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cotinine, memory

Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake in its Funding inforation. That is, the Grant Number has an error currently read as "This work was supported by the Fondo de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT) de Chile, Grant #1150149".
April 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Cristhian Mendoza, Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Florencia Echeverria, Alexandre Iarkov, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
Failure in fear extinction is one of the more troublesome characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cotinine facilitates fear memory extinction and reduces depressive-like behavior when administered 24 h after fear conditioning in mice. In this study, it was investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of cotinine, and other antidepressant preparations infused intranasally. Intranasal (IN) cotinine, IN krill oil, IN cotinine plus krill oil, and oral sertraline were evaluated on depressive-like behavior and fear retention and extinction after fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sarah-Grace Glennon, Tania Huedo-Medina, Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mark D Litt, Valerie B Duffy
Introduction: Population-based studies show inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function. We aimed to identify direct and indirect associations between measures of smoking exposure/nicotine dependence and altered olfaction in a nationally-representative sample of adults. Methods: NHANES 2011-2014 (n=7,418) participants (mean age=57.8±12.2 years) self-reported olfaction and related health and demographic risks. Affirmative answers to three questions defined altered olfaction (olfactory problems in past year; worse ability since age 25; phantom smells)...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Cristhian Mendoza, Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Florencia Echeverria, J Alex Grizzell, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Valentina Echeverria
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
J Alex Grizzell, Sagar Patel, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lisa J Germeroth, Matthew J Carpenter, Nathaniel L Baker, Brett Froeliger, Steven D LaRowe, Michael E Saladin
Importance: Recent research on addiction-related memory processes suggests that protracted extinction training following brief cue-elicited memory retrieval (ie, retrieval-extinction [R-E] training) can attenuate/eradicate the ability of cues to elicit learned behaviors. One study reported that cue-elicited craving among detoxified heroin addicts was substantially attenuated following R-E training and through 6-month follow-up. Objective: To build on these impressive findings by examining whether R-E training could attenuate smoking-related craving and behavior...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Marta Pardo, Eleonore Beurel, Richard S Jope
Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and has displayed some capacity for improving cognition in mouse models following chronic administration. We tested if acute cotinine treatment is capable of improving cognition in the mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, Fmr1-/- knockout mice, and if this is related to inhibition by cotinine treatment of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which is abnormally active in Fmr1-/- mice. Acute cotinine treatment increased the inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3β and the activating phosphorylation of AKT, which can mediate serine-phosphorylation of GSK3β, in both wild-type and Fmr1-/- mouse hippocampus...
February 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alexandre Iarkov, Doreen Appunn, Valentina Echeverria
PURPOSE: Most cancer patients treated with systemic adjuvant chemotherapy endure long-lasting side effects including decrease in concentration, forgetfulness and slower thinking, which are globally termed "chemobrain." Cotinine, the main derivative of nicotine, improved visual and spatial working memory and decreased depressive-like behavior in an animal model of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of cotinine on weight gain, locomotor activity, cognitive abilities and depressive-like behavior in rats treated with the chemotherapy mix, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil...
November 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Natasha E Wright, Judith A Strong, Erika R Gilbart, Skyler G Shollenbarger, Krista M Lisdahl
OBJECTIVE: Ecstasy use is associated with memory deficits. Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms have been linked with memory function in healthy samples. The present pilot study investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on memory performance in ecstasy users, marijuana-using controls, and non-drug-using controls, after a minimum of 7 days of abstinence. METHOD: Data were collected from 116 young adults (18-25 years-old), including 45 controls, 42 marijuana users, and 29 ecstasy users, and were balanced for 5-HTTLPR genotype...
2015: PloS One
George E Barreto, Alexander Yarkov, Marcos Avila-Rodriguez, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after experiencing trauma. Actual therapies do not help majority of patients with PTSD. Moreover, extinguished fear memories usually reappear in the individuals when exposed to trauma cues. New drugs to reduce the impact of conditioned cues in eliciting abnormal fear responses are urgently required. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, decreased anxiety and depressive-like behavior, and enhanced fear extinction in mouse models of PTSD...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
L Ponzoni, M Moretti, M Sala, F Fasoli, V Mucchietto, V Lucini, G Cannazza, G Gallesi, C N Castellana, F Clementi, M Zoli, C Gotti, D Braida
Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks...
October 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
George E Barreto, Alexander Iarkov, Valentina Echeverria Moran
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD...
2014: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alvin V Terry, Patrick M Callahan, Daniel Bertrand
The nicotine metabolite cotinine (1-methyl-5-[3-pyridynl]-2-pyrrolidinone), like its precursor, has been found to exhibit procognitive and neuroprotective effects in some model systems; however, the mechanism of these effects is unknown. In this study, both the R-(+) and S-(-) isomers of cotinine were initially evaluated in an extensive profiling screen and found to be relatively inactive across a wide range of potential pharmacologic targets. Electrophysiological studies on human α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes confirmed the absence of agonistic activity of cotinine at α4β2 or α7 nAChRs...
February 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
James Loughead, E Paul Wileyto, Kosha Ruparel, Mary Falcone, Ryan Hopson, Ruben Gur, Caryn Lerman
Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed...
May 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sagar Patel, J Alex Grizzell, Rosalee Holmes, Ross Zeitlin, Rosalynn Solomon, Thomas L Sutton, Adeeb Rohani, Laura C Charry, Alexandre Iarkov, Takashi Mori, Valentina Echeverria Moran
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms for which there are currently no effective therapies. We have previously reported that cotinine, a natural product obtained from tobacco leaves, prevented memory loss and diminished amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque pathology in transgenic 6799 mice (Tg6799 mice) when treated prior to the development of the pathology. We have also shown that cotinine reduces depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed C57BL/6 mice. Here, we extend our previous studies by investigating the effects of cotinine on the progression of AD-like pathology, depressive-like behavior, and the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects in Tg6799 mice when left untreated until after a more advanced stage of the disease's development...
2014: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
J Alex Grizzell, Valentina Echeverria
Tobacco consumption is far higher among a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, supporting the notion that some component(s) of tobacco may underlie the oft-reported reduction in associated symptoms during tobacco use. Popular dogma holds that this component is nicotine. However, increasing evidence support theories that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, may underlie at least some of nicotine's actions in the nervous system, apart from its adverse cardiovascular and habit forming effects...
October 2015: Neurochemical Research
J Alex Grizzell, Alexandre Iarkov, Rosalee Holmes, Takahashi Mori, Valentina Echeverria
Chronic stress underlies and/or exacerbates many psychiatric conditions and often results in memory impairment as well as depressive symptoms. Such afflicted individuals use tobacco more than the general population and this has been suggested as a form of self-medication. Cotinine, the predominant metabolite of nicotine, may underlie such behavior as it has been shown to ameliorate anxiety and memory loss in animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of cotinine on working memory and depressive-like behavior in mice subjected to prolonged restraint...
July 15, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Kristin M Wildeboer-Andrud, Lijun Zheng, Kevin S Choo, Karen E Stevens
Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, has produced improved learning and memory in rodents and non-human primates and corrects apomorphine-induced loss of pre-pulse startle inhibition in rats. The present study assessed cotinine, both acute and chronic (7-day), in the sensory inhibition paradigm in DBA/2 mice. These mice spontaneously show a deficit in hippocampal sensory inhibition, as assessed by the P20-N40 EEG paradigm, which models the deficit observed in schizophrenia patients. Anesthetized DBA/2 mice were recorded in the CA3 region of hippocampus for inhibition of paired, identical auditory stimuli, then administered cotinine (0...
February 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Peter Kochunov, Xiaoming Du, Lauren V Moran, Hemalatha Sampath, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Yihong Yang, Laura M Rowland, Elliot A Stein, L Elliot Hong
INTRODUCTION: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are present in the cerebral white matter (WM). We hypothesized that WM response to nicotine can be detected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); and that such responses may be associated with nicotine-led cognitive enhancement in sustained attention. METHODS: A randomized, nicotine-placebo patch, crossover, double-blind clinical trial in two non-overlapping cohorts of smokers was used to test the hypothesis. The discovery cohort consisted of 39 subjects (N = 20/19 controls/schizophrenic patients, age = 36...
2013: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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