Read by QxMD icon Read

Galeterone for prostate cancer

Elyse M Petrunak, Steven A Rogers, Jeffrey Aube, Emily E Scott
Human steroidogenic cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is a bifunctional enzyme that performs both hydroxylation and lyase reactions, with the latter required to generate androgens that fuel prostate cancer proliferation. The steroid abiraterone, the active form of the only FDA- approved CYP17A1 inhibitor, binds the catalytic heme iron, nonselectively impeding both reactions and ultimately causing undesirable corticosteroid imbalance. Some non-steroidal inhibitors reportedly inhibit the lyase reaction more than the preceding hydroxylase reaction, which would be clinically advantageous, but the mechanism is not understood...
April 3, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Francis N Murigi, Puranik Purushottamachar, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Marlena S Martin, Vincent C O Njar
Survival rate for pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDAC) is poor, with about 80% of patients presenting with the metastatic disease. Gemcitabine, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for locally advanced and metastatic PDAC has limited efficacy, attributed to innate/acquired resistance and activation of pro-survival pathways. The Mnk1/2-eIF4E and NF-κB signaling pathways are implicated in PDAC disease progression/metastasis and also associated with gemcitabine-induced resistance in PDAC...
December 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Rana R McKay, Lillian Werner, Matthew Fiorillo, Jennifer Roberts, Elisabeth I Heath, Glenn J Bubley, Robert Bruce Montgomery, Mary-Ellen Taplin
BACKGROUND: Galeterone is a multi-targeted agent with activity as a CYP17 inhibitor, androgen receptor antagonist, and also causes androgen receptor degradation. It has shown meaningful anti-tumor activity with a well-tolerated safety profile in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in phase I and II studies; however, the efficacy of currently approved CRPC therapies after treatment with galeterone is unknown. In this study, we evaluate prostate specific antigen (PSA) response of non-protocol therapies following galeterone in a subset of patients treated on the Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response (ARMOR) 2 study...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Robert D Bruno, Puranik Purushottamachar, Francis N Murigi, Vincent C O Njar
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) accounts for a high percentage of prostate cancer mortality. The proprietary compound galeterone (gal) was designed to inhibit proliferation of androgen/androgen receptor (AR)-dependent prostate cancer cell in vitro and in vivo and is currently in phase III clinical development. Additionally, clinical studies with gal revealed its superb efficacy in four different cohorts of patients with mCRPC, including those expressing splice variant AR-V7. Preclinical studies with gal show that it also exhibits strong antiproliferative activities against AR-negative prostate cancer cells and tumors through a mechanism involving phosphorylation of eIF2α, which forms an integral component of the eukaryotic mRNA translation complex...
November 2016: FEBS Journal
Yusuke Imamura, Amy H Tien, Jinhe Pan, Jacky K Leung, Carmen A Banuelos, Kunzhong Jian, Jun Wang, Nasrin R Mawji, Javier Garcia Fernandez, Kuo-Shyan Lin, Raymond J Andersen, Marianne D Sadar
Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone...
July 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Diogo A Bastos, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Major advances have been achieved recently in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, resulting in significant improvements in quality of life and survival with the use of several new agents, including the next-generation androgen receptor (AR)-targeted drugs abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, virtually all patients will eventually progress on these therapies and most will ultimately die of treatment-refractory metastatic disease. Recently, several mechanisms of resistance to AR-directed therapies have been uncovered, including the AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), which is a ligand-independent constitutionally-active form of the AR that has been associated with poor outcomes to abiraterone and enzalutamide...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Puranik Purushottamachar, Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Marlena S Martin, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Vincent C O Njar
Degradation of all forms of androgen receptors (ARs) is emerging as an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the effective treatment of prostate cancer. In continuation of our program to identify and develop improved efficacious novel small-molecule agents designed to disrupt AR signaling through enhanced AR degradation, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel C-3 modified analogues of our phase 3 clinical agent, galeterone (5). Concerns of potential in vivo stability of our recently discovered more efficacious galeterone 3β-imidazole carbamate (6) led to the design and synthesis of new steroidal compounds...
July 14, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sameer S Udhane, Bernhard Dick, Qingzhong Hu, Rolf W Hartmann, Amit V Pandey
The orteronel, abiraterone and galeterone, which were developed to treat castration resistant prostate cancer, inhibit 17,20 lyase activity but little is known about their effects on adrenal androgen biosynthesis. We studied the effect of several inhibitors and found that orteronel was selective towards 17,20 lyase activity than abiraterone and galeterone. Gene expression analysis showed that galeterone altered the expression of HSD3B2 but orteronel did not change the expression of HSD3B2, CYP17A1 and AKR1C3...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jacqueline Bogner, Kourosh Zolghadr, Ian Hickson, Tina Romer, Larisa Yurlova
The androgen receptor (AR) is an important target for drug therapies combating prostate cancer. However, various acquired mutations within the AR sequence often render this receptor resistant to treatment. Ligand-induced interaction between the N- and C-termini of the AR marks the initial step in the AR signaling cascade and can thus serve as an early read-out for analysis of potential antagonists of wt and mutant AR. To measure changes of the N/C interaction in the wt and mutant AR variants upon the addition of inhibitors, we applied our recently developed Fluorescent Two-Hybrid (F2H) assay...
February 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Athanasios Dellis, Athanasios G Papatsoris
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly males. Regardless of the initial hormonal treatment in metastatic disease, a significant proportion of patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of oral medications such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. Relevant research is accelerated with numerous agents being tested for the management of CRPC...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Benjamin L Maughan, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) currently benefits from a wealth of treatment options, yet still remains lethal in the vast majority of patients. It is becoming increasingly understood that this disease entity continues to evolve over time, acquiring additional and diverse resistance mechanisms with each subsequent therapy used. This dynamic relationship between treatment pressure and disease resistance can be challenging for the managing clinician. The recent discovery of alternate splice variants of the androgen receptor (AR) is one potential mechanism of escape in mCRPC, and recognizing this resistance mechanism might be important for optimal treatment selection for our patients...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Bruce Montgomery, Mario A Eisenberger, Matthew B Rettig, Franklin Chu, Roberto Pili, Joseph J Stephenson, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Alan J Koletsky, Luke T Nordquist, William J Edenfield, Khalid Mamlouk, Karen J Ferrante, Mary-Ellen Taplin
PURPOSE: Galeterone is a selective, multitargeted agent that inhibits CYP17, antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), and reduces AR expression in prostate cancer cells by causing an increase in AR protein degradation. These open-label phase I and II studies [Androgen Receptor Modulation Optimized for Response-1 (ARMOR1) and ARMOR2 part 1] evaluated the efficacy and safety of galeterone in patients with treatment-naive nonmetastatic or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and established a dose for further study...
March 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
D J Crona, M I Milowsky, Y E Whang
Reactivated androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The novel AR targeting drugs abiraterone and enzalutamide have improved survival of CRPC patients. However, resistance to these agents develops and patients ultimately succumb to CRPC. Potential mechanisms of resistance include the following: 1) Expression of AR splice variants, such as the AR-V7 isoform, which lacks the ligand-binding domain; 2) AR missense mutations in the ligand-binding domain, such as F876L and T877A; and 3) Mutation or overexpression of androgen biosynthetic enzymes or glucocorticoid receptor...
December 2015: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Andrew K Kwegyir-Afful, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Puranik Purushottamachar, Vidya P Ramamurthy, Vincent C O Njar
Galeterone (Gal) is a first-in-class multi-target oral small molecule that will soon enter pivotal phase III clinical trials in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Gal disrupts androgen receptor (AR) signaling via inhibition of CYP17, AR antagonism and AR degradation. Resistance to current therapy is attributed to up-regulation of full-length AR (fAR), splice variants AR (AR-Vs) and AR mutations. The effects of gal and VNPT55 were analyzed on f-AR and AR-Vs (AR-V7/ARv567es) in LNCaP, CWR22Rv1 and DU145 (transfected with AR-Vs) human PC cells in vitro and CRPC tumor xenografts...
September 29, 2015: Oncotarget
Richard M Bambury, Dana E Rathkopf
The approval of abiraterone and enzalutamide for the treatment of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer heralded a paradigm shift in the management of this disease. Nevertheless, new and improved treatments are needed since the disease remains incurable for the majority of these patients. In this article, we review the biology of castration-resistant disease as well as emerging therapeutic compounds directed at the androgen receptor, including galeterone, VT-464, ARN-509, and ODM-201. Mechanisms of action, early clinical data, and ongoing clinical studies for these compounds are all reviewed...
August 2016: Urologic Oncology
Vincent C O Njar, Angela M H Brodie
In our effort to discover potent and specific inhibitors of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17), the key enzyme which catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens from progestins, 3β-(hydroxy)-17-(1H-benzimidazole-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (Galeterone or TOK-001, formerly called VN/124-1) was identified as a selective development candidate which modulates multiple targets in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. This drug annotation summarizes the mechanisms of action, scientific rationale, medicinal chemistry, pharmacokinetic properties, and human efficacy data for galeterone, which has successfully completed phase II clinical development in men with castration resistant (advanced) prostate cancer (CRPC)...
March 12, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lissette Gomez, Jason R Kovac, Dolores J Lamb
The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) cases are diagnosed as a localized disease. Definitive treatment, active surveillance or watchful waiting are employed as therapeutic paradigms. The current standard of care for the treatment of metastatic PCa is either medical or surgical castration. Once PCa progresses in spite of castrate androgen levels it is termed 'castration-resistant prostate cancer' (CRPC). Patients may even exhibit rising PSA levels with possible bone, lymph node or solid organ metastases. In 2010, the only agent approved for the treatment of CRPC was docetaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent...
March 2015: Steroids
Eva Gupta, Troy Guthrie, Winston Tan
Recently, the standard of care for metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) has changed considerably. Persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been identified as a target for novel therapies and reengages the fact that AR continues to be the primary target responsible for metastatic prostate cancer. Androgen receptor gene amplification and over expression have been found to result in a higher concentration of androgen receptors on tumor cells, making them extremely sensitive to low levels of circulating androgens...
July 25, 2014: BMC Urology
Ziyang Yu, Changmeng Cai, Shuai Gao, Nicholas I Simon, Howard C Shen, Steven P Balk
PURPOSE: Galeterone inhibits the enzyme CYP17A1 and is currently in phase II clinical trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Galeterone is also a direct androgen receptor (AR) antagonist and may enhance AR degradation. This study was undertaken to determine the molecular basis for AR effects and their therapeutic potential. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Effects of galeterone on AR expression and activities were examined in prostate cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Similar to the AR antagonist enzalutamide, but in contrast to bicalutamide, galeterone did not induce binding of a constitutively active VP16-AR fusion protein to reporter genes and did not induce AR recruitment to endogenous androgen-regulated genes based on chromatin immunoprecipitation...
August 1, 2014: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Mark N Stein, Neal Patel, Alexander Bershadskiy, Alisa Sokoloff, Eric A Singer
Suppression of gonadal testosterone synthesis represents the standard first line therapy for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, in the majority of patients who develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), it is possible to detect persistent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) through androgens produced in the adrenal gland or within the tumor itself. Abiraterone acetate was developed as an irreversible inhibitor of the dual functional cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 with activity as a 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase...
May 2014: Asian Journal of Andrology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"