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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335846/cotinine-a-therapy-for-memory-extinction-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#2
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319910/reversal-of-mecamylamine-induced-effects-in-healthy-subjects-by-nicotine-receptor-agonists-cognitive-and-electro-physiological-responses
#3
Ricardo Alvarez-Jimenez, Ellen P Hart, Samantha Prins, Marieke de Kam, Joop M A van Gerven, Adam F Cohen, Geert Jan Groeneveld
AIM: Establishing a pharmacologic challenge model could yield an important tool to understand the complex role of the nicotinic cholinergic system in cognition and to develop novel compounds acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, four way cross-over study examined the effects of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine on a battery of cognitive and neurophysiologic test with co-administration of a placebo, nicotine or galantamine in order to reverse the cognitive impairment caused by mecamylamine...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276477/cholinergic-modulation-of-cortical-microcircuits-is-layer-specific-evidence-from-rodent-monkey-and-human-brain
#4
REVIEW
Joshua Obermayer, Matthijs B Verhoog, Antonio Luchicchi, Huibert D Mansvelder
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling shapes neuronal circuit development and underlies specific aspects of cognitive functions and behaviors, including attention, learning, memory and motivation. During behavior, activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) by ACh alters the activation state of neurons, and neuronal circuits most likely process information differently with elevated levels of ACh. In several brain regions, ACh has been shown to alter synaptic strength as well. By changing the rules for synaptic plasticity, ACh can have prolonged effects on and rearrange connectivity between neurons that outlasts its presence...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275158/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-admet-profiling-and-in-vivo-pharmacodynamic-investigations-of-a-selective-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-with-a-spirocyclic-%C3%AE-2-isoxazoline-molecular-skeleton
#5
Carlo Matera, Giulio Dondio, Daniela Braida, Luisa Ponzoni, Marco De Amici, Mariaelvina Sala, Clelia Dallanoce
(±)-3-Methoxy-1-oxa-2,7-diaza-7,10-ethanospiro[4.5]dec-2-ene sesquifumarate (±)-1 was previously characterized as the most selective agonist at α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a series of spirocyclic quinuclidinyl-Δ2-isoxazoline derivatives. In this study, we performed different in vitro biological assays aimed at characterizing the ADMET properties of (±)-1. Then, we tested the compound in vivo in behavioral studies including classical novel object recognition and inhibitory avoidance tests in the rat, and a spatial memory assay in zebrafish involving a rapid T-maze task...
December 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#6
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#7
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203303/interactive-effects-of-morphine-and-nicotine-on-memory-function-depend-on-the-central-amygdala-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-function-in-rats
#8
Fatemeh Tirgar, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Nima Yazdanbakhsh
The present study investigated the possible involvement of the central amygdala (CeA) cannabinoid receptors type-1 (CB1Rs) in the interactive effects of morphine and nicotine on memory formation in a passive avoidance learning task. Our results showed that systemic administration of morphine (3 and 6mg/kg, s.c.) immediately after training phase impaired memory consolidation and induced amnesia. Administration of nicotine (0.3 and 0.6mg/kg, s.c.) before testing phase significantly restored morphine-induced amnesia, suggesting a cross state-dependent learning between morphine and nicotine...
December 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193459/neuropeptide-cart-prevents-memory-loss-attributed-to-withdrawal-of-nicotine-following-chronic-treatment-in-mice
#9
Chandrashekhar D Borkar, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although chronic nicotine administration does not affect memory, its withdrawal causes massive cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been understood. We test the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), a neuropeptide known for its procognitive properties, in this process. The mice on chronic nicotine treatment/withdrawal were subjected to novel object recognition task. The capability of the animal to discriminate between the novel and familiar objects was tested and represented as discrimination index (DI); reduction in the index suggested amnesia...
November 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188772/enriched-environment-palliates-nicotine-induced-addiction-and-associated-neurobehavioral-deficits-in-rats
#10
Amber Nawaz, Zehra Batool, Saara Ahmed, Saiqa Tabassum, Saima Khaliq, Bushra Jabeen Mehdi, Irfan Sajid, Shoaib Ahmad, Sadia Saleem, Fizza Naqvi, Faizan Naqvi, Saida Haider
This study was designed to investigate the role of enriched environment in preventing and/or reducing the neurobehavioral deficits produced after nicotine administration in albino Wistar rats. Equal numbers of rat in two groups were either placed in social environment (control group) or social along with physically enriched environment for four weeks before the administration of nicotine. Exposure to different environmental conditions was followed by the intraperitoneal injection of nicotine at the dose of 0...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185837/effects-of-negative-affect-urge-to-smoke-and-working-memory-performance-n-back-on-nicotine-dependence
#11
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175709/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-specific-agonist-dmxba-gts-21-attenuates-a%C3%AE-accumulation-through-suppression-of-neuronal-%C3%AE-secretase-activity-and-promotion-of-microglial-amyloid-%C3%AE-phagocytosis-and-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of
#12
Kazuyuki Takata, Takahide Amamiya, Hiroaki Mizoguchi, Shohei Kawanishi, Eriko Kuroda, Risa Kitamura, Aina Ito, Yuki Saito, Manami Tawa, Tomofumi Nagasawa, Haruka Okamoto, Yuko Sugino, Shigehiko Takegami, Tatsuya Kitade, Yuki Toda, William R Kem, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Shun Shimohama, Eishi Ashihara
We previously demonstrated that stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases amyloid-β (Aβ) phagocytosis in rat microglia and is closely associated with the decrease of brain Aβ and amelioration of memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examined the subtypes of nAChRs involved in these beneficial effects. In primary cultures of rat microglia, the α7 nAChR selective agonist 3-[(2,4-dimethoxy)benzylidene]-anabaseine dihydrochloride (DMXBA) promoted Aβ and fluorescent latex bead phagocytosis, whereas selective α7 nAChR antagonists suppressed the enhanced Aβ phagocytosis...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175423/tropisetron-enhances-recognition-memory-in-rats-chronically-treated-with-risperidone-or-quetiapine
#13
Indrani Poddar, Patrick M Callahan, Caterina M Hernandez, Xiangkun Yang, Michael G Bartlett, Alvin V Terry
While impairments of cognition in schizophrenia have the greatest impact on long-term functional outcome, the currently prescribed treatments, antipsychotic drugs (APDs), do not effectively improve cognition. Moreover, while more than 20 years have been devoted to the development of new drugs to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, none have been approved to date. One area that has not been given proper attention at the preclinical or clinical stage of drug development is the chronic medication history of the test subject...
November 23, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167670/the-cholinergic-system-modulates-memory-and-hippocampal-plasticity-via-its-interactions-with-non-neuronal-cells
#14
REVIEW
Sara V Maurer, Christina L Williams
Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer's disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163051/young-human-cholinergic-neurons-respond-to-physiological-regulators-and-improve-cognitive-symptoms-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Annamaria Morelli, Erica Sarchielli, Giulia Guarnieri, Elisabetta Coppi, Daniela Pantano, Paolo Comeglio, Pamela Nardiello, Anna M Pugliese, Lara Ballerini, Rosanna Matucci, Stefano Ambrosini, Giuseppe Castronovo, Rosa Valente, Benedetta Mazzanti, Sandra Bucciantini, Mario Maggi, Fiorella Casamenti, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella B Vannelli
The degeneration of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) in the basal forebrain (BF) is associated to the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date no resolutive therapies exist. Cell-based replacement therapy is a strategy currently under consideration, although the mechanisms underlying the generation of stem cell-derived NBM cholinergic neurons able of functional integration remain to be clarified. Since fetal brain is an optimal source of neuronal cells committed towards a specific phenotype, this study is aimed at isolating cholinergic neurons from the human fetal NBM (hfNBMs) in order to study their phenotypic, maturational and functional properties...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131336/molecular-function-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptors-as-drug-targets
#16
Cecilia Bouzat, Matías Lasala, Beatriz Elizabeth Nielsen, Jeremías Corradi, María Del Carmen Esandi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In vertebrates, there are seventeen different nAChR subunits that combine to yield a variety of receptors with different pharmacology, function, and localization. The homomeric α7 receptor is one of the most abundant nAChRs in the nervous system and it is also present in non-neuronal cells. It plays important roles in cognition, memory, pain, neuroprotection, and inflammation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#17
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121272/chronic-cigarette-smoking-associates-directly-and-indirectly-with-self-reported-olfactory-alterations-analysis-of-the-2011-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#18
Sarah-Grace Glennon, Tania Huedo-Medina, Shristi Rawal, Howard J Hoffman, Mark D Litt, Valerie B Duffy
Introduction: Population-based studies show inconsistent effects of cigarette smoking on olfactory function. We aimed to identify direct and indirect associations between measures of smoking exposure/nicotine dependence and altered olfaction in a nationally-representative sample of adults. Methods: NHANES 2011-2014 (n=7,418) participants (mean age=57.8±12.2 years) self-reported olfaction and related health and demographic risks. Affirmative answers to three questions defined altered olfaction (olfactory problems in past year; worse ability since age 25; phantom smells)...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116867/the-effects-of-smoking-abstinence-on-incentivized-spatial-working-memory
#19
Charles Geier, Nicole Roberts, David Lydon-Staley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reward processing and working memory (WM) underlie value-based decision-making; consequently, joint examination of these systems may further our understanding of why smokers choose to smoke again following a quit attempt (relapse). While previous studies have demonstrated altered reward and WM function associated with nicotine exposure, little is known about the effects of abstinence on the joint function of these systems. The current study aims to address this gap...
November 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110618/cognitive-effects-of-nicotine-recent-progress
#20
Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Cigarette smoking is the main cause of preventable death in developed countries. Given the limited effectiveness of currently available treatments, there is a great need to identify new treatment approaches for tobacco use disorder (TUD). While the direct positive behavioral reinforcing effect of nicotine has historically been considered the primary mechanism driving the development of TUD, accumulating contemporary research suggests that the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine may also significantly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of TUD, especially in individuals with pre-existing cognitive deficits...
November 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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