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Diabet mellitus in children

Ana Laura Fitas, Catarina Martins, Luís Miguel Borrego, Lurdes Lopes, Anne Jörns, Sigurd Lenzen, Catarina Limbert
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops in distinct stages, before and after disease onset. Whether the natural course translates into different immunologic patterns is still uncertain. This study aimed at identifying peripheral immune patterns at key time-points, in T1D children undergoing remission phase. METHODS: Children with new-onset T1D and healthy age and gender-matched controls were recruited at a paediatric hospital. Peripheral blood samples were evaluated by flow cytometry at three longitudinal time-points: onset (T1), remission phase (T2) and established disease (T3)...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Huan Liu, Min Guo, Fu-Li Jiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the serum concentrations of fatty acid-binding protein 4(FABP4) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to determine the relationship between patients with good and poor glycaemic control who were classified according to their glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. METHODS: Children with T1DM were selected consecutively from our department from May 2016 to May 2017. For comparison, the same non-diabetic, age, sex, BMI and pubertal stage-matched healthy children were selected consecutively among non-diabetic children...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Johann Große, Henriette Hornstein, Ulf Manuwald, Joachim Kugler, Ingmar Glauche, Ulrike Rothe
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is usually diagnosed by insulin deficiency at a young age. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) represents a severe complication occurring before the first diagnosis of T1DM. Actually, the data situation is still unsettled in assessing the current state of diagnosis. This study summarizes the latest rates of DKA of new-onset T1DM in children and adolescents in different countries available over the last five years. Different T1DM-related, geographical and socioeconomic moderators are suitable to explain the heterogeneity of observed DKA rates...
March 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Bahendeka Silver, Kaushik Ramaiya, Swai Babu Andrew, Otieno Fredrick, Sarita Bajaj, Sanjay Kalra, Bavuma M Charlotte, Karigire Claudine, Anthony Makhoba
A diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia should be confirmed prior to ordering, dispensing, or administering insulin (A). Insulin is the primary treatment in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (A). Typically, patients with T1DM will require initiation with multiple daily injections at the time of diagnosis. This is usually short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue given 0 to 15 min before meals together with one or more daily separate injections of intermediate or long-acting insulin...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Carlo Ripoli, Anna Paola Pinna, Faustina Podda, Roberta Zanni, Maria Giada Tronci, Anna Maria Nurchi
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before), clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Betül Ersoy, Nilgün Eroğlu, Mecnun Çetin, Ece Onur, Mine Özkol, Şenol Coşkun
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in young patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus according to diabetes duration and to examine the relationship between these levels and measures of atherosclerosis and myocardial function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 83 patients (8.5-22 years) with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were stratified by diabetes duration: 12-60 months (Group 1, n = 27), >60-120 months (Group 2, n = 29) and >120 months (Group 3, n = 27)...
March 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Rebecka Andreasson, Charlotte Ekelund, Mona Landin-Olsson, Charlotta Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a metabolic disease causing hyperglycemia due to β-cell destruction. Despite adequate treatment, complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) are common. The first aim was to investigate if acute onset of type 1 diabetes differed between those who had developed retinopathy and who had not after 15 years from diagnosis. The second aim was to investigate if mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels affect the time to development of DR...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Joanna Yuet-Ling Tung, Kara Boodhansingh, Charles A Stanley, Diva D De León
BACKGROUND: Dominant inactivating mutations in HNF1A and HNF4A have been described to cause hyperinsulinism (HI) before evolving to diabetes. However, information available in the literature regarding the clinical phenotype is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of HNF1A and HNF4A mutations in a large cohort of children with HI, and to describe their genotypes and phenotypes. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to extract clinical information...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Nurah M Hammoud, Gerard H A Visser, Lenie van Rossem, Douwe H Biesma, Jan M Wit, Harold W de Valk
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2)...
February 28, 2018: Diabetologia
Liv Guro Engen Hanem, Solhild Stridsklev, Pétur B Júlíusson, Øyvind Salvesen, Mathieu Roelants, Sven M Carlsen, Rønnaug Ødegård, Eszter Vanky
Context: Metformin is used in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity. Metformin passes the placenta. Objective: To explore the effects of metformin use in PCOS pregnancies on offspring growth to 4 years of age. Design: Follow-up study of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials. Setting: Secondary care centers. Eleven public hospitals in Norway...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kemal Tekin, Merve Inanc, Erdal Kurnaz, Elvan Bayramoglu, Emre Aydemir, Mustafa Koc, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Zehra Aycan
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether abnormal glucose metabolism and duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) caused the thinning in retinal layers in children with type 1 DM without retinopathy by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to compare the results obtained with those in healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional prospective study included 73 patients with type 1 DM (DM group) and 62 age-matched control subjects (control group). The duration of DM and the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of the diabetic children were recorded...
February 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Taina Mustila, Jani Raitanen, Päivi Keskinen, Riitta Luoto
BACKGROUND: Obesity in childhood appears often during the toddler years. The prenatal environment influences obesity risk. Maternal gestational diabetes, the child's diet, and physical activity in the first few years have an important role in subsequent weight gain. A study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of a primary health-care lifestyle counselling intervention in prevention of childhood obesity up to 6 years of age. METHODS: The study was a controlled pragmatic trial to prevent childhood obesity and was implemented at maternity and child health-care clinics...
February 27, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Gönül Çatlı, Ahmet Anık, Sezer Acar, Tuncay Küme, Melike Karabulut, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Bumin Nuri Dündar, Ayhan Abacı
AIM: To investigate serum levels of brain injury markers in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the relation of these markers with clinical and radiological findings of brain injury and laboratory results. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with DKA, 30 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 35 healthy children were included. Clinical and laboratory findings, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded. In the DKA group, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) levels were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 hours after treatment...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Hongquan Wan, Chunguo Zhang, He Li, Shuxin Luan, Chang Liu
Studies on the association of maternal diabetes with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in offspring provide inconsistent findings; therefore an updated and comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis is necessary to perform in order to evaluate the available evidences.After searching databases systematically, we established the inclusion criteria and selected the eligible studies. In both overall and stratified analyses, the estimated effects were synthesized dependent on the presence or absence of heterogeneity...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katarzyna Marshall, Halley Martin, Kim Siarkowski Amer
Friends can provide encouragement and support during stressful times. Friends are even more important for children coping with chronic illness such as adolescents managing insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Nurses need to recognize that the knowledge and care of both the children coping with diabetes and friends can be critical. This study explored perceptions of adolescents managing diabetes and their peers. The non-affected peers and adolescents with IDDM ranged in age between 15-18 were studied using an exploratory qualitative method...
March 2018: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
Don P Wilson, Luke Hamilton, Jose Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, often leading to morbidity and premature mortality. As the number of youth developing T1D and T2D continues to grow, this early onset predisposes patients to a longer burden of disease and earlier onset of cardiovascular complications. Early identification and effective management and treatment of these risk factors can lead to decreased cardiovascular events and improved quality of life...
February 21, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
Adi Adar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ori Eyal, Neta Loewenthal, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Milana Levy, Orna Dally-Gottfried, Zohar Landau, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, David Zangen, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted, with linkage of data from 13 pediatric diabetes centers and Israeli National Registries, including T1DM patients and general non-T1DM population, born during 2000-2013...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
I V Yang, W Zhang, E J Davidson, T E Fingerlin, K Kechris, D Dabelea
AIMS: To identify gestational diabetes mellitus exposure-associated DNA methylation changes and assess whether such changes are also associated with adiposity-related outcomes. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association analysis, using Illumina 450k methylation arrays, on whole blood collected, on average, at 10.5 years of age from 81 gestational diabetes-exposed and 81 unexposed offspring enrolled in the EPOCH (Exploring Perinatal Outcomes in Children) study, and on the cord blood of 31 gestational diabetes-exposed and 64 unexposed offspring enrolled in our own 'Healthy Start' cohort...
February 20, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Hankil Lee, Dong-Ho Song, Jin-Won Kwon, Euna Han, Min-Jung Chang, Hye-Young Kang
To examine the associations between atypical antipsychotic (AAP) exposure and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders, we conducted a nested case-control study using the claims data of the National Health Insurance system of Korea between 2010 and 2014. A cohort of patients with psychiatric disorders was identified, and enrollment was taken as the date of the first psychiatric diagnosis. Cases involved patients with a diagnosis of T2DM or prescriptions for glucose lowering drugs after enrollment, and the identification of T2DM was defined as the index date...
February 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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