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Developmental programming

Kami Kim
Toxoplasma gondii is a common veterinary and human pathogen that persists as latent bradyzoite forms within infected hosts. The ability of the parasite to interconvert between tachyzoite and bradyzoite is key for pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The transition between tachyzoites and bradyzoites is epigenetically regulated and coupled to the cell cycle. Recent epigenomic studies have begun to elucidate the chromatin states associated with developmental switches in T...
June 22, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Sara Nieuwoudt, Lenore Manderson
Background: Mothers rely heavily on health worker advice to make infant feeding decisions. Confusing or misleading advice can lead to suboptimal feeding practices. From 2001, HIV positive mothers in South Africa were counseled to choose either exclusive breastfeeding or exclusive formula feeding to minimize vertical HIV transmission. On the basis of revised World Health Organization guidelines, the government amended this policy in 2011, by promoting exclusive breastfeeding and discontinuing the provision of free formula...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Hongyuan Wang, Yuan Zhao, Marina Ezcurra, Alexandre Benedetto, Ann F Gilliat, Josephine Hellberg, Ziyu Ren, Evgeniy R Galimov, Trin Athigapanich, Johannes Girstmair, Maximilian J Telford, Colin T Dolphin, Zhizhou Zhang, David Gems
A long-standing belief is that aging (senescence) is the result of stochastic damage accumulation. Alternatively, senescent pathology may also result from late-life, wild-type gene action (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy, as argued by Williams) leading to non-adaptive run-on of developmental programs (or quasi-programs ) (as suggested more recently by Blagosklonny). In this study, we use existing and new data to show how uterine tumors, a prominent form of senescent pathology in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , likely result from quasi-programs...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
Gina Dimitropoulos, Ashley L Landers, Victoria E Freeman, Jason Novick, Olivia Cullen, Marla Engelberg, Cathleen Steinegger, Daniel Le Grange
Background: Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the first line of care in paediatric treatment while adult programs focus on individualized models of care. Transition age youth (TAY) with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are in a unique life stage and between systems of care. As such, they and their caregivers may benefit from specialized, developmentally tailored models of treatment. Methods: The primary purpose of this study was to assess if parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation changed in caregivers during the course of FBT-TAY for AN...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Christina N Caiozzo, Kristen Yule, John Grych
Children who witness violence are at risk for developing a range of developmental problems, including deficits in understanding and regulating. The ability to adaptively manage emotions is associated with children's mental health and their social and academic competence; however, little is known about how parents of at-risk youth can foster the healthy development of emotion regulation. The current study aimed to identify specific parenting practices associated with adaptive emotion regulation in at-risk preschoolers...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jill C Fodstad, Alexandra Kirsch, Micah Faidley, Nerissa Bauer
Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at a high risk for engaging in self-injurious behavior (SIB). Prognosis is poor when SIB emerges early. Limited research exists on interventions teaching parents how to manage their young child's SIB. This investigation assessed the feasibility of adapting an applied behavior analytic parent training program with 11 parents of children 1-5 years of age with IDD and SIB. Quantitative and observational measures were used to assess outcomes; semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver satisfaction...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Nicoline Hemager, Kerstin J Plessen, Anne Thorup, Camilla Christiani, Ditte Ellersgaard, Katrine Søborg Spang, Birgitte Klee Burton, Maja Gregersen, Anne Søndergaard, Aja Neergaard Greve, Ditte Lou Gantriis, Gry Poulsen, Larry J Seidman, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Importance: Children at familial high risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FHR-SZ) or bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) exhibit neurocognitive impairments. Large studies of neurocognition in young children at familial high risk at the same age are important to differentiate the pathophysiology and developmental trajectory of these 2 groups. Objective: To characterize neurocognitive functions in 7-year-old children with FHR-SZ or FHR-BP and a control population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multisite population-based cohort study collected data from January 1, 2013, to January 31, 2016, in the first wave of the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study VIA 7 at 2 university hospital research sites in Copenhagen and Aarhus using Danish registries...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Sören Kliem, Malte Sandner, Anna Lohmann, Susan Sierau, Verena Dähne, Annette M Klein, Tanja Jungmann
BACKGROUND: Pro Kind is a German adaptation of the US Nurse Family Partnership program. It is an intervention based on home visits targeting first-time mothers from disadvantaged populations. Pro Kind was implemented as a randomized control trial from 2006 to 2012 with N = 755 first-time mothers (TG n = 394, CG n = 391). The 7-8-year follow-up aims to assess the mid-term effects of the program. METHODS/DESIGN: Mid-term outcomes are being assessed by trained assessors...
June 20, 2018: Trials
Raffael Ott, Jens H Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann
BACKGROUND: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to 'program' adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs...
June 20, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jie Chen, Chu-Ze Shen, Yan-Ping Guo, Guang-Yuan Rao
There are several types of capitulum in the Asteraceae due to different combinations of florets varying in corolla shape and stamen development. Previous studies have shown that the formation of ray florets on a radiate capitulum may be related to the parallel co-option of CYC2 -like genes among independent Asteraceae lineages. The present work tests that hypothesis and attempts to shed light on the pattern of evolution of the Asteraceae capitulum and floral heteromorphism under the regulation of CYC2 -like genes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pankaj Sharma, Amos Samkumar, Mahesh Rao, Vijay V Singh, Lakshman Prasad, Dwijesh C Mishra, Ramcharan Bhattacharya, Navin C Gupta
White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ke Wang, Xinwei Zhang, Yifan Wang, Gaowen Jin, Mingyang Li, Shusong Zhang, Jie Hao, Rong Jin, Xiaojun Huang, Hounan Wu, Jun Zhang, Yingyu Chen, Qing Ge
Invariant natural killer T1 (iNKT1) cells are characterized by the preferential expression of T-box transcription factor T-bet (encoded by Tbx21) and the production of cytokine IFN-γ, but the relationship between the developmental process and iNKT1 lineage diversification in the thymus remains elusive. We report in the present study a crucial role of programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) in iNKT cell terminal maturation and iNKT1 fate determination. Mice with T cell-specific deletion of PDCD5 had decreased numbers of thymic and peripheral iNKT cells with a predominantly immature phenotype and defects in response to α-galactosylceramide...
June 19, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Margaux Verschueren, Laurence Claes, Annabel Bogaerts, Nina Palmeroni, Amarendra Gandhi, Philip Moons, Koen Luyckx
Introduction: Eating disorder symptomatology, comprising both psychological and behavioral aspects of subclinical eating concerns, constitutes a clear precursor of developing eating disorders. It is crucial to investigate its antecedents and correlates to subsequently inform eating disorder prevention programs. The present study focused on identity formation, a core developmental task in adolescence, that has increasingly been linked to eating disorder development. Our main aim was to examine the temporal sequence between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lynette Lim, Janelle M P Pakan, Martijn M Selten, André Marques-Smith, Alfredo Llorca, Sung Eun Bae, Nathalie L Rochefort, Oscar Marín
Neural circuit assembly relies on the precise synchronization of developmental processes, such as cell migration and axon targeting, but the cell-autonomous mechanisms coordinating these events remain largely unknown. Here we found that different classes of interneurons use distinct routes of migration to reach the embryonic cerebral cortex. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons that migrate through the marginal zone develop into Martinotti cells, one of the most distinctive classes of cortical interneurons...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Marisa Karow, J Gray Camp, Sven Falk, Tobias Gerber, Abhijeet Pataskar, Malgorzata Gac-Santel, Jorge Kageyama, Agnieska Brazovskaja, Angela Garding, Wenqiang Fan, Therese Riedemann, Antonella Casamassa, Andrej Smiyakin, Christian Schichor, Magdalena Götz, Vijay K Tiwari, Barbara Treutlein, Benedikt Berninger
Ectopic expression of defined transcription factors can force direct cell-fate conversion from one lineage to another in the absence of cell division. Several transcription factor cocktails have enabled successful reprogramming of various somatic cell types into induced neurons (iNs) of distinct neurotransmitter phenotype. However, the nature of the intermediate states that drive the reprogramming trajectory toward distinct iN types is largely unknown. Here we show that successful direct reprogramming of adult human brain pericytes into functional iNs by Ascl1 and Sox2 encompasses transient activation of a neural stem cell-like gene expression program that precedes bifurcation into distinct neuronal lineages...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Bo Zhang, Anna M Butler, Qian Shi, Siyuan Xing, Paul K Herman
P-bodies are liquid droplet-like compartments that lack a limiting membrane and are present in many eukaryotic cells. These structures contain specific sets of proteins and mRNAs at concentrations higher than that in the surrounding environment. Although highly conserved, the normal physiological roles of these ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules remain poorly defined. Here, we report that P-bodies are required for the efficient completion of meiosis in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P-bodies were found to be present during all phases of the meiotic program and to provide protection for the Hrr25/CK1 protein kinase, a key regulator of this developmental process...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Qin Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Xu Wang, Qing Liu, Lianfeng Gu, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light receptors that mediate light regulation of plant growth and development. Land plants possess various numbers of cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which serve overlapping and partially redundant functions in different plant species. Cryptochromes exist as physiologically inactive monomers in darkness; photoexcited cryptochromes undergo homodimerization to increase their affinity to the CRY-signaling proteins, such as CIBs (CRY2-interacting bHLH), PIFs (Phytochrome-Interacting Factors), AUX/IAA (Auxin/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID), and the COP1-SPAs (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 1-Suppressors of Phytochrome A) complexes...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Judit Symmank, Vanessa Gölling, Katrin Gerstmann, Geraldine Zimmer
The delicate balance of excitation and inhibition is crucial for proper function of the cerebral cortex, relying on the accurate number and subtype composition of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-expressing interneurons. Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors precisely orchestrate their multifaceted development including the long-range migration from the basal telencephalon to cortical targets as well as interneuron survival throughout the developmental period. Particularly expressed guidance receptors were described to channel the migration of cortical interneurons deriving from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and the preoptic area (POA) along distinct routes...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Nadia M Fida, Mohammed Hassanien, Muhammad Shahid Shamim, Reem Alafari, Rania Zaini, Shagufta Mufti, Abdulmonem Al-Hayani, Mohammed Farouq, Hassan Al-Zahrani
BACKGROUND: Medical education has a longstanding tradition of using logbooks to record activities. The portfolio is an alternative tool to document competence and promote reflective practice. This study assessed the acceptance of portfolio use among Saudi undergraduate medical students. METHODS: Portfolios were introduced in the 2nd through 5th years at King Abdulaziz University over a two-year period (2013-2015). At the end of each academic year, students completed a mixed questionnaire that included a self-assessment of skills learned through the use of portfolio...
June 17, 2018: Medical Teacher
Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
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