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M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, the spine, and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias; cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders; multiple sclerosis; neuroinfections; brain tumors; traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma; and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Takatsugu Abe, Tomohiro Kawaguchi, Miki Fujimura, Teiji Tominaga
A 69-year-old woman presented with anorexia, fever, and vomiting. The patient was not a compromised host. She was finally diagnosed with <i>Listeria</i> meningitis and treated with ampicillin and gentamicin. However, her condition worsened over time. Non-contrast head CT showed ventricular dilatation. As a result, continuous right ventricular drainage was performed. Non-contrast MRI revealed hydrocephalus due to stenosis of the fourth ventricle. She underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy(ETV)to improve cerebrospinal fluid circulation...
September 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
D Pícha, L Moravcová, D Smíšková
The study evaluates the clinical significance of CXCL13 (leukocyte chemoattractant synthesized in CSF ) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and other aseptic CNS infections. 244 patients with symptoms of neuroinfection and/or LNB were divided into groups: A - patients with LNB-positive antibodies in serum and CSF (96) or CSF only (14); B - patients with aseptic non-borrelial neuroinfections (82); C - negative controls (52). Group A was divided into A1-A4 according to pleocytosis in CSF and AIIgG positivity. The highest CSF CXCL13 concentrations (max...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
L Krbková, J Bednářová, Z Čermáková
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate new 3rd-generation test kits, EIA Borrelia recombinant IgM and IgG (TestLine, Brno, Czech Republic), in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with Lyme neuroborreliosis. METHODS: Comparison of three tests was used: the whole-cell EIA from Borrelia garinii (EIA 1) was compared with the EIA using recombinant antigens (EIA 2) and immunoblot. In total, 364 samples of serum and CSF were examined. Eighty-six paired sera and CSF samples were evaluated in the first group of children with Lyme neuroborreliosis...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Angel S Galabov, Ivanka Nikolova, Ralitsa Vassileva-Pencheva, Adelina Stoyanova
Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Dawid Szpecht, Dagmara Frydryszak, Norbert Miszczyk, Marta Szymankiewicz, Janusz Gadzinowski
INTRODUCTION: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is mostly documented in premature infants, and the younger the gestational age, the more often it occurs. IVH is very rarely reported in full-term neonates. CASE REPORT: Retrospective analysis was performed in 35939 full-term neonates, who were born in the Clinical Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań. Clinical data were retrieved from their medical records. We report a case series of 2 term newborns, who developed severe IVH grade 3 and 4 with no evidence of asphyxia, neuroinfection, TORCH infections, coagulation disorders and trombocytopenia, metabolic disorders, arteriovenous malformations, and selected genetic abnormalities (factor V Leiden 1601G > A polymorphism and MTHFR 677C > T; 1298A > C polymorphisms)...
July 8, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Piotr Czupryna, Justyna Dunaj, Joanna Zajkowska, Agnieszka Siemieniako, Sławomir Pancewicz
In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Beata Kuklińska, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Robert Mróz, Sławomir Pancewicz, Joanna Zajkowska
Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Marta Nesteruk, Anna Kurdyła, Tomasz Nesteruk, Małgorzata Dorobek
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a set of neurological symptoms including impaired consciousness, cognitive disorders, seizures, blurred vision, dizziness and headache. The symptoms are closely related to the location of pathological changes in the brain; bilateral occipitto-parietal region is most often affected. Both focal neurological symptoms and encephalopathy are usually transient. We present the case of 64-year-old woman with PRES. She suffered from many internal diseases and was admitted to the hospital due to impaired consciousness, speech disorders, balance disorders...
April 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Rashmi Kumar, Anirban Basu, Subrata Sinha, Manoj Das, Piyush Tripathi, Amita Jain, Chandrakanta Kumar, Virendra Atam, Saima Khan, Amit Shanker Singh
BACKGROUND: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a public health problem in India. Neuroinfections are believed to be the most important etiology. Minocycline is a semisythetic tetracycline having excellent penetration into cerebrospinal fluid, established neuroprotective and antiviral properties besides action on nonviral causes of AES. It has been shown to be effective in animal model of Japanese encephalitis (JE). A randomized, controlled trial of nasogastric/oral minocycline in JE and AES at a single centre in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, was therefore conducted...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Solène Debaisieux, Vesela Encheva, Probir Chakravarty, Ambrosius P Snijders, Giampietro Schiavo
Neurons require efficient transport mechanisms such as fast axonal transport to ensure neuronal homeostasis and survival. Neurotrophins and their receptors are conveyed via fast axonal retrograde transport of signaling endosomes to the soma, where they elicit transcriptional responses. Despite the essential roles of signaling endosomes in neuronal differentiation and survival, little is known about their molecular identity, dynamics, and regulation. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of these organelles and their kinetics is crucial, given the growing evidence linking vesicular trafficking deficits to neurodegeneration...
February 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Sławomir Pancewicz, Adam Garkowski, Joanna Gościk, Agnieszka Siemieniako, Joanna Zajkowska
PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical picture of patients hospitalized with Lyme disease (LD). Additionally, we analyzed the possible cause of sudden rise in LD incidence in Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical documentation of patients admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Neuroinfections, Medical University in Bialystok in 2013 with suspicion of LD. The collected data featured patients' age, gender, occupation, symptoms, clinical form of LD and final diagnosis...
March 2016: Advances in Medical Sciences
Katarzyna Chwiejczak, Marcin Wołowiec, Iwona Grabska-Liberek
This is a case report of a 53-year-old man, who presented in the Department of Ophthalmology with signs of orbital cellulitis on the right side, which developed over a few days following an injury. Computed tomography revealed inflammatory infiltration of the orbital soft tissues, penetrating to the sella turcica. Orbital swab and blood cultures revealed the presence of Enterobacter and Peptostreptococcus spp. as well as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. Review of the literature relevant to the presented case was performed based on the PubMed databasesearch, using the following keywords: intraorbital foreign body, orbital cellulitis, neuroinfection, Stenotrophomonas maltophiia...
2015: Klinika Oczna
Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Iwona Breńska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Paweł Kemnitz, Ilona Pieczonka-Ruszkowska, Anna Mania, Wojciech Służewski, Magdalena Figlerowicz
We retrospectively analyzed the medical documentation of 194 children infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and the presence of the viral capsid antigen IgM antibody. Patients with severe neurologic complications also underwent neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). There were 2 peaks in incidence of infection; the first one in young children aged 1 to 5 years represented 62.0% of cases. The second peak (24.6% of patients) occurred in teenagers...
May 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Senthil Amudhan, Gopalkrishna Gururaj, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
Of the 70 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, nearly 12 million PWE are expected to reside in India; which contributes to nearly one-sixth of the global burden. This paper (first of the two part series) provides an in-depth understanding of the epidemiological aspects of epilepsy in India for developing effective public health prevention and control programs. The overall prevalence (3.0-11.9 per 1,000 population) and incidence (0.2-0.6 per 1,000 population per year) data from recent studies in India on general population are comparable to the rates of high-income countries (HICs) despite marked variations in population characteristics and study methodologies...
July 2015: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Adelina Stoyanova, Ivanka Nikolova, Angel S Galabov
Currently, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral (EV) infections do not exist. The main reason is the development of drug resistance, the principle obstacle in the development of EV infection chemotherapy, based til now on monotherapy. The most important achievement of our previous studies was the development of a novel scheme for in vivo application of a triple combination of EV inhibitors with different modes of action against Coxsackievirus B (CVB) infections in mice. It consists of consecutive alternating administration (CAA) of the substances in the combination...
September 2015: Antiviral Research
Ludmila V Akhmadishina, Marina V Govorukhina, Evgeniy V Kovalev, Svetlana A Nenadskaya, Olga E Ivanova, Alexander N Lukashev
Seventy-eight cases of enterovirus infection, including 25 neuroinfections, occurred in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, during May-June 2013. The outbreak was caused by an enterovirus A type 71 (EV-A71) subgenotype C4 lineage that spread to neighboring countries from China ≈3 years earlier. Enterovirus associated neuroinfection may emerge in areas with a preceding background circulation of EV-A71 with apparently asymptomatic infection.
August 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Luděk Eyer, James J Valdés, Victor A Gil, Radim Nencka, Hubert Hřebabecký, Michal Šála, Jiří Salát, Jiří Černý, Martin Palus, Erik De Clercq, Daniel Růžek
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a leading cause of human neuroinfections in Europe and Northeast Asia. There are no antiviral therapies for treating TBEV infection. A series of nucleoside analogues was tested for the ability to inhibit the replication of TBEV in porcine kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells. The interactions of three nucleoside analogues with viral polymerase were simulated using advanced computational methods. The nucleoside analogues 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2'-CMA), 2'-C-methyladenosine (2'-CMA), and 2'-C-methylcytidine (2'-CMC) inhibited TBEV replication...
September 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
E A Dzięciołowska-Baran, A Gawlikowska-Sroka
Sudden balance disorders with violent vegetative symptoms (nausea and vomiting) pose a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. In children vertigo/dizziness with symptoms of vestibular dysfunction is rare, but as vascular etiology is unlikely in children such symptoms arouse concern. This article presents two cases of this type of vertigo. The patients were two boys (6 and 9 years old). They came down with similar symptoms: sudden dizziness, disabled walking, nausea and vomiting, spontaneous nystagmus, and a positive Romberg test...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Miguel Antonio Sandoval-Balanzario, Raúl Abraham Rincón-Navarro, Rommel Granados-López, Jorge Arturo Santos-Franco
BACKGROUND: Shunt devices to treat hydrocephalus are associated with a malfunction of 81 % at 12 years and 10 % of infection. The objective was to assess safeness and efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of chronic communicating hydrocephalus. METHODS: Eight patients with chronic communicating hydrocephalus were included in a period between September, 2012 and April, 2013. X ray computed tomography scans were performed when patients were admitted, after the surgery, and at 30, 180 and 365 days...
May 2015: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
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