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nicotine, memory

Piotr Tutka, Maria W Kondrat-Wróbel, Katarzyna Zaluska, Dorota Żółkowska, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
BACKGROUND: Cytisine (CYT) is a partial agonist of brain α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors widely used in Central/Eastern Europe for smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of CYT on the ability of classical and novel antiepileptic drugs to prevent seizures evoked by the 6-Hz test, a model of psychomotor seizures in mice thought as a model of drug-resistant seizures. RESULTS: CYT administered intraperitoneally (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Marta Pardo, Eleonore Beurel, Richard S Jope
Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine and has displayed some capacity for improving cognition in mouse models following chronic administration. We tested if acute cotinine treatment is capable of improving cognition in the mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, Fmr1(-/-) knockout mice, and if this is related to inhibition by cotinine treatment of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which is abnormally active in Fmr1(-/-) mice. Acute cotinine treatment increased the inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3β and the activating phosphorylation of AKT, which can mediate serine-phosphorylation of GSK3β, in both wild-type and Fmr1(-/-) mouse hippocampus...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rocio Saravia, África Flores, Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Antoni Pastor, Rafael de la Torre, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Giovanni Marsicano, Andrés Ozaita, Rafael Maldonado, Fernando Berrendero
BACKGROUND: Tobacco withdrawal is associated with deficits in cognitive function, including attention, working memory, and episodic memory. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms involved in these effects is crucial because cognitive deficits during nicotine withdrawal may predict relapse in humans. METHODS: We investigated in mice the role of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) in memory impairment and spine density changes induced by nicotine withdrawal precipitated by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine...
July 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Alexandre Iarkov, Doreen Appunn, Valentina Echeverria
PURPOSE: Most cancer patients treated with systemic adjuvant chemotherapy endure long-lasting side effects including decrease in concentration, forgetfulness and slower thinking, which are globally termed "chemobrain." Cotinine, the main derivative of nicotine, improved visual and spatial working memory and decreased depressive-like behavior in an animal model of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of cotinine on weight gain, locomotor activity, cognitive abilities and depressive-like behavior in rats treated with the chemotherapy mix, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marlene A Wilson, Jim R Fadel
Cholinergic activation regulates cognitive function, particularly long-term memory consolidation. This Review presents an overview of the anatomical, neurochemical, and pharmacological evidence supporting the cholinergic regulation of Pavlovian contextual and cue-conditioned fear learning and extinction. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons provide inputs to neocortical regions and subcortical limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. Pharmacological manipulations of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors support the role of cholinergic processes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex in modulating the learning and extinction of contexts or cues associated with threat...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Asante R Kamkwalala, Paul A Newhouse
The major components of the cholinergic receptor system of the human brain include projections from the basal forebrain nuclei, and utilize the two types of receptors that they synapse on, nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. With the widespread cortical and subcortical projections of the basal forebrain, activity of these two receptor systems provide modulation of neurotransmitter activity underlying normal cognitive processes, such as attention, episodic memory, and working memory. Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets and damages cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, and as these projections are lost, cognitive performance progressively declines...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Serguei V S Pakhomov, Wrenda Teeple, Anne M Mills, Michael Kotlyar
Mild-to-moderate impairment in frontally mediated functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition have been found to occur during tobacco withdrawal and may present a barrier to successful cessation. These findings have led to studies evaluating cessation treatments that target nicotine withdrawal related cognitive impairment. The instruments currently used to assess cognitive function provide detailed and specific information but have limitations including being time consuming, cumbersome, anxiety provoking, and having poor ecological validity...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marie B Yuille, Cory K Olmstead, Ashleigh K Wells, Britta Hahn
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists on cognitive performance have been widely shown. Paradoxically, recent preclinical studies employing extremely low doses of nAChR antagonists have also found cognitive enhancement, perhaps pointing to a novel treatment mechanism for cognitive deficits. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test whether low doses of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine would benefit performance in human volunteers...
September 27, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Elise Kleeman, Sakura Nakauchi, Hailing Su, Richard Dang, Marcelo A Wood, Katumi Sumikawa
Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy are at significantly greater risk for cognitive impairments including memory deficits, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be understood. In rodent models of smoking during pregnancy, early postnatal nicotine exposure results in impaired long-term hippocampus-dependent memory, functional loss of α2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α2(∗) nAChRs) in oriens-lacunosum moleculare (OLM) cells, increased CA1 network excitation, and unexpected facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
The ability to adjust movement timing is essential in daily life. Explorations of the underlying neural mechanisms have reported a gradual increase or decrease in neuronal activity prior to self-timed movements within the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Previous studies in both humans and animals have shown that endogenous dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in self-timing. However, the specific site of dopaminergic regulation remains elusive because the systemic application of DA-related substances can directly alter both cortical and subcortical neuronal activities...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Kalyan N Rao, Alena M Sentir, Eric A Engleman, Richard L Bell, Leslie A Hulvershorn, Alan Breier, R Andrew Chambers
RATIONAL: Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes...
September 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Alexandra C Reed, Josette G Harris, Ann Olincy
Cognitive deficits and high rates of nicotine dependence are consistently documented in the schizophrenia literature. However, there is currently no consensus about how regular smoking influences cognition in schizophrenia or which cognitive domains are most affected by chronic smoking. Previous studies have also failed to disambiguate the effects of chronic nicotine from those of acute exposure. The current study uses a novel approach to testing nicotine addicted patients at a time-point between acute enhancement and withdrawal and implements the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) to compare the overall cognitive performance of regular smokers (n=40) and nonsmokers (n=36) with schizophrenia...
September 9, 2016: Psychiatry Research
James Loughead, Mary Falcone, E Paul Wileyto, Benjamin Albelda, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Wen Cao, Matthew M Kurtz, Ruben C Gur, Caryn Lerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Deficits in cognitive function are observed during nicotine withdrawal and present a challenge to successful smoking cessation. This clinical trial evaluated a cognitive exercise training (CT) program to improve smoking cessation rates. METHODS: Adult treatment-seeking smokers (n=213) were randomized to receive nicotine patch therapy and 12 weeks of either computerized CT or computerized relaxation (control) training. Smoking status was biochemically verified at the end of treatment and 6-month follow-up...
August 27, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Agnieszka Michalak, Grazyna Biala
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) depend on specific postsynaptic Ca(2+)/calmodulin concentration. LTP results from Ca(2+) influx through the activated NMDA receptors or voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and is linked with activation of protein kinases including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Weaker synaptic stimulation, as a result of low Ca(2+) influx, leads to activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase (calcineurin - CaN) and triggers LTD. Interestingly, both memory formation and drug addiction share similar neuroplastic changes...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Alanna C Bridgman, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek Rajji, Bernard Le Foll, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and deficits in this system may contribute to high rates of cigarette smoking in this population. nAChR stimulation may modulate neuroplasticity, or long-term potentiation (LTP), which is a key mediator of cognitive performance. Varenicline is a nAChR partial agonist that may improve cognitive deficits in both smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia; however, the mechanism by which varenicline alters cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear...
September 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
P A Adeniyi, E P Omatsuli, A J Akinyemi, A O Ishola
There is a greater prevalence of cigarette smoking among caffeine dependent individuals. This study therefore sought to assess the effect of nicotine and/or caffeine on some key biochemical indices and neurobehavioural parameters associated with brain function in male mice. Forty male BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each; Group A serve as the control and received normal saline (s.c), Group B received 2mg/kg body weight of nicotine (s.c), Group C received 2mg/kg body weight of caffeine (s...
August 26, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Montserrat Bellés, Luis Heredia, Noemí Serra, José L Domingo, Victoria Linares
Radiation therapy is a major cause of long-term complications observed in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. However, the effects of low-doses of ionizing radiation (IR) to the brain are less studied. On the other hand, tobacco is one of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Tobacco is not only a health concern for adults. It has also shown to exert deleterious effects on fetuses, newborns, children and adolescents. Exposure to nicotine (Nic) from smoking may potentiate the toxic effects induced by IR on brain development...
August 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marcella Reale, Talma Brenner
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene family encodes for subunits of acetylcholine gated ion channels. These receptors are expressed widely and have many functions: They mediate excitation at neuro-muscular junctions. In the central nervous system nAChRs have been implicated in memory, cognition, and addiction. And in non-excitatory cells they regulate differentiation, proliferation and inflammatory responses. The CHRNA7 gene encodes for the a7 nAChR subunit that assembles into a homomeric receptor having unusual properties...
August 29, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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