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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927674/physical-performance-and-physical-activity-of-patients-under-compulsory-forensic-psychiatric-inpatient-care
#1
Henrik Bergman, Thomas Nilsson, Peter Andiné, Alessio Degl'Innocenti, Roland Thomeé, Annelie Gutke
Research stresses the importance of physical activity in general psychiatric care. There is very little research made in the area of forensic psychiatric care. The aim of this exploratory, cross-sectional study was to assess various physical, psychological, and health variables of patients under compulsory forensic psychiatric inpatient care, and to examine correlations among these variables. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), walking ability, running speed, and explosive leg strength were examined in 28 patients...
June 21, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907844/insulin-suppression-of-fatty-acid-skeletal-muscle-enzyme-activity-in-postmenopausal-women-and-improvements-in-metabolic-flexibility-and-lipoprotein-lipase-with-aerobic-exercise-and-weight-loss
#2
Alice S Ryan, Heidi K Ortmeyer
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are characterized by metabolic inflexibility, a condition described as an inability to switch from fat oxidation during fasting to carbohydrate oxidation during hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of metabolic flexibility in 103 obese (37-59% fat), sedentary (VO2 max: 19.4 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min), postmenopausal (45-76 years) women, and changes in metabolic flexibility with exercise and weight loss interventions...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899197/profiling-the-metabolic-fitness-of-a-special-operations-police-unit
#3
Danny Maupin, Jeremy Robinson, Thomas Wills, Shane Irving, Ben Schram, Rob Orr
OBJECTIVES: Fitness is essential to specialist police forces, who have higher occupational demands than general police, and vital to performance and mission success. However, little research has been done profiling the metabolic fitness of these units and how they compare to other populations. The objective of this study was to profile the aerobic fitness of a specialist police unit. METHODS: Body weight was measured to account for any impact on metabolic fitness, while VO2 max was estimated via number of shuttles completed on the 20m Progressive Shuttle Run Test (PSRT) (n=47) on two dates one calendar year apart...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896844/effects-of-6-months-supervised-physical-training-on-muscle-strength-and-aerobic-capacity-in-patients-undergoing-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
L H Mundbjerg, C R Stolberg, E-M Bladbjerg, P Funch-Jensen, C B Juhl, B Gram
Obesity and physical inactivity are major health problems. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces obesity-related morbidity and mortality. Physical activity lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. The aims of this study were to elucidate the effects of RYGB followed by 6 months of supervised physical training on physical capacity. In a randomized controlled trial, 60 participants eligible for RYGB were randomized 6 months post-surgery to either two weekly physical training sessions for 26 weeks (INT) or a control group (CON)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870678/metabolic-flexibility-to-lipid-availability-during-exercise-is-enhanced-in-individuals-with-high-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Sudip Bajpeyi, Eric Ravussin, José E Galgani
Metabolic flexibility to lipid (MetFlex-lip) is the capacity to adapt lipid oxidation to lipid availability. Hypothetically, impaired MetFlex-lip in skeletal muscle induces accumulation of lipid metabolites that interfere insulin signaling. Our aim was to compare MetFlex-lip during exercise in subjects with low (Low_IS) vs. high (High_IS) insulin sensitivity. Twenty healthy men were designated as Low_IS or High_IS based on the median of the HOMA-IR. Groups had similar age, BMI and VO2 max. Subjects cycled at 50% VO2max until expending 650 kcal...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860513/metabolic-costs-of-military-load-carriage-over-complex-terrain
#6
David P Looney, William R Santee, Anthony J Karis, Laurie A Blanchard, Maxwell N Rome, Alyssa J Carter, Adam W Potter
Introduction: Dismounted military operations often involve prolonged load carriage over complex terrain, which can result in excessive metabolic costs that can directly impair soldiers' performance. Although estimating these demands is a critical interest for mission planning purposes, it is unclear whether existing estimation equations developed from controlled laboratory- and field-based studies accurately account for energy costs of traveling over complex terrain. This study investigated the accuracy of the following equations for military populations when applied to data collected over complex terrain with two different levels of load carriage: American College of Sports Medicine (2002), Givoni and Goldman (1971), Jobe and White (2009), Minetti et al (2002), Pandolf et al (1977), and Santee et al (2003)...
May 31, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858464/effects-of-frequency-intensity-duration-and-volume-of-walking-interventions-on-cvd-risk-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials-among-inactive-healthy-adults
#7
Pekka Oja, Paul Kelly, Elaine M Murtagh, Marie H Murphy, Charlie Foster, Sylvia Titze
OBJECTIVE: Walking interventions in healthy populations show clinically relevant improvements for many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We aimed to assess the changes in CVD risk factors and the dose-response relationship between frequency, intensity, duration and volume of walking and cardiovascular risk factors based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs). DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Four electronic databases searched from January 1971 to April 2017...
June 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851229/six-minute-walk-test-a-tool-for-predicting-maximal-aerobic-power-vo-2-max-in-healthy-adults
#8
Ari Mänttäri, Jaana Suni, Harri Sievänen, Pauliina Husu, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Heli Valkeinen, Kari Tokola, Tommi Vasankari
BACKGROUND: The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is cost-effective and well-documented field test for assessing functional exercise capacity and response to medical interventions in diverse patient groups, and predicting cardiorespiratory fitness among healthy people. OBJECTIVE: Assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) have great potential in public health monitoring to predict future health, early retirement and ability to independent living...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851089/effects-of-selective-breeding-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-behavior-on-femoral-nutrient-canal-size-and-abundance-in-house-mice
#9
Nicolas L Schwartz, Biren A Patel, Theodore Garland, Angela M Horner
Bone modeling and remodeling are aerobic processes that entail relatively high oxygen demands. Long bones receive oxygenated blood from nutrient arteries, epiphyseal-metaphyseal arteries, and periosteal arteries, with the nutrient artery supplying the bulk of total blood volume in mammals (~ 50-70%). Estimates of blood flow into these bones can be made from the dimensions of the nutrient canal, through which nutrient arteries pass. Unfortunately, measuring these canal dimensions non-invasively (i.e. without physical sectioning) is difficult, and thus researchers have relied on more readily visible skeletal proxies...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850168/non-intubated-anaesthetic-technique-in-open-bilobectomy-in-a-patient-with-severely-impaired-lung-function
#10
Zsolt Szabó, Tamás Tanczos, Gábor Lebak, Zsolt Molnár, József Furák
General anaesthesia has been the most commonly used method for almost all types of thoracic surgery. Recently, there has been a growing interest in non-intubated anaesthetic techniques. The rationale being, to prevent complications related to general anaesthesia and positive pressure ventilation such as barotrauma or ventilation-perfusion mismatch. We present a case with severely impaired forced expiration volume (26%), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (26%) and VO2 max (13.9 mL/kg/min). According to current guidelines, this patient was suitable to undergo one-lung ventilation only with high risk of morbidity and mortality...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808101/clinical-and-functional-characteristics-of-subjects-with-asthma-copd-and-asthma-copd-overlap-a-multicentre-study-in-vietnam
#11
Sy Duong-Quy, Huong Tran Van, Anh Vo Thi Kim, Quyen Pham Huy, Timothy J Craig
Introduction: Subjects with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) share common features of patients with asthma and COPD. Our study was planned to describe the clinical and functional features of subjects with ACO compared to asthma and COPD patients. Subjects and Methods: Study subjects who met the inclusion criteria were classified into three different groups: asthma, COPD, and ACO groups. All study subjects underwent clinical examination and biological and functional testing...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807719/improving-running-economy-by-transitioning-to-minimalist-footwear-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
K Lindlein, A Zech, A Zoch, K-M Braumann, K Hollander
OBJECTIVES: Ongoing debates about benefits and risks of barefoot- and minimally-shod running have, to date, revealed no conclusive findings for long-term effects on physical performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week transition to minimalist footwear (MFW) on running economy (RE). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Thirty-two male, habitually-shod runners were assigned randomly to an 8-week training intervention either in minimalist (=intervention group) or conventional running shoes (=control group)...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795728/effects-of-single-dose-dietary-nitrate-on-oxygen-consumption-during-and-after-maximal-and-submaximal-exercise-in-healthy-humans-a-pilot-study
#13
Genevieve M Kocoloski, Anne R Crecelius
Dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) has been shown to reduce oxygen consumption (VO2 ) during moderate to high-intensity (e.g. time to fatigue, time trials) exercise and often in trained athletes. However, less is known regarding prolonged exercise and the potential impact of NO3 - on post-exercise excess oxygen consumption (EPOC), particularly in untrained individuals, who may have different metabolic goals during exercise than trained individuals. We tested the hypothesis that acute nitrate supplementation in the form of beet root juice will significantly decrease both VO2 during maximal exercise and EPOC in both maximal and submaximal exercise trials...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794298/exercise-does-not-produce-hypoalgesia-when-performed-immediately-after-a-painful-stimulus
#14
Hannah Gajsar, Katharina Nahrwold, Christina Titze, Monika I Hasenbring, Henrik B Vaegter
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) are assumed to reflect descending pain inhibition. Potential interactions between EIH and CPM may be important in the therapy of chronic pain, as reduced CPM and increased pain after exercise are frequently observed. This study compared the EIH response after CPM was activated using a cold pressor task with the EIH response after a control condition. METHODS: Thirty-one participants (age: 27...
April 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791970/effect-of-high-intensity-resistance-circuit-based-training-in-hypoxia-on-aerobic-performance-and-repeat-sprint-ability
#15
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Guillermo Olcina, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Francisco J Martínez-Noguera, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent acute studies have shown that high-intensity resistance circuit-based (HRC) training in hypoxia increases metabolic stress. However, no intervention studies have yet proven their effectiveness. This study aimed to analyse the effect of 8 weeks of HRC in hypoxia on aerobic performance, resting energy expenditure (REE), repeat sprint ability (RSA) and haematological variables. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to hypoxia (FiO2 =15%; HRChyp : n=15; age: 24.6±6.8 years; height: 177.4±5.9 cm; weight: 74...
May 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785884/morphological-changes-and-myocardial-function-assessed-by-traditional-and-novel-echocardiographic-methods-in-preadolescent-athlete-s-heart
#16
Anders W Bjerring, Hege Ew Landgraff, Svein Leirstein, Anette Aaeng, Hamza Z Ansari, Jørg Saberniak, Klaus Murbræch, Henrik Bruun, Thomas M Stokke, Kristina H Haugaa, Jostein Hallén, Thor Edvardsen, Sebastian I Sarvari
Background Athlete's heart is a term used to describe the morphological and functional changes in the hearts of athletes. Recent studies suggest that these changes may occur even in preadolescent athletes. This study aims to improve our understanding of the changes occurring in the preadolescent athlete's heart. Design and methods Cardiac morphology and function in 76 preadolescent cross-country skiers (aged 12.1 ± 0.2 years) were compared with 25 age-matched non-competing preadolescents. Echocardiography was performed in all subjects, including 2D speckle-tracking strain echocardiography and 3D echocardiography...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785255/feasibility-of-high-intensity-training-in-asthma
#17
L L Toennesen, E D Soerensen, M Hostrup, C Porsbjerg, J Bangsbo, V Backer
Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)...
2018: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784526/the-effect-of-glutamine-supplementation-on-athletic-performance-body-composition-and-immune-function-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-trials
#18
Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi, Elham Rayyani, Mehdi Bahreini, Anahita Mansoori
BACKGROUND & AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence was conducted to obtain a conclusive result on the effects of glutamine supplementation on athletes. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data related to body mass, lean body mass, body fat percentage, Vo2 max, lymphocytes, leukocytes and neutrophil counts were extracted to determine the effects of GLN on performance outcomes. DATA SOURCES: The literature search was conducted across the databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, SID (Scientific Information Database) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, covering a period up to January 2017...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777847/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-limitation-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#19
Zulfiqar Qutrio Baloch, Shabber Agha Abbas, Luke Marone, Abbas Ali
OBJECTIVE: PAD is associated with a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and remains under-recognized and under-treated. New screening approaches are needed to prevent disability in patients with PAD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinically stable cardiovascular patients who were referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) due to a variety of cardiovascular complaints. Amongst patients who prematurely terminated CPET, their available angiograms were assessed...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770745/2706-km-cycling-in-two-weeks-effects-on-cardiac-function-in-six-elderly-male-athletes
#20
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Nick Mattsson, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Hanne K Rasmusen
INTRODUCTION: Physiological effects of exercise on trained and untrained individuals have been studied extensively. Typically, young or middle-aged individuals are examined before and after short periods of vigorous exertion. METHODS: We studied six elderly male athletes (61±8 years (mean ± SD); baseline VO2 max 48±5 ml·kg-1 · min-1 ) with focus on cardiac function and biomarkers following 14 consecutive days of moderate intensity exercise. Cardiac dimensions, function, biomarkers, and other measures of cardiovascular health were examined at baseline and 2 and 28 h after the last day of cycling a total of 2706 km...
May 17, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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