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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882696/fetuin-a-alpha-2hs-glycoprotein-modulates-growth-motility-invasion-and-senescence-in-high-grade-astrocytomas
#1
Gladys N Nangami, Amos M Sakwe, Michael G Izban, Tanu Rana, Philip E Lammers, Portia Thomas, Zhenbang Chen, Josiah Ochieng
Glioblastomas (high-grade astrocytomas) are highly aggressive brain tumors with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. In the present studies, we have defined the role of fetuin-A, a liver-derived multifunctional serum protein, in the growth of an established glioblastoma cell line, LN229. We hereby demonstrate that these cells synthesize ectopic fetuin-A which supports their growth in culture in the absence of serum. We have demonstrated that a panel of tissue microarray (TMA) of glioblastomas also express ectopic fetuin-A...
November 23, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852847/visualizing-the-essential-role-of-complete-virion-assembly-machinery-in-efficient-hepatitis-c-virus-cell-to-cell-transmission-by-viral-infection-activated-split-intein-mediated-reporter-system-visi
#2
Fanfan Zhao, Ting Zhao, Libin Deng, Dawei Lv, Xiaolong Zhang, Xiaoyu Pan, Jun Xu, Gang Long
: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2-3% of the world population and is a leading cause of liver diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Many aspects of HCV study, ranging from molecular virology, antiviral drug development and drug resistance profiling, were supported by straightforward assays of HCV replication and infection. Among these assays, HCV-dependent fluorescence relocalization (HDFR) system allows live-cell visualization of infection without modifying viral genome, but this strategy required careful recognition of fluorescence relocalization pattern for its high fluorescence background in cytoplasm...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833848/neutral-ceramidase-enriched-exosomes-prevent-palmitic-acid-induced-insulin-resistance-in-h4iiec3-hepatocytes
#3
Qun Zhu, Rongping Zhu, Junfei Jin
Oversupply of free fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) from the portal vein may cause liver insulin resistance. Production of reactive oxygen species plays a pivotal role in PA-induced insulin resistance in H4IIEC3 hepatocytes. Recently, we found that exosomes secreted from INS-1 cells that were transfected with neutral ceramidase (NCDase) plasmids had raised NCDase activity; these NCDase-enriched exosomes could inhibit PA-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis. Here, we showed that PA reduced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 2 and decreased insulin-stimulated uptake of the fluorescent glucose analog 2-NBDG, confirming that insulin resistance occurred in PA-treated H4IIEC3 cells...
November 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810172/extracellular-vesicles-novel-mediators-of-cell-communication-in-metabolic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Isabel Huang-Doran, Chen-Yu Zhang, Antonio Vidal-Puig
Metabolic homeostasis emerges from the complex, multidirectional crosstalk between key metabolic tissues including adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. This crosstalk, traditionally mediated by hormones and metabolites, becomes dysregulated in human diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs; including exosomes) are circulating, cell-derived nanoparticles containing proteins and nucleic acids that interact with and modify local and distant cellular targets. Accumulating evidence, reviewed herein, supports a role for extracellular vesicles in obesity-associated metabolic disturbance, particularly the local and systemic inflammation characteristic of adipose and hepatic stress...
October 31, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771257/excretory-secretory-products-in-the-echinococcus-granulosus-metacestode-is-the-intermediate-host-complacent-with-infection-caused-by-the-larval-form-of-the-parasite
#5
Guilherme B Dos Santos, Karina M Monteiro, Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Maria Eduarda Battistella, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760789/the-biodistribution-and-immune-suppressive-effects-of-breast-cancer-derived-exosomes
#6
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize Goncalves Lima, Christina S F Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Möller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45(+) bone marrow-derived cells...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734397/cellular-or-exosomal-micrornas-associated-with-ccn-gene-expression-in-liver-fibrosis
#7
Li Chen, David R Brigstock
Liver fibrosis occurs during chronic injury and represents, in large part, an exaggerated matrigenic output by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which become activated as a result of injury-induced signaling pathways in parenchymal and inflammatory cells (hepatocytes, macrophages, etc.). The molecular components in these pathways (e.g., CCN proteins) are modulated by transcription factors as well as by factors such as microRNAs (miRs) that act posttranscriptionally. MiRs are small (~23 nt) noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by specifically interacting with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target gene mRNA to repress translation or enhance mRNA cleavage...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720897/cell-type-specific-and-common-characteristics-of-exosomes-derived-from-mouse-cell-lines-yield-physicochemical-properties-and-pharmacokinetics
#8
Chonlada Charoenviriyakul, Yuki Takahashi, Masaki Morishita, Akihiro Matsumoto, Makiya Nishikawa, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from cells and are expected to be used as drug delivery systems. Important characteristics of exosomes, such as yield, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetics, may be different among different cell types. However, there is limited information about the effect of cell type on these characteristics. In the present study, we evaluated these characteristics of exosomes derived from five different types of mouse cell lines: B16BL6 murine melanoma cells, C2C12 murine myoblast cells, NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts cells, MAEC murine aortic endothelial cells, and RAW264...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716356/exosomes-derived-from-hcc-cells-induce-sorafenib-resistance-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#9
Zhen Qu, Junhua Wu, Junyi Wu, Dongjun Luo, Chunping Jiang, Yitao Ding
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are carriers of intercellular information and regulate the tumor microenvironment. They play an important role in drug resistance by transporting RNA molecules and proteins. However, their effects on sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not completely understood. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from two invasive hepatoma cell lines (MHCC-97 L and MHCC-97H), and their roles in regulating sorafenib resistance in liver cancer cells as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms were determined...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713136/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-mediating-progression-metastasis-and-potential-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Naibin Yang, Shanshan Li, Guoxiang Li, Shengguo Zhang, Xinyue Tang, Shunlan Ni, Xiaomin Jian, Cunlai Xu, Jiayin Zhu, Mingqin Lu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. As vectors for intercellular information exchange, the potential role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in HCC formation, progression and therapy has been widely investigated. In this review, we explore the current status of the researches in this field. Altogether there is undeniable evidence that EVs play a crucial role in HCC development, metastasis. Moreover, EVs have shown great potential as drug delivery systems (DDSs) for the treatment of HCC...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695899/sequential-cleavage-of-insulin-receptor-by-calpain-2-and-%C3%AE-secretase-impairs-insulin-signalling
#11
Tomoyuki Yuasa, Kikuko Amo-Shiinoki, Shuhei Ishikura, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Takaaki Matsuoka, Hideaki Kaneto, Akio Kuroda, Munehide Matsuhisa, Seiichi Hashida
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Soluble insulin receptor (sIR), the ectodomain of the insulin receptor (IR), has been detected in human plasma and its concentration paralleled that of blood glucose. We have previously developed an in vitro model using HepG2 liver-derived cells, which mimics changes in sIR levels in plasma from diabetic patients and shows that calcium-dependent proteases cleave IR extracellularly (a process known as shedding). The present study aimed to reveal the mechanisms of IR cleavage...
September 30, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666412/colorectal-cancer-cell-derived-microrna200-modulates-the-resistance-of-adjacent-blood-endothelial-barriers-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Silvio Holzner, Daniel Senfter, Serena Stadler, Anna Staribacher, Chi Huu Nguyen, Anna Gaggl, Silvana Geleff, Nicole Huttary, Sigurd Krieger, Walter Jäger, Helmut Dolznig, Robert M Mader, Georg Krupitza
Since cancer cells, when grown as spheroids, display drug sensitivity and radiation resistance patterns such as seen in vivo we recently established a three‑dimensional (3D) in vitro model recapitulating colorectal cancer (CRC)-triggered lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)‑barrier breaching to study mechanisms of intra‑/extravasation. CRC metastasizes not only through lymphatics but also through blood vessels and here we extend the 3D model to the interaction of blood endothelial cells (BECs) with naïve and 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑resistant CRC CCL227 cells...
November 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662798/fibrogenic-signaling-is-suppressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-through-targeting-of-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ccn2-by-cellular-or-exosomal-microrna-199a-5p
#13
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Victoria M Velazquez, David R Brigstock
Pathways of liver fibrosis are controlled by connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). In this study, CCN2 was identified as a target of miR-199a-5p, which was principally expressed in quiescent mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and directly suppressed production of CCN2. Up-regulated CCN2 expression in fibrotic mouse livers or in activated primary mouse HSCs was associated with miR-199a-5p down-regulation. MiR-199a-5p in quiescent mouse HSCs inhibited the activity of a wild-type CCN2 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) but not of a mutant CCN2 3'-UTR lacking the miR-199a-5p-binding site...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649887/role-of-phosphatidylserine-derived-negative-surface-charges-in-the-recognition-and-uptake-of-intravenously-injected-b16bl6-derived-exosomes-by-macrophages
#14
Akihiro Matsumoto, Yuki Takahashi, Makiya Nishikawa, Kohei Sano, Masaki Morishita, Chonlada Charoenviriyakul, Hideo Saji, Yoshinobu Takakura
Exosomes are cell-derived extracellular vesicles that function as intercellular delivery carriers. Our previous study demonstrated that macrophages in the liver contributed to the rapid clearance of intravenously administered B16BL6-derived exosomes from the systemic circulation in mice. Phosphatidylserine (PS) may be responsible for this clearance because it is exposed on the surface of exosomes and is recognized by macrophages. In this study, the role of PS exposed on the membranes of exosomes in the uptake of B16BL6-derived exosomes by macrophages was investigated...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640806/combining-exosomes-derived-from-immature-dcs-with-donor-antigen-specific-treg-cells-induces-tolerance-in-a-rat-liver-allograft-model
#15
Ben Ma, Jing-Yue Yang, Wen-Jie Song, Rui Ding, Zhuo-Chao Zhang, Hong-Chen Ji, Xuan Zhang, Jian-Lin Wang, Xi-Sheng Yang, Kai-Shan Tao, Ke-Feng Dou, Xiao Li
Allograft tolerance is the ultimate goal in the field of transplantation immunology. Immature dendritic cells (imDCs) play an important role in establishing tolerance but have limitations, including potential for maturation, short lifespan in vivo and short storage times in vitro. However, exosomes (generally 30-100 nm) from imDCs (imDex) retain many source cell properties and may overcome these limitations. In previous reports, imDex prolonged the survival time of heart or intestine allografts. However, tolerance or long-term survival was not achieved unless immune suppressants were used...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613527/a-phase-1-2-trial-of-ruxolitinib-and-erlotinib-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-lung-adenocarcinomas-with-acquired-resistance-to-erlotinib
#16
Helena A Yu, Leslie Perez, Qing Chang, Sizhi P Gao, Mark G Kris, Gregory J Riely, Jacqueline Bromberg
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors develops in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers. New treatments are needed to address resistance not mediated by EGFR T790M; preclinical evidence suggests that the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway is important in acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapy. METHODS: We evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of erlotinib and ruxolitinib in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to erlotinib...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605546/toll-like-receptor-3-activated-macrophages-confer-anti-hcv-activity-to-hepatocytes-through-exosomes
#17
Yu Zhou, Xu Wang, Li Sun, Li Zhou, Tong-Cui Ma, Li Song, Jian-Guo Wu, Jie-Liang Li, Wen-Zhe Ho
Exosomes are a class of cell-released small vesicles that mediate intercellular communication by delivering functional factors to recipient cells. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the interaction between liver resident macrophages and hepatocytes is a key component in liver innate immunity. In this study, we explored the role of exosomes in the delivery of innate anti-HCV factors to hepatocytes from macrophages. We showed that supernatant from TLR3-activated macrophage cultures could efficiently inhibit HCV replication in Huh7 cells...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601233/diagnostic-and-prognostic-values-of-serum-exosomal-microrna-21-in-children-with-hepatoblastoma-a-chinese-population-based-study
#18
Wanbo Liu, Sheng Chen, Bing Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver in young children. The aim of this study is to identify the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum exosomal miR-21 in Chinese patients with HB. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 32 children with HB. The expressions of miR-21 were detected by real-time PCR. The comparison of diagnostic performance of plasmatic, exosomal miR-21 and AFP levels was measured using the Area Under ROC Curve...
November 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592404/hepatoprotective-effect-of-exosomes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#19
Kate Nong, Weiwei Wang, Xin Niu, Bin Hu, Chenchao Ma, Yueqing Bai, Bo Wu, Yang Wang, Kaixing Ai
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exosomes produced by human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs-Exo) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated and concentrated from conditioned medium using ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo were injected systemically via the inferior vena cava in a rat model of 70% warm hepatic I/R injury, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated...
August 31, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551720/chemokine-receptors-cxcr1-and-cxcr2-differentially-regulate-exosome-release-in-hepatocytes
#20
Hiroyuki Nojima, Takanori Konishi, Christopher M Freeman, Rebecca M Schuster, Lukasz Japtok, Burkhard Kleuser, Michael J Edwards, Erich Gulbins, Alex B Lentsch
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles released by different cell types, including hepatocytes, that play important roles in intercellular communication. We have previously demonstrated that hepatocyte-derived exosomes contain the synthetic machinery to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in target hepatocytes resulting in proliferation and liver regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We also demonstrated that the chemokine receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, regulate liver recovery and regeneration after I/R injury...
2016: PloS One
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