, if applicable...
March 13, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508987/elucidating-the-structures-of-amyloid-oligomers-with-macrocyclic-%C3%AE-hairpin-peptides-insights-into-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-amyloid-diseases
#10
Adam G Kreutzer, James S Nowick
In the more than a century since its identification, Alzheimer's disease has become the archetype of amyloid diseases. The first glimpses of the chemical basis of Alzheimer's disease began with the identification of "amyloid" plaques in the brain in 1892 and extended to the identification of proteinaceous fibrils with "cross-β" structure in 1968. Further efforts led to the discovery of the β-amyloid peptide, Aβ, as a 40- or 42-amino acid peptide that is responsible for the plaques and fibrils...
March 6, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471698/gender-differences-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-focus-on-the-women-with-acs-without-an-obstructing-culprit-lesion
#11
Jane S Titterington, Olivia Y Hung, Anita P Saraf, Nanette K Wenger
The etiologies of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in women expand beyond the traditional paradigm of obstructive epicardial atherosclerotic disease and plaque rupture. Fundamental differences in pathobiology and presentation can partially explain the gender disparity in ACS diagnosis and management, but there is also much we do not know about the spectrum of coronary artery disease in women. Areas covered: This review seeks to explain some key differences between men and women in terms of risk factors, pathophysiology, and clinical presentations, as well as identify areas where more data are needed, focusing on women presenting with ACS but without a culprit lesion to explain their presentation...
April 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429637/coronary-microembolization-and-microvascular-dysfunction
#12
Gerd Heusch, Andreas Skyschally, Petra Kleinbongard
Plaque erosion, fissuring or rupture occurs spontaneously or during coronary interventions. At some residual blood flow, the atherothrombotic debris is washed into the coronary microcirculation, causing physical obstruction, vasoconstriction, inflammation and ultimately microinfarction. Coronary microembolization also contributes to microvascular obstruction in reperfused acute myocardial infarction. Patients with microvascular obstruction after reperfused myocardial infarction have worse prognosis. Cardioprotective strategies to avoid acute coronary microembolization and rescue myocardium from microvascular obstruction have not yet been established in clinical practice...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417141/nonculprit-plaque-characteristics-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-caused-by-plaque-erosion-vs-plaque-rupture-a-3-vessel-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#13
Tomoyo Sugiyama, Erika Yamamoto, Krzysztof Bryniarski, Lei Xing, Hang Lee, Mitsuaki Isobe, Peter Libby, Ik-Kyung Jang
Importance: Patients with culprit plaque rupture are known to have pancoronary plaque vulnerability. However, the characteristics of nonculprit plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes caused by plaque erosion are unknown. Objective: To investigate the nonculprit plaque phenotype in patients with acute coronary syndrome according to culprit plaque pathology (erosion vs rupture) by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this observational cohort study, between August 2010 and May 2014, 82 patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent preintervention optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 major epicardial coronary arteries were enrolled at the Massachusetts General Hospital Optical Coherence Tomography Registry database...
March 1, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406998/prophylactic-use-of-colchicine-in-preventing-radiation-induced-coronary-artery-disease
#14
T O'Herron, J Lafferty
Radiation therapy is one of the primary treatments in fighting breast cancer, one of the most common cancers in the US. One of the dose limiting factors of this therapy is radiation induced heart damage that results from mediastinal radiation. Recently statins, a medication typically used to lower cholesterol levels, have been suggested as a prophylactic treatment to potentially mitigate this process. Similarly, we hypothesized whether colchicine, an anti-inflammatory medication that is presently used in the treatment of gout and pericarditis, might be used to prevent coronary artery disease induced by radiation therapy...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401041/perivascular-epicardial-fat-stranding-at-coronary-ct-angiography-a-marker-of-acute-plaque-rupture-and-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection
#15
Sandeep Hedgire, Vinit Baliyan, Evan J Zucker, Daniel O Bittner, Pedro Staziaki, Richard A P Takx, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Nandini Meyersohn, Udo Hoffmann, Brian Ghoshhajra
Purpose To evaluate the frequency and implications of perivascular fat stranding on coronary computed tomography (CT) angiograms obtained for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Materials and Methods This retrospective registry study was approved by the institutional review board. The authors reviewed the medical records and images of 1403 consecutive patients (796 men, 607 women; mean age, 52.8 years) who underwent coronary CT angiography at the emergency department from February 2012 to March 2016. Fat attenuation, length and number of circumferential quadrants of the affected segment, and attenuation values in the unaffected epicardial and subcutaneous fat were measured...
February 5, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361487/novel-approach-for-in-vivo-detection-of-vulnerable-coronary-plaques-using-molecular-3-t-cmr-imaging-with-an-albumin-binding-probe
#16
Leif-Christopher Engel, Ulf Landmesser, Kevin Gigengack, Thomas Wurster, Constantina Manes, Georg Girke, Milosz Jaguszewski, Carsten Skurk, David M Leistner, Alexander Lauten, Andreas Schuster, Bernd Hamm, Rene M Botnar, Marcus R Makowski, Boris Bigalke
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the potential of the noninvasive albumin-binding probe gadofosveset-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (GE-CMR) for detection of coronary plaques that can cause acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND: ACS are frequently caused by rupture or erosion of coronary plaques that initially do not cause hemodynamically significant stenosis and are therefore not detected by invasive x-ray coronary angiography (XCA). METHODS: A total of 25 patients with ACS or symptoms of stable coronary artery disease underwent GE-CMR, clinically indicated XCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) within 24 h...
January 12, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330042/differences-in-the-ct-findings-between-vulnerable-plaque-and-culprit-lesions-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#17
Eun Ju Chun, Jin Hee Han, Seung Min Yoo, Hwa Yeon Lee, In Sup Song, Charles S White
BACKGROUND: The CT finding of "vulnerable plaque" is widely regarded as similar to that of a culprit lesion in an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, this hypothesis may not be accurate, since "vulnerable plaques" may substantially change their morphology when they rupture to cause an ACS. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated coronary CT angiography data sets of 25 patients with ACS who had vulnerable (n = 10) or culprit plaques (n = 15)...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319263/simultaneous-plaque-rupture-in-two-coronary-arteries-presenting-as-acute-coronary-syndrome
#18
Satish Chirde
A 45 yrs male presented with angina. ECG showed transient CHB, T wave inversion in V3 to V6 and inferior leads. It was difficult to predict the culprit vessel based on ECG. Coronary angiography showed thrombotic lesions in LAD, LCX and OM which can potentially impact identification of culprit vessel and hence affect the management with primary PCI.
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317313/the-role-of-fenton-reaction-in-ros-induced-toxicity-underlying-atherosclerosis-modeled-and-analyzed-using-a-petri-net-based-approach
#19
Dorota Formanowicz, Marcin Radom, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Piotr Formanowicz
The superoxide-driven Fenton reaction plays an important role in the transformation of poorly reactive radicals into highly reactive ones. These highly reactive species (ROS), especially hydroxyl radicals can lead to many disturbances contributing to the endothelial dysfunction being a starting point for atherosclerosis. Although, iron has been identified as a possible culprit influencing formation of ROS, its significance in this process is still debatable. To better understand this phenomenon, the influence of blockade of Fenton reaction in a proposed Petri net-based model of the selected aspects of the iron ROS-induced toxicity in atherosclerosis has been evaluated...
March 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301128/features-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-calcified-nodules-at-culprit-lesions-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#20
Nobuaki Kobayashi, Masamichi Takano, Masafumi Tsurumi, Yusaku Shibata, Suguru Nishigoori, Saori Uchiyama, Hirotake Okazaki, Akihiro Shirakabe, Yoshihiko Seino, Noritake Hata, Wataru Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify clinical features and outcomes related to calcified nodules (CN) compared with plaque rupture (PR) and plaque erosion (PE) detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Based on OCT findings for culprit lesion plaque morphologies, ACS patients with analyzable OCT images (n = 362) were classified as CN, PR, PE, and other. RESULTS: The prevalence of CN, PR, and PE was 6% (n = 21), 45% (n = 163), and 41% (n = 149), respectively...
2018: Cardiology
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