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exosomes inflammation fibrosis liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145157/bmscs-derived-mir-223-containing-exosomes-contribute-to-liver-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-hepatitis
#1
Lu Chen, Feng-Bin Lu, Da-Zhi Chen, Jin-Lu Wu, En-de Hu, Lan-Man Xu, Ming-Hua Zheng, Hui Li, Yu Huang, Xiao-Ya Jin, Yue-Wen Gong, Zhuo Lin, Xiao-Dong Wang, Yong-Ping Chen
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease in the liver with potential to the development of liver fibrosis. Recent evidences suggest that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may exert its therapeutic activity through exosomes. Moreover, miR-223 is highly expressed in BMSCs and plays an important role in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, in this study, hepatoprotective role of BMSCs and miR-223 was investigated in both mice and hepatocytes. Liver antigen S100 was used to establish autoimmune hepatitis model in mice while LPS and ATP were used to establish cell injury model in hepatocyte...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933629/ezetimibe-ameliorates-steatohepatitis-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-tfeb-mediated-activation-of-autophagy-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibition
#2
Soo Hyun Kim, Gyuri Kim, Dai Hoon Han, Milim Lee, Irene Kim, Bohkyung Kim, Kook Hwan Kim, Young-Mi Song, Jeong Eun Yoo, Hye Jin Wang, Soo Han Bae, Yong-Ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Myung-Shik Lee
Impairment in macroautophagy/autophagy flux and inflammasome activation are common characteristics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considering the lack of approved agents for treating NASH, drugs that can enhance autophagy and modulate inflammasome pathways may be beneficial. Here, we investigated the novel mechanism of ezetimibe, a widely prescribed drug for hypercholesterolemia, as a therapeutic option for ameliorating NASH. Human liver samples with steatosis and NASH were analyzed. For in vitro studies of autophagy and inflammasomes, primary mouse hepatocytes, human hepatoma cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts with Ampk or Tsc2 knockout, and human or primary mouse macrophages were treated with ezetimibe and palmitate...
October 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620221/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-liver-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Guohua Lou, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
The administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapy for liver disease holds great promise. MSCs can differentiate into hepatocytes, reduce liver inflammation, promote hepatic regeneration and secrete protective cytokines. However, the risks of iatrogenic tumor formation, cellular rejection and infusional toxicity in MSC transplantation remain unresolved. Accumulating evidence now suggests that a novel cell-free therapy, MSC-secreted exosomes, might constitute a compelling alternative because of their advantages over the corresponding MSCs...
June 16, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939970/hepatic-sinusoids-in-liver-injury-inflammation-and-fibrosis-new-pathophysiological-insights
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Greuter, Vijay H Shah
Changes of hepatic sinusoids are crucial in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Liver injury leads to distinct morphological abnormalities such as loss of sinusoidal fenestration, vasoconstriction, and angiogenesis as well as molecular changes. Communication between the two key cells in this hepatic microenvironment-hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC)-has been studied for many years and several canonical pathways have been elucidated, such as decreased eNOS activity or increased PDGF and TGF-β production leading to activation and migration of HSC...
June 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23152743/comprehensive-mirna-expression-analysis-in-peripheral-blood-can-diagnose-liver-disease
#5
Yoshiki Murakami, Hidenori Toyoda, Toshihito Tanahashi, Junko Tanaka, Takashi Kumada, Yusuke Yoshioka, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Takahiro Ochiya, Y-h Taguchi
BACKGROUND: miRNAs circulating in the blood in a cell-free form have been acknowledged for their potential as readily accessible disease markers. Presently, histological examination is the golden standard for diagnosing and grading liver disease, therefore non-invasive options are desirable. Here, we investigated if miRNA expression profile in exosome rich fractionated serum could be useful for determining the disease parameters in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODOLOGY: Exosome rich fractionated RNA was extracted from the serum of 64 CHC and 24 controls with normal liver (NL)...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23002959/exosomes-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-liver-fibrosis
#6
Tingfen Li, Yongmin Yan, Bingying Wang, Hui Qian, Xu Zhang, Li Shen, Mei Wang, Ying Zhou, Wei Zhu, Wei Li, Wenrong Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as an attractive tool for the therapy of diseases. Exosomes excreted from MSCs can reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage and protect against acute tubular injury. However, whether MSC-derived exosomes can relieve liver fibrosis and its mechanism remain unknown. Previous work showed that human umbilical cord-MSCs (hucMSCs) transplanted into acutely injured and fibrotic livers could restore liver function and improve liver fibrosis. In this study, it was found that transplantation of exosomes derived from hucMSC (hucMSC-Ex) reduced the surface fibrous capsules and got their textures soft, alleviated hepatic inflammation and collagen deposition in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrotic liver...
March 15, 2013: Stem Cells and Development
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