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vigilance regulation model

Ulrich Hegerl, Tilman Hensch
Stimulants have been suggested as therapeutics in depression for 80 years now, but there is still no evidence from randomized controlled trials that stimulants, in general, possess specific antidepressant effects. Also, several recent large randomized controlled trials which tried to establish an indication for stimulants as add-on in depression failed, and the companies no longer proceed with regulatory filings. One reason why the common belief of an antidepressant effect has survived over decades is a lack of clarity in psychopathology...
January 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Janek Spada, Alexander Gross, Tilman Hensch, Philippe Jawinski, Christine Ulke, Christian Sander, Ulrich Hegerl
OBJECTIVES: The arousal regulation model of affective disorders attributes an important role in the pathophysiology of affective disorders to dysregulation of brain arousal regulation. According to this model, sensation avoidance and withdrawal in depression and sensation seeking and hyperactivity in mania can be explained as auto-regulatory attempts to counteract a tonically high (depression) or unstable (mania) arousal. The aim of this study was to compare brain arousal regulation between manic and depressive bipolar patients and healthy controls...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Elizabeth E Devore, Stephanie L Harrison, Katie L Stone, Kathleen F Holton, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kristine Yaffe, Kristine Ensrud, Peggy M Cawthon, Susan Redline, Eric Orwoll, Eva S Schernhammer
BACKGROUND: Circadian disruptions can contribute to accelerated aging, and the circadian system regulates cognitive and physical functions; therefore, circadian markers (eg, melatonin) may be associated with key aspects of healthy aging and longevity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate urinary melatonin levels in relation to cognitive function, physical function, and mortality among 2,821 older men in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study DESIGN: Cohort study. MEASUREMENTS: In 2003-2005, participants provided first-morning spot urine samples, which were assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (the primary melatonin metabolite in urine); cognitive and physical function assessments were completed twice, at baseline and an average of 6...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Kevin K Fuller, Robert A Cramer, Michael E Zegans, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
UNLABELLED: The given strain of Aspergillus fumigatus under study varies across laboratories, ranging from a few widely used "standards," e.g., Af293 or CEA10, to locally acquired isolates that may be unique to one investigator. Since experiments concerning physiology or gene function are seldom replicated by others, i.e., in a different A. fumigatus background, the extent to which behavioral heterogeneity exists within the species is poorly understood. As a proxy for assessing such intraspecies variability, we analyzed the light response of 15 A...
September 20, 2016: MBio
Stanislav V Rozov, Janneke C Zant, Kestutis Gurevicius, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Pertti Panula
AIM: Under natural conditions diurnal rhythms of biological processes of the organism are synchronized with each other and to the environmental changes by means of the circadian system. Disturbances of the latter affect hormonal levels, sleep-wakefulness cycle and cognitive performance. To study mechanisms of such perturbations animal models subjected to artificial photoperiods are often used. The goal of current study was to understand the effects of circadian rhythm disruption, caused by a short light-dark cycle regime, on activity of the cerebral cortex in rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
L An, X Han, H Li, Y Ma, L Shi, G Xu, G Yuan, J Sun, N Zhao, Y Sheng, M Wang, P Du
Cerebroprotein hydrolysate is an extract from porcine brain tissue that acts on the central nervous system in various ways to protect neurons and improve memory, attention, and vigilance. This study examined the effect and mechanism of cerebroprotein hydrolysate on learning and memory in mice with scopolamine-induced impairment. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine hydrobromide to establish a murine model of learning and memory impairment. After 35 successive days of cerebroprotein hydrolysate treatment, their behaviors were observed in the Morris water maze and step-down test...
July 25, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Marina Torre, Emilio Romanini
Medical devices (MD) registries are essentials to evaluate outcomes. They represent a key tool to support market surveillance and vigilance, being critical to identify and characterize the implants, assess their performance and trace patients in case of recall. Therefore, the recent "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on medical devices" asked both the Commission and the Member States to take all appropriate measures to encourage the establishment of registers for specific types of devices, setting common principles to collect comparable information...
May 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Christian Sander, Tilman Hensch, Dirk Alexander Wittekind, Daniel Böttger, Ulrich Hegerl
During the last few decades, much knowledge has been gained about sleep being a heterogeneous condition with several distinct sleep stages that represent fundamentally different physiological states. The same applies for the wake state which also comprises distinct global functional states (called vigilance stages). However, various terms and concepts have been introduced describing different aspects of wakefulness, and accordingly several methods of assessment exist, e.g. sleep laboratory assessments (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), behavioural tasks (Psychomotor Vigilance Test) or electroencephalography (EEG)-based assessments (Alpha Attenuation Test, Karolinska Drowsiness Test)...
2015: Neuropsychobiology
Carmen S Miguel, Paula A Martins, Nathalya Moleda, Margarete Klein, Tiffany Chaim-Avancini, Maria A Gobbo, Tania M Alves, Maria A Silva, Mario R Louzã
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbidity in adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However,there have been few studies on cognitive profiles of these patients. Impulsivity is also commonly increased in both disorders. The central aim of this study was to compare cognition and impulsivity in subjects who had ADHD and cocaine dependence (ADHD+COC group) to those with ADHD only (ADHD-noSUD group). We hypothesized that the ADHD+COC group would show more marked cognitive dysfunction and greater impulsivity than their counterparts with ADHD only...
March 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mathieu d'Acremont, Peter Bossaerts
Large-scale human interaction through, for example, financial markets causes ceaseless random changes in outcome variability, producing frequent and salient outliers that render the outcome distribution more peaked than the Gaussian distribution, and with longer tails. Here, we study how humans cope with this evolutionary novel leptokurtic noise, focusing on the neurobiological mechanisms that allow the brain, 1) to recognize the outliers as noise and 2) to regulate the control necessary for adaptive response...
April 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Philippe Jawinski, Christian Sander, Nicole Mauche, Janek Spada, Jue Huang, Anna Schmidt, Madlen Häntzsch, Ralph Burkhardt, Markus Scholz, Ulrich Hegerl, Tilman Hensch
OBJECTIVES: Recent genome-wide association studies identified a number of chromosomal risk loci for bipolar disorder (BD, 'manic-depressive illness'). According to the vigilance regulation model, the regulation of brain arousal (referred to as 'vigilance') when assessed via EEG is an emerging biomarker linked to the pathogenesis of manic and depressive episodes. On this basis, the present study aimed to assess whether carriers of BD risk alleles differ in brain arousal regulation. METHODS: Healthy participants of the population-based Leipzig Health Care Study (LIFE) underwent a 20-min eyes-closed resting EEG paradigm...
2015: Neuropsychobiology
Joris F G Haagen, Mirjam Moerbeek, Eelco Olde, Onno van der Hart, Rolf J Kleber
BACKGROUND: Childbirth can be a traumatic experience occasionally leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to assess childbirth-related PTSD risk-factors using an etiological model inspired by the transactional model of stress and coping. METHODS: 348 out of 505 (70%) Dutch women completed questionnaires during pregnancy, one week postpartum, and three months postpartum. A further 284 (56%) also completed questionnaires ten months postpartum...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Tim Klucken, Onno Kruse, Jan Schweckendiek, Rudolf Stark
The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive) coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fear stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers. In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS-) did not...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Régis Bordet
Humans have constantly sought to alleviate their existential anxieties, first resorting to substances found in their natural environment, and more recently, with the arrival of modern chemistry, using synthetic substances or medications. The substances used in this way are constantly renewing, warranting health surveillance and particular vigilance towards the addictive risk, given its major medical and social impact. This surveillance and vigilance requires detailed, accurate knowledge of the pharmacological and physio-pathological models involved in the emergence of the process of addiction, in particular disturbances of the systems regulating dopaminergic transfer; it also requires knowledge of the means to identify individual risk factors linked to genetic or psycho-behavioural susceptibilities...
March 2015: Thérapie
Cécile Verdier
A resolution of the Council of Europe in 2008 (ResAP (2008)1) helped to define requirements and criteria for the safety of tattoos and permanent make-up in order to increase the level of consumer health protection for these products. Tattoo product usage is not without risk. These products are injected into the skin and may represent a risk to human health due to possible microbiological contamination and/or contamination by the presence of hazardous substances in the products. ResAP (2008) laid the foundation for the safety of tattoo products in Europe...
2015: Current Problems in Dermatology
Siamak Sorooshyari, Ramón Huerta, Luis de Lecea
Identifying the neuronal circuits and dynamics of sleep-to-wake transition is essential to understanding brain regulation of behavioral states, including sleep-wake cycles, arousal, and hyperarousal. Recent work by different laboratories has used optogenetics to determine the role of individual neuromodulators in state transitions. The optogenetically driven data do not yet provide a multi-dimensional schematic of the mechanisms underlying changes in vigilance states. This work presents a modeling framework to interpret, assist, and drive research on the sleep-regulatory network...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Namni Goel, Mathias Basner, David F Dinges
The two-process model of sleep-wake regulation posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep) and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive...
2015: Methods in Enzymology
Pascal Ravassard, Al Mahdy Hamieh, Gaël Malleret, Paul-Antoine Salin
Memory consolidation is the process for long-term storage of information and protection against interferences. It has been proposed that long-term potentiation (LTP), the long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission, is a cellular model for memory consolidation. Since consolidation of several forms of memory is facilitated by paradoxical sleep (PS) we ask whether PS modulates the cellular and molecular pathways underlying LTP. The long-lasting form of LTP (L-LTP) is dependent on the activation of transcription factors, enzymatic cascades and the secreted neurotrophin BDNF...
July 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Stephen Grossberg
This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony...
September 24, 2015: Brain Research
M F Scriba, N C Rattenborg, A N Dreiss, A L Vyssotski, A Roulin
Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts...
October 2014: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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