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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636562/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-circulating-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer
#1
Shushan Yan, Bing Han, Shunyuan Gao, Xiaochen Wang, Zengfang Wang, Fakai Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Donghua Xu, Beicheng Sun
Currently available studies have suggested that a number of exosome-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as stable biomarkers for cancers. However, little is known about the effect of exosomal miRNAs on colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of study is to identify specific miRNAs in serum exosomes, which may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC. Microarray analyses of miRNAs in serum exosomes from 3 primary CRC patients and 3 healthy controls were performed...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623272/exosomes-derived-from-palmitic-acid-treated-hepatocytes-induce-fibrotic-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#2
Young-Sun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Eunjung Ko, Jun-Hee Lee, Hyon-Seung Yi, Yang Jae Yoo, Jihye Je, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Won-Il Jeong, Jong Eun Yeon, Soon Ho Um, Kwan Soo Byun
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dominant cause of chronic liver disease, but the exact mechanism of progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of exosomes in NAFLD progression. Exosomes were isolated from a human hepatoma cell line treated with palmitic acid (PA) and their miRNA profiles examined by microarray. The human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line (LX-2) was then treated with exosome isolated from hepatocytes...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620221/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-liver-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Guohua Lou, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
The administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapy for liver disease holds great promise. MSCs can differentiate into hepatocytes, reduce liver inflammation, promote hepatic regeneration and secrete protective cytokines. However, the risks of iatrogenic tumor formation, cellular rejection and infusional toxicity in MSC transplantation remain unresolved. Accumulating evidence now suggests that a novel cell-free therapy, MSC-secreted exosomes, might constitute a compelling alternative because of their advantages over the corresponding MSCs...
June 16, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619525/murine-and-human-pancreatic-tumor-exosome-recovery-in-mouse-serum-diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-and-target-cell-delivery
#4
Ulrike Erb, Kun Zhao, Zhe Wang, Li Xiao, Margot Zöller
Exosomes (Exo), powerful intercellular communicators, are recovered in all body fluids, suggesting suitability for diagnosis and prognosis. Easy in vitro manipulation recommends Exo as drug vehicles. Aiming to consolidate diagnostic and therapeutic potential of Exo, we evaluated recovery and fate of tumor (TEX) and exogenous Exo in syngeneic and xenogeneic mice bearing a murine or a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A significant increase in serum (S)-TEX was observed 2 weeks after tumor cell application. Instead, S-TEX declined within 3-6 days after tumor excision...
June 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598214/exosomal-mirnas-as-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-liver-disease
#5
Sheng Wang, Jian-Qing Wang, Xiong-Wen Lv
Liver disease is a primary cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, histological examination is the gold standard for diagnosis and classification of liver disease; however, due to its several drawbacks, including the risk of complications and sampling variability, noninvasive diagnostic options are favorable. Exosomal miRNAs have recently been considered as an important source of medical biomarkers due to being widely distributed in body fluids. This review summarizes existing concepts related to the origin, mode of transportation and possible functions of exosomal miRNAs, and recent findings on the role of exosomal miRNAs in liver diseases and development of exosomal miRNA-based diagnostic biomarkers in the primary forms of liver diseases...
June 9, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555885/serum-extracellular-vesicles-contain-protein-biomarkers-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-cholangiocarcinoma
#6
Ander Arbelaiz, Mikel Azkargorta, Marcin Krawczyk, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Ainhoa Lapitz, Maria J Perugorria, Oihane Erice, Esperanza Gonzalez, Raul Jimenez-Agüero, Adelaida Lacasta, Cesar Ibarra, Alberto Sanchez-Campos, Juan P Jimeno, Frank Lammert, Piotr Milkiewicz, Marco Marzioni, Rocio I R Macias, Jose J G Marin, Tushar Patel, Gregory J Gores, Ibon Martinez, Félix Elortza, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Luis Bujanda, Jesus M Banales
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) includes a heterogeneous group of biliary cancers with poor prognosis. Several conditions such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are risk factors. Non-invasive differential diagnosis between intrahepatic CCA (iCCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is sometimes difficult. Accurate non-invasive biomarkers for PSC, CCA or HCC are not available. In the search of novel biomarkers, serum extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated from CCA (n=43), PSC (n=30) or HCC (n=29) patients, and healthy individuals (control, n=32), and their protein content was characterized...
May 26, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544786/mir-122-modification-enhances-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-liver-fibrosis
#7
Guohua Lou, Ying Yang, Feifei Liu, Bingjue Ye, Zhi Chen, Min Zheng, Yanning Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation alone may be insufficient for treatment of liver fibrosis because of complicated histopathological changes in the liver. Given that miR-122 plays an essential role in liver fibrosis by negatively regulating the proliferation and transactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), this study investigated whether miR-122 modification can improve the therapeutic efficacy of adipose tissue-derived MSCs in treating liver fibrosis. MiR-122-modified AMSCs (AMSC-122) were constructed through lentivirus-mediated transfer of pre-miR-122...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535778/exosomes-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-the-conversion-of-hepatocytes-into-progenitor-oval-cells
#8
Hao-Hsiang Wu, Oscar K Lee
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess therapeutic effects in a murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure. In the study, we observed that the majority of repopulated hepatocytes were of recipient origin and were adjacent to transplanted MSCs; only a low percentage of repopulated hepatocytes were from transplanted MSCs. The findings indicate that MSCs guided the formation of new hepatocytes. Exosomes are important messengers for paracrine signaling delivery...
May 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524762/exosomes-promote-restoration-after-an-experimental-animal-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio López, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Exosomes are gaining importance because they show great promise in therapeutic applications for several diseases. Particularly in stroke, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy work as paracrine effectors responsible for promoting neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery. Adult male rats were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV; 24 h after surgery, MSC-derived exosomes were administered through the tail vein. The rats were euthanized at 7 or 28 days after treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514744/characterization-of-mouse-serum-exosomal-small-rna-content-the-origins-and-their-roles-in-modulating-inflammatory-response
#10
Xin Zhou, Zinan Jiao, Juling Ji, Shuyuan Li, Xiaodi Huang, Xiaoshuang Lu, Heng Zhao, Jingwen Peng, Xinya Chen, Qiuhong Ji, Yuhua Ji
In the last decade, although studies on exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from serum and other body fluids have increased dramatically; the contents and biological significance of serum exosomes under normal conditions remain unclear. In the present study, we profiled the small RNA content of mouse serum exosomes (mSEs) using small RNAseq and found that fragments of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and miRNAs were the two predominant exosomal RNA species, accounting for approximately 60% and 10% of mapped reads, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#11
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505322/exosomes-in-toxicology-relevance-to-chemical-exposure-and-pathogenesis-of-environmentally-linked-diseases
#12
Dilshan S Harischandra, Shivani Ghaisas, Dharmin Rokad, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Chronic exposure to environmental toxins has been known to initiate or aggravate various neurological disorders, carcinomas and other adverse health effects. Uptake by naïve cells of pathogenic factors such as danger-associated molecules, mRNAs, miRNAs or aggregated proteins leads to disruption in cellular homeostasis further resulting in inflammation and disease propagation. While early research tended to focus solely on exosomal removal of unwanted cellular contents, more recent reports indicate that these nano-vesicles play an active role in intercellular signaling...
May 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483695/augmented-liver-targeting-of-exosomes-by-surface-modification-with-cationized-pullulan
#13
Ryo Tamura, Shinji Uemoto, Yasuhiko Tabata
Exosomes are membrane nanoparticles containing biological substances that are employed as therapeutics in experimental inflammatory models. Surface modification of exosomes for better tissue targetability and enhancement of their therapeutic ability was recently attempted mainly using gene transfection techniques. Here, we show for the first time that the surface modification of exosomes with cationized pullulan, which has the ability to target hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors, can target injured liver and enhance the therapeutic effect of exosomes...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475894/diurnal-oscillations-in-liver-mass-and-cell-size-accompany-ribosome-assembly-cycles
#14
Flore Sinturel, Alan Gerber, Daniel Mauvoisin, Jingkui Wang, David Gatfield, Jeremy J Stubblefield, Carla B Green, Frédéric Gachon, Ueli Schibler
The liver plays a pivotal role in metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification, processes that must be particularly efficient when animals are active and feed. A major question is how the liver adapts to these diurnal changes in physiology. Here, we show that, in mice, liver mass, hepatocyte size, and protein levels follow a daily rhythm, whose amplitude depends on both feeding-fasting and light-dark cycles. Correlative evidence suggests that the daily oscillation in global protein accumulation depends on a similar fluctuation in ribosome number...
May 4, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469765/melatonin-treatment-enhances-therapeutic-effects-of-exosomes-against-acute-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Chih-Hung Chen, Chia-Lo Chang, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kuan-Hung Chen, Yi-Ling Chen, Sheng-Yi Chen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tests the hypothesis that combined melatonin and exogenic adipose mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC)-derived exosome treatment offers superior protection against liver ischemia-reperfusion (LIR) injury compared to either alone. In vitro studies utilized a macrophage cell line (RAW) pretreated with lipopolysaccharide and hepatocytes pretreated with melatonin or exosomes before hypoxia treatment, while in vitro experiments involved analyses of liver specimens from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) equally categorized into sham controls (SC), LIR only, LIR-exosome (100 µg, 30 minute post-LIR), LIR-melatonin (20 mg/kg, 30 minute post-LIR and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hours post-LIR), and LIR-exosome-melatonin groups...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456398/effect-of-circulating-exosomes-from-transition-cows-on-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cell-function
#16
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, H Peiris, Y Koh, F Almughlliq, K Vaswani, S Reed, A Heiser, J J Loor, J K Kay, S Meier, S S Donkin, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J R Roche, M D Mitchell
The greatest risk of metabolic and infectious disease in dairy cows is during the transition from pregnancy to lactating (i.e., the transition period). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of extracellular vesicles (microvesicles involved in cell-to-cell signaling) isolated from transition cows on target cell function. We previously identified differences in the protein profiles of exosomes isolated from cows divergent in metabolic health status. Therefore, we hypothesized that these exosomes would affect target tissues differently...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438662/never-let-it-go-stopping-key-mechanisms-underlying-metastasis-to-fight-pancreatic-cancer
#17
REVIEW
E Giovannetti, C L van der Borden, A E Frampton, A Ali, O Firuzi, G J Peters
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. This dismal trend is mainly due to lack of effective treatments against its metastatic behavior. Therefore, a better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying metastasis should provide new opportunities for therapeutic purposes. Genomic analyses revealed that aberrations that fuel PDAC tumorigenesis and progression, such as SMAD4 loss, are also implicated in metastasis...
April 21, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437377/microrna-21-is-required-for-local-and-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-multiple-organ-protection-against-sepsis
#18
Ping Jia, Xiaoli Wu, Yan Dai, Jie Teng, Yi Fang, Jiachang Hu, Jianzhou Zou, Mingyu Liang, Xiaoqiang Ding
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis, triggered by microbial infection, is a common and life-threatening systemic illness, often leads to impaired function of vital organs. Ischemic preconditioning induced by transient brief episodes of ischemia is a powerful innate mechanism of organ protection. We have reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning substantially attenuated subsequent renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we investigate whether a brief ischemia and reperfusion in kidney can provide protection at local and remote sites against sepsis-induced organ injury, and whether this protection is microRNA-21 dependent...
July 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407805/revelation-of-mrnas-and-proteins-in-porcine-milk-exosomes-by-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analysis
#19
Ting Chen, Qian-Yun Xi, Jia-Jie Sun, Rui-Song Ye, Xiao Cheng, Rui-Ping Sun, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Milk is a complex liquid that provides nutrition to newborns. Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. Until now, there is no such research relevant to exosomal mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk, therefore, we have attempted to investigate porcine milk exosomal mRNAs and proteins using RNA-sequencing and proteomic analysis...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401565/serum-and-exosomal-mir-122-and-mir-199a-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-therapeutic-efficacy-of-hepatitis-c-patients
#20
Xiaoyang Jiao, Zhicheng Fan, Huanzhu Chen, Ping He, Yazhen Li, Qiaoxin Zhang, Changwen Ke
AIM: MicroRNA (miRNA), which has been shown to correlate with liver functions, has been proposed as a new biomarker reflecting liver injury. The aim of the study was to investigate miRNA -122 (miR-122) and mir-RNA -199a (miR-199a) as a biomarker for predicting therapeutic efficacy in hepatitis C (HepC)patients. METHODS: 47 HepC 1b patients and 16 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum and exosomal mir-RNAs and other conventional biomarkers reflecting liver function were evaluated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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