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Periphereal neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690708/-effect-of-transient-ischemic-attack-on-early-neurological-deterioration-in-patients-with-ipsilateral-ischemic-stroke
#1
S S Cao, A L Lin, L Sun, H Liang, Y Cheng, Y W Xu
Objective: To explore the effect of anterior circulation transient ischemic attack (TIA) on early neurological deterioration (END) in patients with ipsilateral ischemic stroke and its mechanism. Methods: (1) One hundred and thirteen patients with ipsilateral ischemic stroke and 36 healthy volunteers (healthy control group) in Neurology Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from November 2014 to July 2015 were recruited into this study. According to whether got TIA before ischemic stroke, patients were divided into simple ischemic stroke group (CI group, n =87) and TIA-CI group ( n =26)...
April 3, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689593/transcatheter-technologies-for-valvular-replacement-an-update
#2
Antonio Nenna, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Simone Morganti, Laura Mazzocchi, Ferdinando Auricchio, Massimo Chello, Francesco Nappi
This report provides a brief overview of the basic principles, recent advances, and recommendations for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in adults. Approaches that avoid neurological, cardiac and peripheral vascular complications have been developed. In addition, TAVR can be performed in intermediate- and low-risk patients. However, these procedures require specialized training and may not allow for complete resolution of the underlying issue. Even if cardiologists learn to perform the procedure and despite advancements in device technology, TAVR is still susceptible to structural valve degeneration, thrombosis and late cerebral embolization...
April 23, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687407/ultradeep-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing-of-hiv-envelope-reveals-complete-compartmentalization-of-highly-macrophage-tropic-r5-proviral-variants-in-brain-and-cxcr4-using-variants-in-immune-and-peripheral-tissues
#3
Robin L Brese, Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Matthew Koch, Olivia O'Connell, Katherine Luzuriaga, Mohan Somasundaran, Paul R Clapham, James Jarad Dollar, David J Nolan, Rebecca Rose, Susanna L Lamers
Despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV+ patients still develop neurological disorders, which may be due to persistent HIV infection and selective evolution in brain tissues. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology offers an improved opportunity to study the relationship among HIV isolates in the brain and lymphoid tissues because it is capable of generating thousands of long sequence reads in a single run. Here, we used SMRT sequencing to generate ~ 50,000 high-quality full-length HIV envelope sequences (> 2200 bp) from seven autopsy tissues from an HIV+/cART+ subject, including three brain and four non-brain sites...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685288/peripheral-blood-monocyte-count-at-onset-may-affect-the-prognosis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating neurological disease with unknown causes. In this study, we comprehensively studied blood cell counts in the early phase of MS and compared their values with eventual prognostic variables. We found that the blood monocyte count in the early phase of MS was robustly associated with the clinical severity of MS (rho = 0.64; p = 0.0002) but that the counts of the other blood cells were not associated with severity. This correlation between monocyte count and severity was not observed in neuromyelitis optica...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685043/hepatitis-e-virus-in-neurological-disorders-a-case-of-parsonage-turner-syndrome
#5
María Sánchez Azofra, Miriam Romero Portales, Lucia Tortajada Laureiro, Javier García-Samaniego, Pedro Mora Sanz
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease in developed countries with a broad clinical spectrum. In the absence of immunodeficiency or pregnancy, it is a mild and almost asymptomatic condition in most cases. However, extrahepatic manifestations, including neurological conditions, are common and may occasionally lead to permanent neurological sequelae. Herein, we report the case of an immunocompetent patient who was admitted to our hospital with paresthesia and weakness in both the upper extremities associated with anicteric-elevated transaminases...
April 24, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683363/cardiovascular-autonomic-response-to-orthostatic-stress-under-hypoxia-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Shu-Chun Huang, Kuo-Cheng Liu, Alice M K Wong, Shih-Chieh Chang, Jong-Shyan Wang
Huang, Shu-Chun, Kuo-Cheng Liu, Alice M.K. Wong, Shih-Chieh Chang, and Jong-Shyan Wang. Cardiovascular autonomic response to orthostatic stress under hypoxia in patients with spinal cord injury. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. AIMS: Determining whether systemic hypoxia aggravates the severity of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction in orthostatic stress among patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). METHODS: Twenty-four male patients with chronic SCI whose neurological levels were above T6 were recruited...
April 23, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680795/monomac-syndrome-with-associated-neurological-deficits-and-longitudinally-extensive-cord-lesion
#7
Mastura Monif, Aamira Huq, Lynette Chee, Trevor Kilpatrick
We present a case of monocytopaenia and mycobacteria-related infection (MonoMac) syndrome in a 30-year-old man of Indian origin. The clinical diagnosis of GATA2 haploinsufficiency was suspected after an unusual neurological presentation on a background of myelodysplastic syndrome and childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion and a lesion in the medulla. No obvious infective cause for the spinal cord MRI abnormality was found, and the lesions were presumed to be inflammatory in nature...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680773/changes-in-the-hippocampal-and-peripheral-phospholipid-profiles-are-associated-with-neurodegeneration-hallmarks-in-a-long-term-global-cerebral-ischemia-model-attenuation-by-linalool
#8
Angélica Maria Sabogal-Guáqueta, Rafael Posada-Duque, Natalie Charlotte Cortes, Julian D Arias-Londoño, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Phospholipid alterations in the brain are associated with progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment after acute and chronic injuries. Various types of treatments have been evaluated for their abilities to block the progression of the impairment, but effective treatments targeting long-term post-stroke alterations are not available. In this study, we analyzed changes in the central and peripheral phospholipid profiles in ischemic rats and determined whether a protective monoterpene, Linalool, could modify them...
April 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678819/reversible-metronidazole-induced-neurotoxicity-after-10-weeks-of-therapy
#9
Wafa AlDhaleei, Ayesha AlMarzooqi, Nouran Gaber
Metronidazole is a commonly used antimicrobial worldwide. The most common side effects that have been reported are nausea, vomiting and hypersensitivity reactions. However, neurotoxicity has been reported with the use of metronidazole but rather rare. The most common neurological manifestation is peripheral neuropathy involvement in the form of sensory loss. It is worth mentioning that central neurotoxicity is a rare side effect of metronidazole use but reversible. The manifestations vary from a headache, altered mental status to focal neurological deficits...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678206/biliverdin-reductase-a-attenuated-gmh-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-spleen-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-through-enos-no-pathway
#10
Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Devin W McBride, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a common neurologic event with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Spleen has been reported to play a critical role in inflammatory responses by regulating peripheral immune cells which contributes to secondary brain injury. METHODS: The current study investigated the mechanistic role of biliverdin reductase-A (BLVRA) in the splenic response and brain damage in neonates following a collagenase GMH model...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673373/chorioamnionitis-neuroinflammation-and-injury-timing-is-key-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#11
Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J J Westerlaken, Daan R M G Ophelders, Alan H Jobe, Matthew W Kemp, Suhas G Kallapur, Luc J Zimmermann, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss, Tim G A M Wolfs
BACKGROUND: Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmarks of preterm brain injury. Understanding the temporal effects of antenatal infection in relation to the onset of neurological injury is crucial for the development of neurotherapeutics for preterm infants. However, these dynamics remain unstudied. METHODS: Time-mated ewes were intra-amniotically injected with lipopolysaccharide at 5, 12, or 24 h or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before preterm delivery at 125 days gestational age (term ~ 150 days)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673258/methylglyoxal-disrupts-paranodal-axoglial-junctions-via-calpain-activation
#12
Ryan B Griggs, Leonid M Yermakov, Domenica E Drouet, Duc V M Nguyen, Keiichiro Susuki
Nodes of Ranvier and associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains along myelinated axons are essential for normal function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Disruption of these domains as well as increases in the reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal are implicated as a pathophysiology common to a wide variety of neurological diseases. Here, using an ex vivo nerve exposure model, we show that increasing methylglyoxal produces paranodal disruption, evidenced by disorganized immunostaining of axoglial cell-adhesion proteins, in both sciatic and optic nerves from wild-type mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662725/multiple-cranial-neuropathies-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Nakul Katyal, Anant Wadhwa, Pradeep C Bollu
Neuropathies can occur in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) at any stage of the disease as a presenting symptom or during later stages of illness. A wide spectrum of neurological association is known to occur with DLBCL, ranging from cranial nerve palsies to peripheral neuropathies. Evaluation of cranial and peripheral neuropathies in patients with DLBCL requires meticulous clinical, imaging, and electrodiagnostic testing. A 75-year-old right-handed female with a known history of multiple cranial neuropathies and DLBCL presented with acute dysphagia and upper extremity weakness of one-week duration...
February 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661920/dhtkd1-deficiency-causes-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-in-mice
#15
Wang-Yang Xu, Houbao Zhu, Yan Shen, Ying-Han Wan, Xiao-Die Tu, Wen-Ting Wu, Lingyun Tang, Hong-Xin Zhang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Xiao-Long Jin, Jian Fei, Zhu-Gang Wang
DHTKD1, a part of 2-ketoadipic acid dehydrogenase complex, is involved in lysine and tryptophan catabolism. Mutations in DHTKD1 block the metabolic pathway and cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria (AMOXAD), an autosomal recessive inborn metabolic disorder. In addition, a nonsense mutation in DHTKD1 we identified previously causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2Q, one of the most common inherited neurological disorders affecting the peripheral nerves in the musculature. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism underlying CMT2Q remains elusive...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657092/the-critical-chemical-and-mechanical-regulation-of-folic-acid-on-neural-engineering
#16
Gloria B Kim, Yongjie Chen, Weibo Kang, Jinshan Guo, Russell Payne, Hui Li, Qiong Wei, Julianne Baker, Cheng Dong, Sulin Zhang, Pak Kin Wong, Elias B Rizk, Jiazhi Yan, Jian Yang
The mandate of folic acid supplementation in grained products has reduced the occurrence of neural tube defects by one third in the U.S since its introduction by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998. However, the advantages and possible mechanisms of action of using folic acid for peripheral nerve engineering and neurological diseases still remain largely elusive. Herein, folic acid is described as an inexpensive and multifunctional niche component that modulates behaviors in different cells in the nervous system...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652700/overall-disability-sum-score-for-clinical-assessment-of-neurological-involvement-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#17
Roberto Padoan, Maddalena Marconato, Mara Felicetti, Francesco Cinetto, Mariachiara Cerchiaro, Francesca Rizzo, Renzo Marcolongo, Leonardo Punzi, Carlo Agostini, Franco Schiavon
AIM: The aim of this study was to verify the application of Overall Disability Sum Score (ODSS) for standardized clinical assessment of neurological involvement in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) and its correlation with treatment response and long-term outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive EGPA patients referred to our tertiary vasculitis center were retrospectively evaluated. Patients' neurological damage and disability were systematically assessed with Vasculitis Damage Index and ODSS...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651369/unusual-relapse-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-after-remission
#18
Wajeeha Rizvi, Quoc Truong
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia with over 20,000 estimated cases in 2017. Leukemic involvement of the nervous system from CLL causing neurologic symptoms is reported in only about one percent of patients. Unfortunately, there is no current standard therapy for the treatment of CLL leptomeningeal disease. In this case, we discuss an unusual presentation of CLL leptomeningeal disease misdiagnosed as chronic rebound headache. A 61-year-old female was diagnosed with Rai stage I CLL in 2002...
February 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651208/role-of-brain-biomarker-in-predicting-clinical-outcome-in-hypertensive-cerebrovascular-ischemic-stroke
#19
Anuradha Bharosay, Vivek Vikram Bharosay, Kiran Saxena, Meena Varma
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) in prediction of disability and neurological worsening in hypertensive ischemic cerebrovascular stroke. 80 hypertensive ischemic stroke patients diagnosed by a neurologist as per WHO definition along with radiological findings suggestive of cerebrovascular stroke and differentiating from hemorrhagic stroke and 60 controls having essential hypertension coming to hospital because of regular checkup or headache but with no neurological disease were included in the study...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643512/innate-immune-memory-in-the-brain-shapes-neurological-disease-hallmarks
#20
Ann-Christin Wendeln, Karoline Degenhardt, Lalit Kaurani, Michael Gertig, Thomas Ulas, Gaurav Jain, Jessica Wagner, Lisa M Häsler, Katleen Wild, Angelos Skodras, Thomas Blank, Ori Staszewski, Moumita Datta, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Vincenzo Capece, Md Rezaul Islam, Cemil Kerimoglu, Matthias Staufenbiel, Joachim L Schultze, Marc Beyer, Marco Prinz, Mathias Jucker, André Fischer, Jonas J Neher
Innate immune memory is a vital mechanism of myeloid cell plasticity that occurs in response to environmental stimuli and alters subsequent immune responses. Two types of immunological imprinting can be distinguished-training and tolerance. These are epigenetically mediated and enhance or suppress subsequent inflammation, respectively. Whether immune memory occurs in tissue-resident macrophages in vivo and how it may affect pathology remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that peripherally applied inflammatory stimuli induce acute immune training and tolerance in the brain and lead to differential epigenetic reprogramming of brain-resident macrophages (microglia) that persists for at least six months...
April 11, 2018: Nature
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