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Hemilly Rayanne Ferreira da Silva, Marinalda Anselmo Vilela, Anna Carolina Soares Almeida, Márcia Maria Camargo de Morais
We describe colistin-resistant KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from cerebrospinal fluid, belonging to ST423, selected during treatment for neuroinfection. Colistin resistance was related to mgrB gene interruption by an IS5-like.
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Kristian Buch, Jacob Bodilsen, Andreas Knudsen, Lykke Larsen, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Merete Storgaard, Christian Brandt, Lothar Wiese, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen, Anne-Mette Lebech
BACKGROUND: The ability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate to distinguish between acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) and aseptic meningitis/encephalitis (AME) is debated. We assessed the diagnostic value of CSF lactate to discriminate between ABM and AME. METHODS: We included 176 patients from a prospective adult cohort with neuroinfections. In total, 51 ABM and 125 AME patients with clinically and/or microbiologically diagnosed acute meningitis were examined with CSF-lactate and traditional markers for infection...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
A S Shishov, I S Petrova, P V Boytsov, V G Leva, V E Malikov, S A Rusanova, A V Surovikina, I A Blank
AIM: To compare thе medical history, clinical features, composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), results of laboratory and instrumental examinations of patients with acute neuroinfections and differentiable diseases including a pseudoinflammatory variant of the acute stage of uncomplicated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), consequences of traumatic brain injury (traumatic SAH, SAN combination with secondary purulent meningitis, posttraumatic nasal liquorrhea, intracerebral hematomas), abscesses and tumors of the brain, lymphoma with proven CNS...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Napoleón González Saldaña, Diego Mauricio Galvis Trujillo, Ana Maria Borbolla Pertierra, Ana Ivette Mondragón Pineda, Hugo Juárez Olguín
BACKGROUND: Toxic optic neuropathies are alterations of the optic nerve and can be caused by environmental, pharmacological, or nutritional agents. CASE: It is about a 7-year-old male patient, a native of the State of Mexico, Mexico who was diagnosed with cervical mycobacterial lymphadenitis that required management with linezolid. OBSERVATIONS: After 7 months of treatment, visual acuity of the left eye decreased and was accompanied by headache...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lorna Stemberger Maric, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Lana Gorenec, Ivana Grgic, Vladimir Trkulja, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Srdan Roglic, Tonci Grmoja, Nina Barisic, Goran Tesovic
We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0...
December 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Trifon Valkov, Julieta Hristova, Tatiana Tcherveniakova, Dobrin Svinarov
Cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio is one of the most informative parameters for blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in cases of central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases. Normally, CNS albumin concentration is a function of diffusion processes along with CSF drainage and resorption. In pathological processes CSF albumin levels are dependent only on the rate of CSF drainage resulting in non-linear reciprocal changes of albumin quotient (Qalb). IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations both in CSF and serum can be compared to Qalb, thus determining the intrathecal immune response...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
Felix Benninger, Israel Steiner
Infections of the nervous system are an important and challenging aspect of clinical neurology. Immediate correct diagnosis enables to introduce effective therapy, in conditions that without diagnosis may leave the patient with severe neurological incapacitation and sometimes even death. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a mirror that reflects nervous system pathology and can promote early diagnosis and therapy. The present chapter focuses on the CSF findings in neuro-infections, mainly viral and bacterial. Opening pressure, protein and glucose levels, presence of cells and type of the cellular reaction should be monitored...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Karkal Ravishankar Naik, Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja, Darshan Kiran Doshi
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is an important and a fatal neuroinfection. Early diagnosis and treatment is of utmost importance in reducing morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcal meningitis seen in tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Details of demographic profile, clinical data, laboratory parameters, complications, and in-hospital mortality were studied. RESULTS: Among 97 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (79 men, 18 women), 88 were HIV-positive, two were diabetic, and seven were sporadic...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Ludek Eyer, Hirofumi Kondo, Darina Zouharova, Minato Hirano, James J Valdés, Memi Muto, Tomas Kastl, Shintaro Kobayashi, Jan Haviernik, Manabu Igarashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Marketa Vaculovicova, Jiri Cerny, Rene Kizek, Andrea Kröger, Stefan Lienenklaus, Milan Dejmek, Radim Nencka, Martin Palus, Jiri Salat, Erik De Clercq, Kentaro Yoshii, Daniel Ruzek
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes a severe and potentially fatal neuroinfection in humans. Despite its high medical relevance, no specific antiviral therapy is currently available. Here we demonstrate that treatment with a nucleoside analog, 7-deaza-2' -C-methyladenosine (7-deaza-2' -CMA), substantially improved disease outcome, increased survival, and reduced signs of neuroinfection and viral titers in the brains of mice infected with a lethal dose of TBEV. To investigate the mechanism of action of 7-deaza-2' -CMA, two drug-resistant TBEV clones were generated and characterized...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
D Pícha, L Moravcová, D Smíšková
AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was focused on testing the diagnostic value of detection of the chemokine CXCL13 (B lymphocyte chemoattractant) and anti-C6 peptide (synthetic peptide derived from B. burdorferi VlsE protein) antibodies in patients with neuroborreliosis (NB). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of neuroinfection were included in the study. Eighty patients with NB (positive for antibodies in serum and CSF) were subdivided into four groups (A1-A4) based on positivity/negativity of the antibody index (AI) and pleocytosis...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Aleksandar Urošević, Olga Dulović, Branko Milošević, Nebojša Maksić, Nataša Popović, Ivana Milošević, Dragan Delić, Djordje Jevtović, Jasmina Poluga, Jelena Jordović, Sanja Peruničić, Goran Stevanović
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to pre sent some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
Sambor Grygorczuk, Miłosz Parczewski, Renata Świerzbińska, Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko, Justyna Dunaj, Maciej Kondrusik, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Host factors determining the clinical presentation of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are not fully elucidated. The peripheral inflammatory response to TBE virus is hypothesized to facilitate its entry into central nervous system by disrupting the blood-brain barrier with the involvement of a signaling route including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Patricia Mulero, Cristina Auger, Laura Parolin, Elena Fonseca, Manuel Requena, Jordi Rio, Mar Tintoré, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is associated with the occasional occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). While natalizumab-associated PML is well described in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, herpes and other infections have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of varicella-zoster (VZV) meningovasculitis in a MS patient treated with natalizumab. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman diagnosed with MS in treatment with natalizumab (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 4...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Arushi Gahlot Saini, Vinay Rathore, Chirag Kumar Ahuja, Rajesh Chhabra, Pankaj C Vaidya, Pratibha Singhi
Brain abscesses due to Enterobacteriaceae in immune-competent children are rare, and those due to Enterobacter cloacae are even rarer. We report an interesting case of community-acquired E. cloacae neuroinfection resulting in multiple brain abscesses in a young child with no underlying risk-factors. A 10 year-old-boy presented with low-grade fever, headache, neck pain and progressive deterioration of sensorium. On examination, he was conscious but drowsy with photophobia, normal fundii, meningeal signs, mild hypertonia, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and extensor plantar responses...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jessica R Spengler, M Kelly Keating, Anita K McElroy, Marko Zivcec, JoAnn D Coleman-McCray, Jessica R Harmon, Brigid C Bollweg, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Éric Bergeron, James G Keck, Sherif R Zaki, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic disease seen exclusively in humans. Central nervous system (CNS) infection and neurological involvement have also been reported in CCHF. Here we inoculated NSGTM-SGM3 mice engrafted with human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells with low passage CCHF virus strains isolated from human patients. Humanized mice develop lethal disease characterized by histopathological change in the liver and brain. To date, targets of neuroinfection and neuropathology have not been investigated in CCHF...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Ann-Kathrin Uhde, René Teich, Stephan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) of susceptible mouse strains is a commonly used infectious animal model for multiple sclerosis. The study aim was to test the hypothesis whether cytotoxic T cell responses account for the limited impact of regulatory T cells on antiviral immunity in TME virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) resistant C57BL/6 mice. TME virus-infected C57BL/6 mice were treated with (i) interleukin-2/-anti-interleukin-2-antibody-complexes to expand regulatory T cells ('Treg-expansion'), (ii) anti-CD8-antibodies to deplete cytotoxic T cells ('CD8-depletion') or (iii) with a combination of Treg-expansion and CD8-depletion ('combined treatment') prior to infection...
April 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
Martin Palus, Marie Vancova, Jana Sirmarova, Jana Elsterova, Jan Perner, Daniel Ruzek
Alteration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a life-threating human viral neuroinfection. However, the mechanism of BBB breakdown during TBE, as well as TBE virus (TBEV) entry into the brain is unclear. Here, primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were infected with TBEV to study interactions with the BBB. Although the number of infected cells was relatively low in culture (<5%), the infection was persistent with high TBEV yields (>10(6)pfu/ml)...
July 2017: Virology
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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