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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407805/revelation-of-mrnas-and-proteins-in-porcine-milk-exosomes-by-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#1
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. Until now, there is no such research relevant to exosomal mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk, therefore, we have attempted to investigate porcine milk exosomal mRNAs and proteins using RNA-sequencing and proteomic analysis...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401565/serum-and-exosomal-mir-122-and-mir-199a-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-therapeutic-efficacy-of-hepatitis-c-patients
#2
Xiaoyang Jiao, Zhicheng Fan, Huanzhu Chen, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Qiaoxin Zhang, Changwen Ke
AIM: MicroRNA (miRNA), which has been shown to correlate with liver functions, has been proposed as a new biomarker reflecting liver injury. The aim of the study was to investigate miRNA -122 (miR-122) and mir-RNA -199a (miR-199a) as a biomarker for predicting therapeutic efficacy in hepatitis C (HepC)patients. METHODS: 47 HepC 1b patients and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum and exosomal mir-RNAs and other conventional biomarkers reflecting liver function were evaluated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395182/sensitive-luminescent-reporter-viruses-reveal-appreciable-release-of-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-protein-into-the-extracellular-environment
#3
Nicholas S Eyre, Amanda L Aloia, Michael A Joyce, Monrat Chulanetra, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael R Beard
The HCV NS5A protein is essential for viral RNA replication and virus particle assembly. To study the viral replication cycle and NS5A biology we generated an infectious HCV construct with a NanoLuciferase (NLuc) insertion within NS5A. Surprisingly, beyond its utility as a sensitive reporter of cytoplasmic viral RNA replication, we also observed strong luminescence in cell culture fluids. Further analysis using assembly-defective viruses and subgenomic replicons revealed that infectious virus production was not required for extracellular NS5A-NLuc activity but was associated with enrichment of extracellular NS5A-NLuc in intermediate-density fractions similar to those of exosomes and virus particles...
April 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393839/exosome-delivered-egfr-regulates-liver-microenvironment-to-promote-gastric-cancer-liver-metastasis
#4
Haiyang Zhang, Ting Deng, Rui Liu, Ming Bai, Likun Zhou, Xia Wang, Shuang Li, Xinyi Wang, Haiou Yang, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Dingzhi Huang, Hongli Li, Le Zhang, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
The metastatic organotropism has been one of the cancer's greatest mysteries since the 'seed and soil' hypothesis. Although the role of EGFR in cancer cells is well studied, the effects of secreted EGFR transported by exosomes are less understood. Here we show that EGFR in exosomes secreted from gastric cancer cells can be delivered into the liver and is integrated on the plasma membrane of liver stromal cells. The translocated EGFR is proved to effectively activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by suppressing miR-26a/b expression...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382720/exosomes-derived-from-mir-181-5p-modified-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-prevent-liver-fibrosis-via-autophagy-activation
#5
Ying Qu, Qidi Zhang, Xiaobo Cai, Fei Li, Zhenzeng Ma, Mingyi Xu, Lungen Lu
Proliferating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) respond to liver damage by secreting collagens that form fibrous scar tissue, which can lead to cirrhosis if in appropriately regulated. Advancement of microRNA (miRNA) hepatic therapies has been hampered by difficulties in delivering miRNA to damaged tissue. However, exosomes secreted by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) can be exploited to deliver miRNAs to HSCs. ADSCs were engineered to overexpress miRNA-181-5p (miR-181-5p-ADSCs) to selectively home exosomes to mouse hepatic stellate (HST-T6) cells or a CCl4-induced liver fibrosis murine model and compared with non-targeting control Caenorhabditis elegans miR-67 (cel-miR-67)-ADSCs...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380368/brown-fat-derived-exosomes-small-vesicles-with-big-impact
#6
Yong Chen, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue (AT) not only stores energy, but also secretes hormones and releases small vesicles known as exosomes. Thomou et al. (2017) now show that exosomes secreted by brown fat carry miRNAs that regulate the liver. Thus, AT exosomes might have therapeutic and diagnostic relevance for metabolic disorders.
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376502/circulating-exosomal-microrna-21-as-a-biomarker-in-each-tumor-stage-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
Mitsuo Tsukamoto, Hisae Iinuma, Takahiro Yagi, Keiji Matsuda, Yojiro Hashiguchi
OBJECTIVE: We clarified the predictive and prognostic value of circulating plasma exosomal microRNA-21 (miR-21) in each TNM stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: The microRNA (miRNA) profiles of the plasma exosomes, primary tumor tissues, and liver metastasis tissues from the same CRC patients were examined using a microarray. For validation analysis, the plasma exosome samples from 326 CRC patients were measured by TaqMan miRNA assays. RESULTS: In the miRNA microarray analyses, miR-21 showed the highest upregulation in exosomes, primary tumor tissues, and liver metastasis tissues...
April 5, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366542/key-biological-processes-driving-metastatic-spread-of-pancreatic-cancer-as-identified-by-multi-omics-studies
#8
REVIEW
T Y S Le Large, M F Bijlsma, G Kazemier, H M W van Laarhoven, E Giovannetti, C R Jimenez
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy, characterized by a high metastatic burden, already at the time of diagnosis. The metastatic potential of PDAC is one of the main reasons for the poor outcome next to lack of significant improvement in effective treatments in the last decade. Key mutated driver genes, such as activating KRAS mutations, are concordantly expressed in primary and metastatic tumors. However, the biology behind the metastatic potential of PDAC is not fully understood...
March 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271982/hepatic-mir-301a-as-a-liver-transplant-rejection-biomarker-and-its-role-for-interleukin-6-production-in-hepatocytes
#9
Toshiaki Nakano, I-Hsuan Chen, Shigeru Goto, Chia-Yun Lai, Hui-Peng Tseng, Li-Wen Hsu, King-Wah Chiu, Chih-Che Lin, Chih-Chi Wang, Yu-Fan Cheng, Chao-Long Chen
Acute rejection (AR) of liver transplantation remains a formidable challenge for diagnostic medicine and biomarker discovery. We characterized AR-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and the underlying AR mechanisms in liver transplantation. Using a rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) as well as microarrays, we compared the miRNA expression profiles between naive and AR livers on day 7 after OLT with short- (<14 days, donor Dark Agouti [DA] liver into Lewis [LEW] recipient) and long-term (>60 days, donor DA liver into Piebald Virol Glaxo [PVG] recipient) survival fates...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265569/functional-roles-and-therapeutic-applications-of-exosomes-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Laura Santangelo, Cecilia Battistelli, Claudia Montaldo, Franca Citarella, Raffaele Strippoli, Carla Cicchini
Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA) from donor to recipient cells. Notably, tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) appear to be an important vehicle of specific signals in cancer, impacting on tumor growth and metastasis. Recent researches point to the characterization of exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the major adult liver malignancy. In this review, we summarize current findings on HCC exosomes, focusing on the identification of noncoding RNAs as exosome-enriched functional regulators and new potential biomarkers...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259929/expression-profiles-and-circulation-dynamics-of-rat-mesenteric-lymph-micrornas
#11
Wakako Sakamoto, Tomohiko Masuno, Hiroyuki Yokota, Toshihiro Takizawa
Mesenteric lymph is vital for immune cell trafficking and intestinal fluid and chyle transport, which aid homeostatic maintenance. There have been few reports investigating the profiles and circulatory dynamics of mesenteric lymph microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in normal rodent mesenteric lymph. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)‑based array analysis was performed to examine the expression levels of 375 miRNAs in normal rat mesenteric lymph...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224705/the-role-of-exosomes-in-hepatitis-liver-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Jiliang Shen, Chiung-Kuei Huang, Hong Yu, Bo Shen, Yaping Zhang, Yuelong Liang, Zheyong Li, Xu Feng, Jie Zhao, Lian Duan, Xiujun Cai
Exosomes are small vesicles that were initially thought to be a mechanism for discarding unneeded membrane proteins from reticulocytes. Their mediation of intercellular communication appears to be associated with several biological functions. Current studies have shown that most mammalian cells undergo the process of exosome formation and utilize exosome-mediated cell communication. Exosomes contain various microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins. They have been reported to mediate multiple functions, such as antigen presentation, immune escape and tumour progression...
May 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211508/mvp-mediated-exosomal-sorting-of-mir-193a-promotes-colon-cancer-progression
#13
Yun Teng, Yi Ren, Xin Hu, Jingyao Mu, Abhilash Samykutty, Xiaoying Zhuang, Zhongbin Deng, Anil Kumar, Lifeng Zhang, Michael L Merchant, Jun Yan, Donald M Miller, Huang-Ge Zhang
Exosomes are emerging mediators of intercellular communication; whether the release of exosomes has an effect on the exosome donor cells in addition to the recipient cells has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we examine different exosomal miRNA expression profiles in primary mouse colon tumour, liver metastasis of colon cancer and naive colon tissues. In more advanced disease, higher levels of tumour suppressor miRNAs are encapsulated in the exosomes. miR-193a interacts with major vault protein (MVP)...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211494/hepatocyte-secreted-extracellular-vesicles-modify-blood-metabolome-and-endothelial-function-by-an-arginase-dependent-mechanism
#14
Felix Royo, Laura Moreno, Justyna Mleczko, Laura Palomo, Esperanza Gonzalez, Diana Cabrera, Angel Cogolludo, Francisco Perez Vizcaino, Sebastiaan van-Liempd, Juan M Falcon-Perez
Hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with signaling molecules and enzymes into the bloodstream. Although the importance of EVs in the intercellular communication is already recognized, the metabolic impact of the enzymes carried by these vesicles is still unclear. We evaluated the global effect of the enzymatic activities of EVs by performing untargeted metabolomic profiling of serum samples after their exposure to EVs. This approach revealed a significant change in the abundance of 94 serum metabolic signals...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208010/circulating-plasma-and-exosomal-micrornas-as-indicators-of-drug-induced-organ-injury-in-rodent-models
#15
Young-Eun Cho, Sang-Hyun Kim, Byung-Heon Lee, Moon-Chang Baek
This study was performed to evaluate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in circulating exosomes may serve as biomarkers of drug-induced liver, kidney, or muscle-injury. Quantitative PCR analyses were performed to measure the amounts of liver-specific miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-155), kidney-specific miR-146a, or muscle-specific miR-206 in plasma and exosomes from mice treated with liver, kidney or muscle toxicants. The levels of liver-specific miRNAs in circulating plasma and exosomes were elevated in acetaminophen-induced liver injury and returned to basal levels by treatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine...
February 17, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202367/exosomes-therapy-delivery-tools-and-biomarkers-of-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Lucio Barile, Giuseppe Vassalli
Virtually all cells in the organism secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous population of lipid bilayer membrane-enclosed vesicles that transport and deliver payloads of proteins and nucleic acids to recipient cells, thus playing central roles in cell-cell communications. Exosomes, nanosized EVs of endosomal origin, regulate many pathophysiological processes including immune responses and inflammation, tumour growth, and infection. Healthy subjects and patients with different diseases release exosomes with different RNA and protein contents into the circulation, which can be measured as biomarkers...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199304/adipose-derived-circulating-mirnas-regulate-gene-expression-in-other-tissues
#17
Thomas Thomou, Marcelo A Mori, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masahiro Konishi, Masaji Sakaguchi, Christian Wolfrum, Tata Nageswara Rao, Jonathon N Winnay, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Steven K Grinspoon, Phillip Gorden, C Ronald Kahn
Adipose tissue is a major site of energy storage and has a role in the regulation of metabolism through the release of adipokines. Here we show that mice with an adipose-tissue-specific knockout of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer (ADicerKO), as well as humans with lipodystrophy, exhibit a substantial decrease in levels of circulating exosomal miRNAs. Transplantation of both white and brown adipose tissue-brown especially-into ADicerKO mice restores the level of numerous circulating miRNAs that are associated with an improvement in glucose tolerance and a reduction in hepatic Fgf21 mRNA and circulating FGF21...
February 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160157/a-comparison-of-serum-mirnas-influencing-metastatic-growth-of-emt6-vs-4thm-tumor-cells-in-wild-type-and-cd200r1ko-mice
#18
Reginald M Gorczynski, Fang Zhu, Zhiqi Chen, Ohla Kos, Ismat Khatri
PURPOSE: We investigated whether miRNAs in exosomes from EMT6 or 4THM tumor-bearing mice played a role in regulating inflammatory cytokine expression and/or metastasis in WT mice injected with EMT6 and/or 4THM tumor cells. METHODS: EMT6 tumors in BALB/c CD200R1KO mice resolve following surgical resection of localized tumor and immunization with irradiated EMT6 cells along with CpG as adjuvant. Wild-type (WT) animals treated in the same fashion develop pulmonary and liver metastases within 20 days of surgery...
April 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-mirna-controls-viral-replication
#19
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded non-coding functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and northern blot. HBV-miR-3 is located at nts 373-393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5Kb, 2,4Kb and 2.1Kb HBV in classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer dependent) manner. HBV-miR-3 was highly expressed in hepatoma cell lines with an integrated HBV genome and HBV (+) hepatoma tumors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115012/exosomes-derived-from-human-menstrual-blood-derived-stem-cells-alleviate-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#20
Lu Chen, Bingyu Xiang, Xiaojun Wang, Charlie Xiang
BACKGROUND: Human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are a novel source of MSCs that provide the advantage of being easy to collect and isolate. Exosomes contain some mRNAs and adhesion molecules that can potentially impact cellular and animal physiology. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of MenSC-derived exosomes (MenSC-Ex) on AML12 cells (in vitro) and D-GalN/LPS-induced FHF mice (in vivo). METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot were used to identify MenSC-Ex...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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