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Developmental programming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230520/ipsilesional-functional-recruitment-within-lower-mu-band-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-an-event-related-desynchronization-study
#1
Alberto Inuggi, Michela Bassolino, Chiara Tacchino, Valentina Pippo, Valeria Bergamaschi, Claudio Campus, Valentina De Franchis, Thierry Pozzo, Paolo Moretti
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of non-progressive developmental movement disorders inducing a strong brain reorganization in primary and secondary motor areas. Nevertheless, few studies have been dedicated to quantify brain pattern changes and correlate them with motor characteristics in CP children. In this context, it is very important to identify feasible and complementary tools able to enrich the description of motor impairments by considering their neural correlates. To this aim, we recorded the electroencephalographic activity and the corresponding event-related desynchronization (ERD) of a group of mild-to-moderate affected unilateral CP children while performing unilateral reach-to-grasp movements with both their paretic and non-paretic arms...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229018/prenatal-influences-on-temperament-development-the-role-of-environmental-epigenetics
#2
Maria A Gartstein, Michael K Skinner
This review summarizes current knowledge and outlines future directions relevant to questions concerning environmental epigenetics and the processes that contribute to temperament development. Links between prenatal adversity, epigenetic programming, and early manifestations of temperament are important in their own right, also informing our understanding of biological foundations for social-emotional development. In addition, infant temperament attributes represent key etiological factors in the onset of developmental psychopathology, and studies elucidating their prenatal foundations expand our understanding of developmental origins of health and disease...
December 12, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228342/a-highly-asynchronous-developmental-program-triggered-during-germination-of-dormant-akinetes-of-the-filamentous-diazotrophic-cyanobacteria
#3
Rebeca Perez, Lars Wörmer, Peter Sass, Iris Maldener
Germination of akinetes of filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales is an essential process that ensures survival and recolonization after long periods of unfavorable conditions, as desiccation, cold and low light. We studied the morphological, physiological, and metabolic changes that occur during germination of akinetes in two model species of cell differentiation, Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, which live in different habitats. We characterized the akinete envelopes and showed their similarity to envelopes of N2-fixing heterocysts...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227958/limited-access-to-special-education-services-for-school-aged-children-with-developmental-delay
#4
Erica Twardzik, Ellen Smit, Bridget Hatfield, Michelle C Odden, Alicia Dixon-Ibarra, Megan MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Current policy in Oregon limits eligibility of children diagnosed with developmental delay for school-based services. Due to eligibility definitions, children with developmental delay may face additional barriers transitioning from early intervention/early childhood special education into school-based special education services. AIMS: Examine the relationship between enrollment in school-based special education programs given a change in primary disability diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224642/drug-induced-cardiac-abnormalities-in-premature-infants-and-neonates
#5
REVIEW
Luana Pesco-Koplowitz, Gary Gintant, Robert Ward, Dominique Heon, Muriel Saulnier, Jeff Heilbraun
The Cardiac Safety Research Consortium (CSRC) is a transparent, public-private partnership that was established in 2005 as a Critical Path Program and formalized in 2006 under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Food and Drug Administration and Duke University. Our continuing goal is to advance paradigms for more efficient regulatory science related to the cardiovascular safety of new therapeutics, both in the United States and globally, particularly where such safety questions add burden to innovative research and development...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224235/long-term-cardiovascular-re-programming-by-short-term-perinatal-exposure-to-nicotine-s-main-metabolite-cotinine
#6
Stefano Bastianini, Viviana Lo Martire, Alessandro Silvani, Giovanna Zoccoli, Chiara Berteotti, Hugo Lagercrantz, Anders Arner, Gary Cohen
AIM: Gather "proof-of-concept" evidence of the adverse developmental potential of cotinine (a seemingly benign biomarker of recent nicotine / tobacco smoke exposure). METHODS: Pregnant C57 mice drank nicotine or cotinine-laced water for 6wks from conception (NPRE = 2% saccharin+100μg nicotine/ml; CPRE = 2% saccharin + 10μg cotinine/ml) or 3wks after birth (CPOST = 2% saccharin + 30μg cotinine/ml). Controls drank 2% saccharin (CTRL). At 17±1weeks (male pups; CTRL n=6; CPOST n=6; CPRE n=8; NPRE n=9) we assessed (i) cardiovascular control during sleep; (ii) arterial reactivity ex vivo; (iii) expression of genes involved in arterial constriction / dilation...
December 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224232/physical-activity-and-family-based-obesity-treatment-a-review-of-expert-recommendations-on-physical-activity-in-youth
#7
REVIEW
C Foster, J B Moore, C R Singletary, J A Skelton
Targeting physical inactivity in children is pertinent to aiding in the decrease of childhood obesity rates. Only 33% of adolescents are obtaining the recommended goal of at least 60 min of physical activity per day. The objectives of this review are to summarize professional recommendations for physical activity and exercise in children and adolescents, and identify family-centred strategies that can be implemented by weight management clinicians. Clinically oriented recommendations and policy statements from professional organizations were identified through literature and internet searches, summarized using rubrics of aerobic, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening exercise, then examined for details on family-based focus, inclusion of child developmental stage and age, and application to the prevention and treatment of obesity...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224111/prenatal-testosterone-programming-of-insulin-resistance-in-the%C3%A2-female-sheep
#8
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Insulin resistance, a common feature of metabolic disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome, is a risk factor for development of diabetes. Because sex hormones orchestrate the establishment of sex-specific behavioral, reproductive, and metabolic differences, a role for them in the developmental origin of insulin resistance is also to be expected. Female sheep exposed to male levels of testosterone during fetal life serve as an excellent translational model for delineating programming of insulin resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224041/identifying-and-monitoring-neurons-that-undergo-metamorphosis-regulated-cell-death-metamorphoptosis-by-a-neuron-specific-caspase-sensor-casor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Gyunghee Lee, Jaeman Kim, Yujin Kim, Siuk Yoo, Jae H Park
Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases...
December 9, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223624/implementation-of-the-alarm-distress-baby-scale-as-a-universal-screening-instrument-in-primary-care-feasibility-acceptability-and-predictors-of-professionals-adherence-to-guidelines
#10
Johanne Smith-Nielsen, Nicole Lønfeldt, Antoine Guedeney, Mette Skovgaard Væver
BACKGROUND: Infant socioemotional development is often held under informal surveillance, but a formal screening program is needed to ensure systematic identification of developmental risk. Even when screening programs exist, they are often ineffective because health care professionals do not adhere to screening guidelines, resulting in low screening prevalence rates. OBJECTIVES: To examine feasibility and acceptability of implementing universal screening for infant socioemotional problems with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale in primary care...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222434/embryonic-lethality-and-defective-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice-lacking-utf1
#11
Seth D Kasowitz, Mengcheng Luo, Jun Ma, N Adrian Leu, P Jeremy Wang
The germ cell lineage is specified early in embryogenesis and undergoes complex developmental programs to generate gametes. Here, we conducted genetic studies to investigate the role of Utf1 (Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1) in mouse germ cell development. Utf1 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells and regulates ES cell differentiation. In a proteomics screen, we identified UTF1 among 38 proteins including DNMT3L and DND1 that associate with chromatin in embryonic testes...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#12
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222192/suppressor-of-gamma-response-1-links-dna-damage-response-to-organ-regeneration
#13
Ross Alastair Johnson, Phillip Conklin, Michelle Tjahjadi, Victor Missirian, Ted Toal, Siobhan M Brady, Anne B Britt
In Arabidopsis, DNA damage-induced programmed cell death is limited to the meristematic stem cell niche and its early descendants. The significance of this cell-type specific programmed cell death is unclear. Here we demonstrate in roots that it is the programmed destruction of the mitotically-compromised stem cell niche that triggers its regeneration, enabling growth recovery. In contrast to wild-type plants, sog1 plants, which are defective in damage-induced programmed cell death, maintain the cell identities and stereotypical structure of the stem cell niche after irradiation, but these cells fail to undergo cell division, terminating root growth...
December 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221996/vitrification-not-cryoprotectant-exposure-alters-the-expression-of-developmentally-important-genes-in-in-vitro-produced-porcine-blastocysts
#14
Louise K Bartolac, Jenna L Lowe, George Koustas, Christopher G Grupen, Cecilia Sjöblom
The vitrification of embryos is common practice in advanced livestock breeding programs and in human fertility clinics. Recent studies have revealed that vitrification results in aberrant expression of a number of stress related genes. However, few studies have examined the effect that vitrification has on developmentally important genes, and none have been conducted in porcine embryos. The aim of this study was to determine the effects that different vitrification procedures and cryoprotectant combinations have on the expression of imprinted genes in in vitro produced (IVP) porcine blastocysts...
December 5, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219962/predictors-of-long-term-neurological-outcomes-in-non-accidental-head-injury
#15
C F Chong, S L Misra, J A Escardo-Paton, S Dai
BackgroundNon-accidental head injury (NAI) is an inflicted injury usually on a child, often resulting in long-term neurological impairment and occasionally death. This study aimed to investigate the predictive values of acute findings, especially ocular, for long-term neurological outcomes.MethodsMedical records including retinal images of all children who attended the local Children's hospital with a diagnosis of NAI from over a period of 5 years were reviewed and data collected via the electronic patient record system...
December 8, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218481/concepts-for-a-therapeutic-prolongation-of-nephrogenesis-in-preterm-and-low-birth-weight-babies-must-correspond-to-structural-functional-properties-in-the-nephrogenic-zone
#16
REVIEW
Will W Minuth
Numerous investigations are dealing with anlage of the mammalian kidney and primary development of nephrons. However, only few information is available about the last steps in kidney development leading at birth to a downregulation of morphogen activity in the nephrogenic zone and to a loss of stem cell niches aligned beyond the organ capsule. Surprisingly, these natural changes in the developmental program display similarities to processes occurring in the kidneys of preterm and low-birth-weight babies. Although those babies are born at a time with a principally intact nephrogenic zone and active niches, a high proportion of them suffers on impairment of nephrogenesis resulting in oligonephropathy, formation of atypical glomeruli, and immaturity of parenchyma...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217964/sit-down-and-play-a-preventive-primary-care-based-program-to-enhance-parenting-practices
#17
Reshma Shah, Daniela DeFrino, Yoonsang Kim, Marc Atkins
The primary care office offers an ideal setting to encourage parenting behaviors that promote early childhood development. We conducted a pilot study to establish feasibility and acceptability of Sit Down and Play (SDP), a brief primary care-based program to facilitate positive parenting behaviors through take-home play activities. A prospective 1-month study was conducted in an urban primary care clinic. SDP was administered to 30 caregivers of 6-12 month old children while they waited for their well-child appointment...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#18
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216871/mental-health-literacy-among-pediatric-hospital-staff-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#19
Nabeel Al-Yateem, Rachel Rossiter, Walter Robb, Alaa Ahmad, Mahmoud Saleh Elhalik, Sumaya Albloshi, Shameran Slewa-Younan
BACKGROUND: In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) 35% of the population are aged 0-24 years. A significant proportion of these young people are living with chronic conditions (e.g., asthma, type 1 diabetes, cardiac conditions, and genetically-transmitted conditions such as thalassemia and cystic fibrosis). This group has increased vulnerability to developmental delays and mental health problems, and is increasingly coming to the attention of service providers in mainstream schools, primary healthcare centers, and pediatric hospitals...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215953/further-insights-into-the-role-of-nin-like-protein-7-nlp7-in-root-cap-cell-release
#20
Rucha A Karve, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi
The root cap protects the root from environmental stress and senses gravity. Cells of the last layer of the root cap are shed in a developmentally programmed process. We previously showed that the transcription factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 (NLP7) regulates root cap cell release likely through regulation of CELLULASE 5 (CEL5). Here we provide a supplement to that work. We hypothesized that the nlp7 mutant has defects in additional root cap functions. We find that neither gravity sensing nor expression of a root cap cell identity marker is altered in nlp7 but that expression of another cellulase, CEL3, is upregulated...
December 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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