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Cross cultural

Ana Celia Caetano, Sara Dias, André Santa-Cruz, Carla Rolanda
BACKGROUND: Recently, the Obstructed Defecation Syndrome score (ODS score) was developed and validated by Renzi to assess clinical staging and to allow evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of treatment of this disorder. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to validate the Portuguese version of Renzi ODS score, according to the Consensus based Standards for the selection of the Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. METHODS: Following guidelines for cross-cultural validity, Renzi ODS score was translated into the Portuguese language...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Peter F M Teunis, Eric G Evers, Paul D Hengeveld, Cindy M Dierikx, Cornelia C C H Wielders, Engeline van Duijkeren
A subset of the study population from a cross-sectional study of carriership of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli (ESBL-E) in the general population was followed up by five successive samples over an approximate half year period, leading to six samples in 333 persons. Fecal samples were cultured and analyzed for the presence of E. coli types as characterized by MLST, and ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The study included 255 persons who had a negative first sample, to allow observations of acquiring carriership of ESBL-E...
2018: PloS One
Alan Taitz, M Florencia Assaneo, Natalia Elisei, Mónica Trípodi, Laurent Cohen, Jacobo D Sitt, Marcos A Trevisan
Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract...
2018: PloS One
Meagen M Rosenthal, Erin R Holmes
The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States' (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables...
March 21, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Feng-Hang Chang, Pengsheng Ni, Hung-Yi Chiou, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Alan M Jette
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cultural and semantic equivalence of the Activity Measure Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) outpatient short forms after they were translated from American English to Mandarin Chinese. METHOD: This study was conducted with a composite sample of a group of 483 American adults (mean age 63.1 years, 42.4% males) and 553 Taiwanese adults (mean age 60.6 years, 47.2% males) who were undergoing home care or outpatient rehabilitation services...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Saeed Asefzadeh, Rohollah Kalhor, Mohammad Tir
Background: Paying attention to patient safety is a basic right and a necessary issue in providing medical care, and failure to observe it leads to irreparable damage. One of the factors affecting an individuals' performance in an organization is stress, which also endangers their health. Objective: To determine the relationship between patient safety culture and levels of job stress among the nurses working in the hospitals affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta, Alemayehu Worku, Gudina Egata, Berhanu Seyoum, Dadi Marami, Yemane Berhane
Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Nadège Bossuet-Greif, Julien Vignard, Frédéric Taieb, Gladys Mirey, Damien Dubois, Claude Petit, Eric Oswald, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède
Colibactins are hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides produced by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and other Enterobacteriaceae harboring the pks genomic island. These genotoxic metabolites are produced by pks -encoded peptide-polyketide synthases as inactive prodrugs called precolibactins, which are then converted to colibactins by deacylation for DNA-damaging effects. Colibactins are bona fide virulence factors and are suspected of promoting colorectal carcinogenesis when produced by intestinal E...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Oksana Ocheretina
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a global public health threat. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a new technology for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and is capable of providing rapid drug resistance profiles and genotypes for epidemiologic surveillance. Therefore, we used WGS to determine genotypic drug resistance profiles and genetic diversity of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Mwanza, North-western Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Center (BMC) from September 2014 to June 2015...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
A O Jenkins, E Gormley, N Gcebe, G T Fosgate, A Conan, C Aagaard, A L Michel, V P M G Rutten
Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle may be compromised in areas where there are high rates of exposure to environmental/non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This cross reaction of immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens shared with NTMs can result in reduced specificity of commonly used diagnostic tests including tuberculin skin tests and the interferon gamma assay (IFN-ɣ). In this study we assessed the cross-reactive immune responses of M. bovis (infected) and NTM exposed animals to M. bovis and M...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Francesca Andriani, Maria Teresa Majorini, Miguel Mano, Elena Landoni, Rosalba Miceli, Federica Facchinetti, Mavis Mensah, Enrico Fontanella, Matteo Dugo, Mauro Giacca, Ugo Pastorino, Gabriella Sozzi, Domenico Delia, Luca Roz, Daniele Lecis
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are crucial mediators of tumor-stroma cross-talk through synthesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and production of multiple soluble factors. Nonetheless, little is still known about specific determinants of fibroblast pro-tumorigenic activity in lung cancer. Here, we aimed at understanding the role of miRNAs, which are often altered in stromal cells, in reprogramming fibroblasts towards a tumor-supporting phenotype. METHODS: We employed a co-culture-based high-throughput screening to identify specific miRNAs modulating the pro-tumorigenic potential of lung fibroblasts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Raphaël Boursereau, Michel Abou-Samra, Sophie Lecompte, Laurence Noel, Sonia M Brichard
BACKGROUND: The hormone adiponectin (ApN) exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle and can reverse devastating myopathies, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), where inflammation exacerbates disease progression. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in the inflammation process, and its aberrant activation leads to several inflammatory or immune diseases. Here we investigated the expression of the NLRP inflammasome in skeletal muscle and its contribution to DMD...
March 20, 2018: BMC Biology
Timo Lajunen
Antonovsky's concept "sense of coherence" (SOC) and the related measurement instrument "The Orientation to Life Questionnaire" (OLQ) has been widely applied in studies on health and well-being. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the cultural differences in factor structures and psychometric properties as well as mean scores of the 13-item form of Antonovsky's OLQ among Australian (n = 201), Finnish (n = 203), and Turkish (n = 152) students. Three models of factor structure were studied by using confirmatory factor analysis: single-factor model, first-order correlated-three-factor model, and the second-order three-factor model...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Isabelle Yee Shan Chan, Mei-Yung Leung, Qi Liang
Driven by fast-growing economies worldwide, the number of international construction projects is booming, and employing expatriates has inevitably become a strategy used by construction firms. However, stress arising from expatriate assignments can lead to early return, assignment failure, and staff turnover, causing in significant losses to an organisation. Extensive research has focused on the effectiveness of coping behaviours in relation to stress. However, studies investigating the antecedents of coping are rare...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jennifer Bido, Roya Ghazinouri, Jamie E Collins, Desirée Diez Portela, Luis Alcantara, Thomas S Thornhill, Jeffrey N Katz
BACKGROUND: Medical missions to low and middle-income countries are increasingly frequent, with an estimated 6,000 trips sponsored by U.S. organizations accounting for approximately 200,000 surgical cases and $250 million in costs annually. However, these missions have received little critical evaluation. This paper describes the research program Operation Walk (Op-Walk) Boston, and proposes an evaluation model for similar surgical missions. METHODS: We propose an evaluation model, borrowing from the work of Donabedian and enriched by evidence from our research program...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kate Winskell, Robyn Singleton, Gaelle Sabben
Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Haled Al-Said, Orna Braun-Lewensohn, Shifra Sagy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This research investigated how coping resources explain emotional reactions of anger and anxiety, in the context of threat of house demolition, among adolescents in three groups: Adolescents living in a recognized village with no demolition, adolescents living in an unrecognized village (by the Israeli government as legal) with no demolition, and adolescents living in an unrecognized village with demolition. The framework of this research is based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory, which suggests examining ability to cope with stressful situations...
March 20, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D Gray, Quentin D Atkinson
One of the defining trends of the Holocene has been the emergence of complex societies. Two essential features of complex societies are intensive resource use and sociopolitical hierarchy. Although it is widely agreed that these two phenomena are associated cross-culturally and have both contributed to the rise of complex societies, the causality underlying their relationship has been the subject of longstanding debate. Materialist theories of cultural evolution tend to view resource intensification as driving the development of hierarchy, but the reverse order of causation has also been advocated, along with a range of intermediate views...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Malgorzata Grzesiuk, Elly Spijkerman, Sabrina C Lachmann, Alexander Wacker
Pharmaceuticals are found in freshwater ecosystems where even low concentrations in the range of ng L-1 may affect aquatic organisms. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to three pharmaceuticals on two microalgae, a potential modulation of the effects by additional inorganic phosphorus (Pi ) limitation, and a potential propagation of the pharmaceuticals' effect across a trophic interaction. The latter considers that pharmaceuticals are bioaccumulated by algae, potentially metabolized into more (or less) toxic derivates and consequently consumed by zooplankton...
March 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Omotayo Bernard, Roger C Gibson, Affette McCaw-Binns, Jody Reece, Charlene Coore-Desai, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Maureen Samms-Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is associated with adverse maternal and infant well-being. However, compared to postpartum depression, it has been less frequently explored globally or in Jamaica. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, antenatal depressive symptoms among Jamaican women in order to inform policy and build interventions that could improve their management and reduce their negative consequences. METHODS: This secondary analysis of data from the second Jamaican Birth Cohort Study (JA-Kids Birth Cohort) included 3,517 women enrolled during pregnancy...
2018: PloS One
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