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discontinuing hormonal contraceptives

Carolina A Moreira, John P Bilezikian
CONTEXT: Stress fractures are repetitive use injuries in which recurrent strains lead to material fatigue and microarchitectural discontinuities. Stress fractures account for up to 20% of athletic injuries, more commonly sustained by women and in those who engage in track-and-field events. The pathogenesis of stress fractures is multifactorial. Although most stress fracture are reported among women who may experience menstrual disturbances, low body mass index, low energy intake and sometimes low bone mass, these individuals do not regularly seek endocrinological attention...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Franca Fruzzetti, Daria Perini, Lara Fornaciari, Marinella Russo, Fiorella Bucci, Angiolo Gadducci
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine, in a sample of Italian women, the rate of discontinuation of use of hormonal contraception. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, data were collected from a chart review of 1809 women using or stopping the hormonal contraceptive prescribed by their physician. The name of the contraceptive and the reason for discontinuation were taken from the charts. The differences between the methods regarding reasons for discontinuation were analysed...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Deborah Bateson, Caroline Harvey, Lieu Trinh, Mary Stewart, Kirsten I Black
BACKGROUND: Copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) use in Australia is low despite being a highly effective, cost effective non-hormonal contraceptive with reported 12-month continuation rates of 85% compared to 59% for oral contraception. AIMS: To describe the characteristics of Cu-IUD users in the Australian context, their experiences of side effects, continuation rates and reasons for discontinuation. METHODS: Between August 2009 and January 2012 we undertook a prospective cohort study of consecutive women presenting for Cu-IUD insertion to three family planning clinics in Queensland and New South Wales...
October 5, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Jonathan Schaffir, Brett L Worly, Tamar L Gur
OBJECTIVES: Adverse mood changes are sometimes cited as a reason for discontinuing combined hormonal contraception (CHC). A systematic review of recent literature was undertaken to characterise the nature of these side effects and identify characteristics that might predispose women to such effects. METHODS: A MEDLINE review of studies from the past 30 years that focused on CHC and mood was performed. Database search was supplemented with studies found through citations and references...
October 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Laureen M Lopez, Shanthi Ramesh, Mario Chen, Alison Edelman, Conrad Otterness, James Trussell, Frans M Helmerhorst
BACKGROUND: Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. POCs include injectables, intrauterine contraception, implants, and oral contraceptives. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Qin Wang, Peter Würtz, Kirsi Auro, Laure Morin-Papunen, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Tiainen, Tuulia Tynkkynen, Anni Joensuu, Aki S Havulinna, Kristiina Aalto, Marko Salmi, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Veikko Salomaa, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Markus Perola, Olli T Raitakari, Debbie A Lawlor, Johannes Kettunen, Mika Ala-Korpela
BACKGROUND: Hormonal contraception is commonly used worldwide, but its systemic effects across lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acids, circulating metabolites and cytokines remain poorly understood. METHODS: A comprehensive molecular profile (75 metabolic measures and 37 cytokines) was measured for up to 5841 women (age range 24-49 years) from three population-based cohorts. Women using combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) or progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) were compared with those who did not use hormonal contraception...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink, Yvette Zimmerman, Ellen Laan, Hanneke M M Termeer, Nicole Appels, Adelin Albert, Bart C J M Fauser, Jos H H Thijssen, Rik H W van Lunsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to combined oral contraceptives (COCs) maintains physiological levels of free testosterone. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study conducted in 81 healthy women (age range: 20-35 years; BMI range: 18-35 kg/m(2)) using oral contraceptives. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) were measured, and free testosterone and the free testosterone index (FTI) were calculated...
July 5, 2016: Contraception
Amy G Bryant, Gloria Hamela, Ann Gotter, Gretchen S Stuart, Gift Kamanga
The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, long-acting, and effective method of contraception that is under-utilized in many countries, including Malawi. A unique cohort of women who had enrolled in a trial of postpartum IUD use one year earlier gave insights into reasons for using, discontinuing, or not using the IUD. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 women one year after they participated in a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of postpartum IUD insertion, and 10 of their male partners...
December 2015: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Vanja Poppe Skipenes, Finn Egil Skjeldestad
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about vaginal ring (VR) prescribers and user patterns in Norway and internationally. With data from the Norwegian Prescription Database, we explore user and prescriber characteristics of women initiating VR use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study design, we analyzed 47 127 first-time VR users from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. Follow up ended on 30 June 2013. We applied strict definitions for switching from any other hormonal contraceptive before and at the end of VR use...
September 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Sandhya Jain, Neelam B Vaid, Yam Narang, Amita Suneja, Kiran Guleria
INTRODUCTION: Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) pills are being used in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding, especially adolescents and reproductive age women considering their need for contraception. It decreases the blood loss due to haemostatic effect of estrogen and also regularizes the cycle. Intravaginal route has been found to be effective and acceptable; Gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic first-pass metabolism is avoided and steady, uniform blood concentration is achieved...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Margo Mullinax, Stephanie Sanders, Barbara Dennis, Jenny Higgins, J Dennis Fortenberry, Michael Reece
We have almost no data on how and when couples stop using condoms. This qualitative study investigated the process of condom discontinuation. From November 2013 to April 2014, a total of 25 women living in a college town in the Midwest, ages 18 to 25, participated in semistructured interviews centered around three domains: partner interactions, contraceptive use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. Analysis followed a critical qualitative research orientation. Participants described actively seeking the best options to prevent pregnancy, perceiving condom discontinuation in favor of hormonal methods as a smart decision, and reported wanting to discontinue using condoms due to physical discomfort...
March 16, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Edna Strauss, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Alex Vianey Callado França, Andre Castro Lyra, Fabio Marinho do Rego Barros, Ivonete Silva, José Huygens Parente Garcia, Edison Roberto Parise
Space-occupying lesions of the liver may be cystic or solid. Ultrasonography is an extremely useful method for initial screening, and suffices for diagnosis of simple hepatic cysts. Complex cysts and solid masses require computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging for confirmation. Wide surgical excision is indicated in cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological data are important, as nodules in noncirrhotic livers are more likely to be benign. Hemangiomas, the most common benign tumors, require no follow-up after diagnostic confirmation if they are small and asymptomatic...
December 2015: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Christina Wang, Mario P R Festin, Ronald S Swerdloff
Hormonal male contraception clinical trials began in the 1970s. The method is based on the use of exogenous testosterone alone or in combination with a progestin to suppress the endogenous production of testosterone and spermatogenesis. Studies using testosterone alone showed that the method was very effective with few adverse effects. Addition of a progestin increases the rate and extent of suppression of spermatogenesis. Common adverse effects include acne, injection site pain, mood change including depression, and changes in libido that are usually mild and rarely lead to discontinuation...
2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
Patrick Rowe, Tim Farley, Alexandre Peregoudov, Gilda Piaggio, Simone Boccard, Sihem Landoulsi, Olav Meirik
OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of unintended pregnancy, method continuation and reasons for removal among women using the 52-mg levonorgestrel (daily release 20 microg) levonorgestrel IUD (LNG-IUD) or the copper T 380A (TCu380A) intrauterine device. STUDY DESIGN: This was an open-label 7-year randomized controlled trial in 20 centres, 11 of which in China. Data on 1884 women with interval insertion of the LNG-IUD and 1871 of the TCu380A were analysed using life tables with 30-day intervals and Cox proportional hazards models...
June 2016: Contraception
Hanna Klaus, Manuel E Cortés
Governments and society have accepted and enthusiastically promoted contraception, especially contraceptive steroid hormones, as the means of assuring optimal timing and number of births, an undoubted health benefit, but they seldom advert to their limitations and side effects. This article reviews the literature on the psychological, social, and spiritual impact of contraceptive steroid use. While the widespread use of contraceptive steroid hormones has expanded life style and career choices for many women, their impact on the women's well-being, emotions, social relationships, and spirituality is seldom mentioned by advocates, and negative effects are often downplayed...
August 2015: Linacre Quarterly
Matthew F Reeves, Qiuhong Zhao, Gina M Secura, Jeffrey F Peipert
BACKGROUND: After initiating a new contraceptive method, the provider has little control of how or whether that method is used. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare unintended pregnancy rates by the initial chosen contraceptive method after counseling to traditional contraceptive effectiveness in the same study population. STUDY DESIGN: The Contraceptive CHOICE Project provided reversible contraception to 9252 women at no cost during 2-3 years of follow-up...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joy J Chebet, Shannon A McMahon, Jesse A Greenspan, Idda H Mosha, Jennifer A Callaghan-Koru, Japhet Killewo, Abdullah H Baqui, Peter J Winch
BACKGROUND: Family planning has been shown to be an effective intervention for promoting maternal, newborn and child health. Despite family planning's multiple benefits, women's experiences of - or concerns related to - side effects present a formidable barrier to the sustained use of contraceptives, particularly in the postpartum period. This paper presents perspectives of postpartum, rural, Tanzanian women, their partners, public opinion leaders and community and health facility providers related to side effects associated with contraceptive use...
November 3, 2015: BMC Women's Health
Sofya Maslyanskaya, Susan M Coupey, Rosy Chhabra, Unab I Khan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: In the United States, teen pregnancy rates are declining. However, the United States still has the highest teen pregnancy rate among high-income countries. Understanding factors that predict discontinuation of effective contraception might help to further decrease teen pregnancy. We aimed to assess predictors of early discontinuation of effective contraception during typical use by high-risk teens. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We recruited 145 women aged 13-20 years (mean, 17...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Megan L Kavanaugh, Jenna Jerman, Lawrence B Finer
OBJECTIVE: To examine current levels, current correlates of, and changes in long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use, including intrauterine devices and implants, among females aged 15-44 years using contraception between 2008-2010 and 2011-2013 with specific attention to associations between race, income, and age and their LARC use. METHODS: We analyzed data from two rounds of the National Survey of Family Growth, nationally representative samples of females aged 15-44 years, consisting of 6,428 females in 2008-2010 and 5,601 females in 2011-2013...
November 2015: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sunni L Mumford, Sungduk Kim, Zhen Chen, Dana Boyd Barr, Germaine M Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Phytoestrogens have been associated with subtle hormonal changes, although effects on male fecundity are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated associations between male urinary phytoestrogen (isoflavone and lignan) concentrations and semen quality. METHODS: This study was a prospective cohort study of 501 male partners of couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception. Each participant provided up to 2 semen samples that were analyzed for 35 semen quality endpoints the following day...
November 2015: Journal of Nutrition
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