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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452453/-personalized-ophthalmology-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-in-vitro-modelling-of-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#1
Caroline Brandl, Bernhard H F Weber
Today, the search for therapeutic options to treat retinal degeneration often relies on an in-depth understanding of the underlying pathological events. Alternatively, it is conceivable to search, in an undirected screening approach, for chemical compounds affecting disease outcome. For both approaches, there is an urgent need for in vitro and, ideally, in vivo disease models that adequately reflect the site of pathology. Currently available animal models possess limitations as they often develop only defined aspects of disease...
February 16, 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452419/temozolomide-associated-hypermutation-in-gliomas
#2
Serah Choi, Yao Yu, Matthew R Grimmer, Michael Wahl, Susan M Chang, Joseph F Costello
Low-grade gliomas cause considerable morbidity and most will recur after initial therapy. At recurrence, low-grade gliomas can undergo transformation to high-grade gliomas (grade III or grade IV), which are associated with worse prognosis. Temozolomide (TMZ) provides survival benefit in patients with glioblastomas (GBMs) but its value in patients with low-grade gliomas is less clear. A subset of TMZ-treated, IDH-mutant, low-grade astrocytomas recur as more malignant tumors with thousands of de novo, coding mutations bearing a signature of TMZ-induced hypermutation...
February 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452300/therapeutic-strategy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-who-have-achieved-remission
#3
Bruno Fautrel
Once remission or low disease activity (LDA) is attained in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, attempting disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) tapering appears to be a viable option to avoid patient overtreatment. Potential benefits include reduction in the treatment burden and the risk of adverse events, although the latter has not been demonstrated convincingly.The feasibility of DMARD discontinuation has been tested in numerous studies or trials. All have revealed a high risk of relapse, ranging from 56% to 87% at one year...
February 13, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452282/load-sharing-through-elastic-micro-motion-accelerates-bone-formation-and-interbody-fusion
#4
Eric H Ledet, Glenn P Sanders, Darryl J DiRisio, Joseph C Glennon
BACKGROUND: Context: Achieving a successful spinal fusion requires the proper biologic and biomechanical environment. Optimizing load-sharing in the interbody space can enhance bone formation. For anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), loading and motion are largely dictated by the stiffness of the plate which can facilitate a balance between stability and load-sharing. The advantages of load-sharing may be substantial for patients with comorbidities and in multi-level procedures where pseudarthrosis rates are significant...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452209/prolactin-improves-hepatic-steatosis-via-cd36-pathway
#5
Pengzi Zhang, Zhijuan Ge, Hongdong Wang, Wenhuan Feng, Xitai Sun, Xuehui Chu, Can Jiang, Yan Wang, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide with effects on metabolism; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The serum PRL levels of 456 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and 403 non-NAFLD controls diagnosed by ultrasound, and 85 subjects with liver histology obtained during metabolic surgery (44 female and 30 male NAFLD patients and 11 age-matched non-NAFLD female subjects) were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characters-a-pilot-open-lable-randomized-study
#6
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children possesses a serious health problem worldwide. It remains unresolved how children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B should be treated, who were commonly characterized by HBeAg positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated ALT and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characters. METHODS: This is a pilot open-lable randomized controlled study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452197/essential-oils-from-origanum-vulgare-and-salvia-officinalis-exhibit-antibacterial-and-anti-biofilm-activities-against-streptococcus-pyogenes
#7
Niluni M Wijesundara, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452192/graded-6-ohda-induced-dopamine-depletion-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-evokes-progressive-pathological-neuronal-activities-in-the-subthalamic-nucleus-of-a-hemi-parkinsonian-mouse
#8
Sunghee Estelle Park, Kang-Il Song, Hyungmin Kim, Seok Chung, Inchan Youn
Recent studies have established methods for establishing a rodent model that mimics progressive stages of human Parkinson's disease (PD), via injection of graded doses of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into regions within the nigrostriatal pathway. However, the electrophysiological characteristics of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in this model have not been fully elucidated in this model. This study aimed to investigate changes in the neuronal activity of the STN in a graded mouse model of PD. Increasing doses of 6-OHDA were unilaterally injected into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to produce a hemi-parkinsonian mouse model, mimicking early, moderate, advanced, and severe stages of human PD...
February 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452152/behavioral-and-endocrine-consequences-of-placentophagia-in-male-california-mice-peromyscus-californicus
#9
Juan P Perea-Rodriguez, Meng Zhao, Breanna N Harris, Joel Raqueno, Wendy Saltzman
Ingestion of placenta by mammalian mothers can lead to changes in pain sensitivity, hormone levels, and behavioral responses to newborns. In some biparental mammals, males, in addition to females, ingest placenta when their offspring are born. In the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), males first become attracted to placenta when cohabitating with their pregnant mate, and virgin males administered placenta are less neophobic than males given oil vehicle. In this study, we investigated the effects of placentophagia on pain sensitivity, anxiety-like behavior, behavioral responses to pups, and circulating corticosterone levels of both breeding and nonbreeding male California mice...
February 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452113/technological-innovation-strategies-for-the-specific-treatment-of-chagas-disease-based-on-benznidazole
#10
REVIEW
Leslie Raphael de Moura Ferraz, Alinne Élida Gonçalves Alves, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva Nascimento, Isabela Araújo E Amariz, Aline Silva Ferreira, Salvana Priscylla Manso Costa, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease...
February 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451944/total-hip-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-avascular-necrosis-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Anita Vijapura, Harlan B Levine, Michele Donato, Mark A Hartzband, Melissa Baker, Gregg R Klein
The immunosuppressive regimens required for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predispose recipients to complications, including avascular necrosis. Cancer-related comorbidities, immunosuppression, and poor bone quality theoretically increase the risk for perioperative medical complications, infection, and implant-related complications in total joint arthroplasty. This study reviewed 20 primary total hip arthroplasties for avascular necrosis in 14 patients. Outcomes were assessed at routine clinical visits and Harris hip scores were calculated...
February 16, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451770/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-effects-in-the-crystallization-of-metal-organic-frameworks
#12
Anthony K Cheetham, G Kieslich, H H-M Yeung
The evolution of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been one of the most exciting aspects of materials chemistry over the last 20 years. In this Account, we discuss the development during this period in our understanding of the factors that control the crystallization of MOFs from solution. Both classical porous MOFs and dense MOF phases are considered. This is an opportune time at which to examine this complex area because the experimental tools now available to interrogate crystallization processes have matured significantly in the last 5 years, particularly with the use of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction...
February 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451665/mirror-therapy-a-potential-intervention-for-pain-management
#13
Priscilla G Wittkopf, Mark I Johnson
The consequences of chronic pain and associated disabilities to the patient and to the health care system are well known. Medication is often the first treatment of choice for chronic pain, although side effects and high costs restrict long-term use. Inexpensive, safe and easy to self-administer non-pharmacological therapies, such as mirror therapy, are recommended as adjuncts to pain treatment. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles of use of mirror therapy so it can be incorporated into a health care delivery...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451649/the-effects-of-different-restorative-materials-on-periodontopathogens-in-combined-restorative-periodontal-treatment
#14
Sila Çagri Isler, Gonen Ozcan, Gülcin Akca, Zahide Kocabas
Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between subgingival restorations and the target periodontopathogenic bacteria (Pg, Td and Pi) in subgingival biofilm during one year after combined restorative-periodontal treatment. Material and Methods Seventeen systemically healthy subjects, who were positive for the presence of three cervical lesions associated with gingival recessions in three different adjacent teeth, were included in the study. A total of 51 combined defects were treated with connective tissue graft plus a nanofilled composite resin (NCR+CTG), a resin-modified glass ionemer cement (RMGI+CTG) and a fluoride-releasing resin material with pre-reacted glass (PRG), called giomer (Giomer+CTG)...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451645/intragastric-balloons-in-high-risk-obese-patients-in-a-brazilian-center-initial-experience
#15
Alana Costa Borges, Paulo César Almeida, Stella M T Furlani, Marcelo DE Sousa Cury, Shantanu Gaur
OBJECTIVE: to assess the short-term efficacy, tolerance and complications in high-risk morbidly obese patients treated with an intragastric balloon as a bridge for surgery. METHODS: we conducted a post-hoc analysis study in a Brazilian teaching hospital from 2010 to 2014, with 23 adult patients with a BMI of 48kg/m2, who received a single intragastric air or liquid balloon. We defined efficacy as 10% excess weight loss, and complications, as adverse events consequent to the intragastric balloon diagnosed after the initial accommodative period...
2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451352/chronic-exposure-of-mice-to-low-doses-of-imazalil-induces-hepatotoxicity-at-the-physiological-biochemical-and-transcriptomic-levels
#16
Cuiyuan Jin, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Imazalil (IMZ), which is a widely used fungicide, can accumulate in the body and threaten an animal's health. However, this fungicide has adverse effects on aquatic organisms and ultimately affects human health when it leaches into the environment. Our research tried to determine that if IMZ might cause liver damage and its potential to cause-related diseases. In this study, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg body weight IMZ in drinking water for 15 weeks. Then, we evaluated the liver damage at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome levels in mice after chronic IMZ exposure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451351/delphinidin-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-erk-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-human-osteosarcoma-cell-lines
#17
Hae-Mi Kang, Bong-Soo Park, Hyun-Kyung Kang, Hae-Ryoun Park, Su-Bin Yu, In-Ryoung Kim
Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-bdnf-mtor-signaling-pathway
#18
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451226/final-adult-height-and-endocrine-complications-in-young-adults-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-tm-who-received-oral-iron-chelation-oic-in-comparison-with-those-who-did-not-use-oic
#19
Ashraf T Soliman, Mohamed A Yassin, Vincenzo De Sanctis
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about endocrine function, bone mineral health, and growth during oral iron chelation therapy in β-thalassemia major patients (TM) on treatment with deferasirox. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the frequency of endocrine complications, IGF-1 levels and final adult standing height (FA-Ht) in patients with BTM in two groups of adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first group (Group A; 15 patients, 6 females and 9 males) received oral iron chelation therapy (OIC) with deferasirox for 6 years before puberty; the second group (Group B;40 patients) attained the FA-Ht before the use of OIC (iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) given subcutaneously, since the age of 2 years)...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#20
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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