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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934733/exosomes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-hipsc-mscs-protect-liver-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-activating-sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-pathway
#1
Yingdong Du, Dawei Li, Conghui Han, Haoyu Wu, Longmei Xu, Ming Zhang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaosong Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exosomes produced by human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs-Exo) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Exosomes derived from hiPSC-MSCs were isolated and characterized both biochemically and biophysically. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo were injected systemically into a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury model via the inferior vena cava, and then the therapeutic effects were evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933629/ezetimibe-ameliorates-steatohepatitis-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-tfeb-mediated-activation-of-autophagy-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibition
#2
Soo Hyun Kim, Gyuri Kim, Dai Hoon Han, Milim Lee, Irene Kim, Bohkyung Kim, Kook Hwan Kim, Young-Mi Song, Jeong Eun Yoo, Hye Jin Wang, Soo Han Bae, Yong-Ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Myung-Shik Lee
Impairment in macroautophagy/autophagy flux and inflammasome activation are common characteristics of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considering the lack of approved agents for treating NASH, drugs that can enhance autophagy and modulate inflammasome pathways may be beneficial. Here, we investigated the novel mechanism of ezetimibe, a widely prescribed drug for hypercholesterolemia, as a therapeutic option for ameliorating NASH. Human liver samples with steatosis and NASH were analyzed. For in vitro studies of autophagy and inflammasomes, primary mouse hepatocytes, human hepatoma cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts with Ampk or Tsc2 knockout, and human or primary mouse macrophages were treated with ezetimibe and palmitate...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895353/-circulating-long-noncoding-rnas-as-biomarkers-in-tumor-diagnosis
#3
Nan Jiang, Haihua Tian, Jinchang Pan, Zhaohui Gong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in vital life processes of gene expression, epigenetic regulation and X-chromosome inactivation. lncRNAs are also closely associated with tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, lncRNAs may enter human circulation system in the form of microvesicle or exosome, or in combination with RNA binding protein. Interestingly, the circulating lncRNAs are widely existed in body fluids, such as blood and urine. We review the origin of circulating lncRNAs, and the detection methods as potential biomarkers...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814883/serum-exosomal-mir-125b-is-a-novel-prognostic-marker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Weifeng Liu, Jie Hu, Kaiqian Zhou, Feiyu Chen, Zheng Wang, Boyi Liao, Zhi Dai, Ya Cao, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with high mortality. Circulating miRNA has been demonstrated as a novel noninvasive biomarker for many tumors. This study aimed to investigate the potential of circulating miR-125b as a prognostic marker of HCC. Exosomes were extracted from serum samples collected from two independent cohorts: cohort 1: HCC (n=30), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n=30), liver cirrhosis (LC, n=30); cohort 2: HCC (n=128). We found that miR-125b levels were remarkably increased in exosomes compared to those in serum from patients with CHB, LC, and HCC (P<0...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807240/role-of-exosomes-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Richard A Burkhart, Carl Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Xufeng Zhang, Stamatios Theocharis, Timothy M Pawlik
Exosomes are nanovesicles that may play a role in intercellular communication by acting as carriers of functional contents such as proteins, lipids, RNA molecules and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. In addition, exosomes may play a potential role in immunosurveillance and tumor pathogenesis and progression. Recently, research has increasingly focused on the role of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver malignancy. We herein review data on emerging experimental and clinical studies focused on the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, progression and chemotherapy response of patients with HCC...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766848/microrna-30a-ameliorates-hepatic-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-beclin1-mediated-autophagy
#6
Jianliang Chen, Yue Yu, Shu Li, Yuting Liu, Shu Zhou, Shouji Cao, Jie Yin, Guoqiang Li
We explored the role of microRNA-30a (miR-30a) and the mechanism involved in hepatic fibrosis. MiR-30a overexpression was achieved by miR-30a mimics transfection in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (HSC-T6, LX-2), and miR-30a agomir (ago-miR-30a) treatment in mice. MiR-30a levels were measured using TaqMan miRNA assay system, and the localization of miR-30a was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The interaction of miR-30a and Beclin1 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Autophagic flux was analysed using tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and Western blot of LC3-II/I ratio...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749570/hepatocyte-derived-exosomes-promote-t-follicular-regulatory-cell-expansion-during-hcv-infection
#7
Dustin A Cobb, Lucy Golden-Mason, Hugo R Rosen, Young S Hahn
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern that can cause severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Control of HCV requires vigorous T cell responses, yet CD4(+) T cells in chronic HCV patients are dysfunctional. T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a subset of regulatory T cells that suppress T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and the generation of high affinity antibody-producing B cells. In this study, we examined the accumulation of Tfr cells in the liver compartment during chronic HCV infection and defined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion...
July 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740555/atg9b-deficiency-suppresses-autophagy-and-potentiates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-associated-hepatocyte-apoptosis-in-hepatocarcinogenesis
#8
Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Sha Li, Yibin Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying autophagy deficiency during hepatic carcinogenesis. For this purpose, we used choline-deficient, amino acid-defined (CDAA) hepatocarcinogenesis model in mice. miRNA microarrays combined with computational target predictions and GO analysis were used to identify molecular processes involved in carcinogenesis. PCR profiler array was employed to detect the dysregulated autophagy-related genes during carcinogenesis. We observed induction of hepatic tumours with increased inflammation, DNA damage, and cell death...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711943/pancreatic-cancer-derived-exosomes-promote-tumor-metastasis-and-liver-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#9
Zeqian Yu, Susu Zhao, Long Ren, Lishan Wang, Zhangjun Chen, Robert M Hoffman, Jiahua Zhou
Exosomes play important roles in cell-cell communication, and are likely mediators of the metastatic cascade in cancer. This study examined the role of exosomes in pancreatic cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. We isolated and purified exosomes from two isogenic pancreatic cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials. Uptake of exosomes from highly metastatic Panc02-H7 cells decreased adhesion and increased migration and invasion capacity in weakly metastatic Panc02 cells in vitro. Exosomes from highly metastatic pancreatic cancer cells induced liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naïve mice and promoted primary tumor growth and liver metastasis in vivo...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711597/micrornas-and-extracellular-vesicles-in-cholangiopathies
#10
REVIEW
P Olaizola, P Y Lee-Law, A Arbelaiz, A Lapitz, M J Perugorria, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Cholangiopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting biliary epithelial cells (i.e. cholangiocytes). Early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment still remain clinically challenging for most of these diseases and are critical for adequate patient care. In the past decade, extensive research has emphasized microRNAs (miRs) as potential non-invasive biomarkers and tools to accurately identify, predict and treat cholangiopathies. MiRs can be released extracellularly conjugated with lipoproteins or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695799/effect-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cell-derived-exosome-on-the-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-interaction
#11
Fei Luo, Zhao Sun, Qin Han, Chunling Xue, Chunmei Bai
Objective To investigate the effect of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell-derived Exosome on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSC)into cancer-associated myofibroblasts(CAF)and the impacts of CAF on liver cancer cell proliferation,migration,and invasion. Methods The protein expression of HepG2 cell-derived Exosome was detected by Western blotting. MSCs were separated from human adipose tissue and cultured with HepG2 cell-derived Exosome(100 ng/nl)to initiate differentiation. The expressions of mesenchymal markers and several interleukins were also detected by Western blotting...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687359/identification-and-characterization-of-the-lamprey-flotillin-1-gene-with-a-role-in-cell-adhesion
#12
Rong Xu, Xiaoping Song, Peng Su, Yue Pang, Qingwei Li
Flotillin-1 is a kind of localize into specific cholesterol rich microdomains in cellular membranes and highly conserved lipid rafts marker protein widely distributed in animals and plants. It provides a platform for the reaction of many proteins in signal transduction, as scaffolding plays an important role in transmembrane signaling and cell adhesion. Here, Flotillin-1 protein from lamprey was identified and characterized (designated as L-Flotillin-1). After a partial cDNA sequence of L-Flotillin-1 was identified in a lamprey supraneural body cDNA library, the full-length cDNA was obtained using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
July 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684664/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-potential-as-novel-immunomodulatory-therapeutic-agents
#13
REVIEW
Verena Börger, Michel Bremer, Rita Ferrer-Tur, Lena Gockeln, Oumaima Stambouli, Amina Becic, Bernd Giebel
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been identified as mediators of a newly-discovered intercellular communication system. They are essential signaling mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Depending on their origin, they fulfill different functions. EVs of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been found to promote comparable therapeutic activities as MSCs themselves. In a variety of in vivo models, it has been observed that they suppress pro-inflammatory processes and reduce oxidative stress and fibrosis...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684654/adipocyte-derived-exosomes-promote-lung-cancer-metastasis-by-increasing-mmp9-activity-via-transferring-mmp3-to-lung-cancer-cells
#14
REVIEW
Jia-Zhou Ye, Yan-Yan Wang, Tao Bai, Jie Chen, Bang-De Xiang, Fei-Xiang Wu, Le-Qun Li
Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) usually worsens prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as characterized by aggressive disease progression, impaired liver function and tolerance to treatment. Conventionally, the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) accepted the Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) treatment algorithms, identifying PVTT as an absolute contra-indication of surgical resection for HCC. HCC-PVTT patients are offered sorafenib as the standard treatment...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680753/efficacy-of-vaccination-with-tumor-exosome-loaded-dendritic-cells-combined-with-cytotoxic-drug-treatment-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Li Xiao, Ulrike Erb, Kun Zhao, Thilo Hackert, Margot Zöller
Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) has a dismal prognosis and adjuvant immunotherapy frequently is of low efficacy due to immunosuppressive features of PaCa and PaCa-stroma. We here explored, whether the efficacy of vaccination with tumor-exosome (TEX)-loaded dendritic cells (DC) can be improved by combining with drugs affecting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Experiments were performed with the UNKC6141 PaCa line. UNKC6141 TEX-loaded DC were weekly intravenously injected, mice additionally receiving Gemcitabine (GEM) and/or ATRA and/or Sunitinib (Sun)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676332/circulating-exosomes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-as-phenotypic-biomarkers-and-mechanistic-messengers-of-end-organ-morbidity
#16
REVIEW
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most severe form of sleep disordered breathing, is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), sleep fragmentation, and episodic hypercapnia. OSA is associated with increased risk for morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive systems, and more recently with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer-related deaths. Substantial variability in OSA outcomes suggests that genetically-determined and environmental and lifestyle factors affect the phenotypic susceptibility to OSA...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655859/papers-of-note-in-nature546-7659
#17
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles describe engineered exosomes for treating pancreatic cancer, the role of the endoplasmic reticulum in cancer cell apoptosis, the priming of brown fat for cold-induced thermogenesis, synapse loss in a mouse model of lupus, and communication between cells of different lineages during liver development.
June 27, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653754/adipose-derived-exosomal-mirnas-orchestrates-gene-regulation-in-the-liver-is-this-the-missing-link-in-nafld
#18
Hannelie Korf, Schalk van der Merwe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636562/exosome-encapsulated-micrornas-as-circulating-biomarkers-for-colorectal-cancer
#19
Shushan Yan, Bing Han, Shunyuan Gao, Xiaochen Wang, Zengfang Wang, Fakai Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Donghua Xu, Beicheng Sun
Currently available studies have suggested that a number of exosome-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized as stable biomarkers for cancers. However, little is known about the effect of exosomal miRNAs on colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of study is to identify specific miRNAs in serum exosomes, which may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for CRC. Microarray analyses of miRNAs in serum exosomes from 3 primary CRC patients and 3 healthy controls were performed...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623272/exosomes-derived-from-palmitic-acid-treated-hepatocytes-induce-fibrotic-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#20
Young-Sun Lee, So Yeon Kim, Eunjung Ko, Jun-Hee Lee, Hyon-Seung Yi, Yang Jae Yoo, Jihye Je, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Won-Il Jeong, Jong Eun Yeon, Soon Ho Um, Kwan Soo Byun
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dominant cause of chronic liver disease, but the exact mechanism of progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of exosomes in NAFLD progression. Exosomes were isolated from a human hepatoma cell line treated with palmitic acid (PA) and their miRNA profiles examined by microarray. The human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line (LX-2) was then treated with exosome isolated from hepatocytes...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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