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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036939/female-genital-mutilation-reconstruction-a-preliminary-report
#1
Catherine S Chang, David W Low, Ivona Percec
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is internationally recognized as a violation of human rights. Though rarely discussed, FGM is prevalent, affecting hundreds of millions of females worldwide. Objectives: We believe that is important for plastic surgeons to be informed and prepared to address the surgical and emotional needs of these women. We present our experience on treatment of women subjected to FGM. Methods: Three consecutive patients were treated by our clitoral restoration procedure...
September 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#2
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036846/perceptions-of-sexuality-in-individuals-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-their-treating-clinicians
#3
Mona Shahbazi, Shara Holzberg, Saeyoan Thirunavukkarasu, Gioia Ciani
INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) may not affect an individual's sexual function directly, but it can indirectly impact their sexual activity. Sexual partners often become caregivers, diminishing sexuality within a relationship. This can result in decline of quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the perspectives of individuals with ALS and their treating clinicians regarding the importance of sexuality in rehabilitation within a multidisciplinary ALS center...
October 8, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036845/sexual-concerns-after-spinal-cord-injury-an-update-on-management
#4
Marcalee Sipski Alexander, Carrie Mlynarczyk Aisen, Sterling Morrison Alexander, Mindy Lipson Aisen
BACKGROUND: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) causes neurological impairment with resultant neurogenic sexual dysfunction which can compound preexisting psychological and medical sexual concerns. Understanding these concerns is important in managing the lifelong needs of persons with SCIs. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the impact of SCI on sexuality along with a framework for treatment of sexual concerns. To briefly review male infertility and its treatments and pregnancy in females after SCI...
October 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036751/-diagnosis-and-management-of-vestibular-schwannomas-an-interdisciplinary-challenge
#5
Steffen Rosahl, Christopher Bohr, Michael Lell, Klaus Hamm, Heinrich Iro
Vestibular schwannomas expand slowly in the internal auditory canal, in the cerebellopontine angle, inside the cochlear and the labyrinth. Larger tumors can displace and compress the brainstem. With an annual incidence of 1:100 000 vestibular schwannoma represent 6-7% of all intracranial tumors. In the cerebellopontine angle they are by far the most neoplasm with 90% of all lesions located in this region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), audiometry, and vestibular diagnostics are the mainstays of the clinical workup for patients harboring tumors...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036367/phenylalanine-as-a-nitrogen-source-induces-root-growth-and-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-populus-%C3%A3-canescens
#6
Yu Jiao, Yinghao Chen, Chaofeng Ma, Jingjing Qin, Thi Hong Nhung Nguyen, Di Liu, Honghao Gan, Shen Ding, Zhi-Bin Luo
To investigate the physiological responses of poplars to amino acids as sole nitrogen (N) sources, Populus × canescens (Ait.) Smith plants were supplied with one of three nitrogen fertilizers (NH4NO3, phenylalanine (Phe) or the mixture of NH4NO3 and Phe) in sand culture. A larger root system, and decreased leaf size and CO2 assimilation rate was observed in Phe- versus NH4NO3-treated poplars. Consistently, a greater root biomass and a decreased shoot growth were detected in Phe-supplied poplars. Decreased enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and elevated activities of nitrite reductase (NiR), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), glutamine synthetase (GS) and asparagine synthase (AS) were found in Phe-treated roots...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036361/chronic-pain-and-neuropathy-following-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#7
Lise Ventzel, Caspar S Madsen, Páll Karlsson, Hatice Tankisi, Baris Isak, Anders Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders B Jensen, Anni R Jensen, Troels S Jensen, Nanna B Finnerup
Objective: To determine symptoms and characteristics of chronic sensory neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin and docetaxel, including patterns of somatosensory abnormalities, pain descriptors, and psychological functioning. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: A chronic pain research center. Subjects: Thirty-eight patients with chronic peripheral pain and/or dysesthesia following chemotherapy...
September 23, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036263/effects-of-12c6-heavy-ion-beam-irradiation-on-the-p53-signaling-pathway-in-hepg2-liver-cancer-cells
#8
Kai Liu, Xinke Zhao, Jing Gu, Jianjun Wu, Hong Zhang, Yingdong Li
The heavy ion beam is considered to be the ideal source for radiotherapy. The p53 tumor suppressor gene senses DNA damage and transducts intracellular apoptosis signals. Previous reports showed that the heavy ion beam can trigger complex forms of damage to cellular DNA, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 human liver cancer cells; however, the mechanisms remains unclear fully. In order to explore whether the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway participates this process, HepG2 cells were treated with 12C6+ HIB irradiation at doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy with various methods employed to understand relevant mechanisms, such as detection of apoptosis, cell cycle, and Fas expression by flow cytometry, analysis of apoptotic morphology by electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, and screening differentially expressed genes relating to p53 signaling pathway by PCR-array assay following with any genes confirmed by western blot analysis...
September 23, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#9
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036102/scattering-of-a-gaussian-beam-from-a-row-of-cylinders-with-rectangular-cross-section
#10
Jesús Daniel Valenzuela-Sau, Ramón Munguía-Arvayo, Sandra Gastélum-Acuña, Jorge Gaspar-Armenta, José Nápoles-Duarte, Raúl García-Llamas
The transverse magnetic Gaussian beam diffraction from a finite number, equally spaced and rectangular cross section dielectric cylinder row is studied. The infinitely long cylinders' axes are perpendicular to the beam's direction of propagation. The cylinder row, with dielectric constant εc=nc2, is treated as a periodic inhomogeneous film, with period ax and thickness wy, bounded by two semi-infinite homogeneous media. With this restriction, the method is valid only for square or rectangular cross section cylinders...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036053/complex-gaussian-representations-of-partially-coherent-beams-with-nonconventional-degrees-of-coherence
#11
Fang Wang, Yahong Chen, Lina Guo, Lin Liu, Yangjian Cai
We adopt the recently introduced complex Gaussian function to expand the partially coherent beams with nonconventional degrees of coherence, and derive detailed representations of Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam, elliptical Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam, and multi-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam. Complex Gaussian representation of a partially coherent beam provides a convenient way for treating its propagation. As an application example, we explore the self-splitting properties of a Hermite-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam propagating in a uniaxial crystal with the help of the complex Gaussian representation, and it is found that the uniaxial crystal can be used to control the splitting properties...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036035/the-treatment-path-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Hashem B El-Serag, Andrew X Zhu, Matthew S Johnson
The treatment approach for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on the stage and extent of disease, the severity of the underlying liver disease, and the overall performance status of the patient. Treatment consists of 4 main strategies: surgery (eg, resection and liver transplant), locoregional procedures (eg, ablation and transarterial embolization), systemic therapies, and best supportive care. For patients with early-stage tumors, surgical treatment or ablation can be curative. Patients with intermediate-stage disease can be candidates for embolization, administered as either transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or transarterial radioembolization (TARE)...
August 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036018/precision-medicine-in-asthma-linking-phenotypes-to-targeted-treatments
#13
Kian F Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different phenotypes that are driven by different mechanistic pathways. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the important role of precision medicine in asthma management. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite asthma heterogeneity, the approach to management has been on the basis of disease severity, with the most severe patients reserved for the maximum treatments with corticosteroids and bronchodilators...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035938/percutaneous-excision-of-difficult-osteoid-osteomas-using-intraoperative-airo-ct-navigation-a-preliminary-report
#14
Venkatadass Krishnamoorthy, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Osteoid osteomas are well known for intraoperative technical difficulties for localization and adequate excision, especially when they are not clearly visualized on plain radiographs or when they occur in difficult and inaccessible situations. Localization in the radiology suite and shifting the patient to the operating room can be cumbersome, and can result in errors because of lack of real-time imaging. In these scenarios, intraoperative navigation will be useful. We report a technique of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) navigation for localization and excision of osteoid osteomas of the long bones...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035921/biphasic-effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-anxiety-rapid-reversal-of-escitalopram-s-anxiogenic-effects-in-the-novelty-induced-hypophagia-test-in-mice
#15
Wouter Koek, Nathan C Mitchell, Lynette C Daws
In humans, chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) decreases anxiety, unlike acute treatment, which can increase anxiety. Although this biphasic pattern is observed clinically, preclinical demonstrations are rare. In an animal model of antidepressant-induced anxiolytic effects, the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a single administration of the SSRI citalopram reportedly elicited anxiogenic-like effects, whereas three administrations over 24 h were sufficient to produce anxiolytic-like effects...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#16
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035850/anti-angiogenic-and-anti-lymphangiogenic-role-of-praziquantel-and-artemether-in-experimental-mansoniasis
#17
Naglaa Fathy Abd El-Aal, Rania Said Hamza, Mona Magdy
Angiogenesis is one of the pillars of neoplasia. Lymphangiogenesis in context of granulomas is not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the role of praziquantel (PZQ) and artemether (ART) as anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic drugs in Schistosoma mansoni induced experimental hepatic model through immunohistochemical and serological studies, this can be used as a potential novel prophylactic approach in hepatic malignancy prevention and possible management. Forty female CD-1 Swiss albino mice were used divided into 4 groups (10 mice each); control healthy, control infected untreated, PZQ-treated and ART-treated...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035751/intercellular-transfer-of-pathogenic-%C3%AE-synuclein-by-extracellular-vesicles-is-induced-by-the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxynonenal
#18
Shi Zhang, Erez Eitan, Tsung-Yu Wu, Mark P Mattson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by accumulations of toxic α-synuclein aggregates in vulnerable neuronal populations in the brainstem, midbrain, and cerebral cortex. Recent findings suggest that α-synuclein pathology can be propagated transneuronally, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Advances in the genetics of rare early-onset familial PD indicate that increased production and/or reduced autophagic clearance of α-synuclein can cause PD. The cause of the most common late-onset PD is unclear, but may involve metabolic compromise and oxidative stress upstream of α-synuclein accumulation...
September 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035698/denosumab-as-a-treatment-alternative-for-central-giant-cell-granuloma-a-long-term-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Marius Bredell, Tamara Rordorf, Sabine Kroiss, Martin Rücker, Daniel Fritz Zweifel, Claudio Rostetter
PURPOSE: Giant cell granuloma (GCG) of the jaw is a rare disease with high morbidity. Various treatment options have been discussed in the past. Since 2010, a pharmaceutical therapy with denosumab seems to have been successful for giant cell tumors of the femur. The authors hypothesized the equally successful use of denosumab for GCGs of the jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective cohort study, 5 patients with large GCGs of the jaws were treated with denosumab with a follow-up of 25 to 49 months...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035674/the-startup-performance-and-microbial-distribution-of-an-anaerobic-baffled-reactor-abr-treating-medium-strength-synthetic-industrial-wastewater
#20
Hao Jiang, Hong Nie, Jiangtao Ding, Walter Stinner, Kaixuan Sun, Hongjun Zhou
In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with seven chambers was applied to treat medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater (MSIW). The performance of startup and shock test on treating MSIW was investigated. During the acclimation process, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSIW gradually increased from 0 to 2,000 mg L(-1), and the COD removal finally reached 90%. At shock test, the feeding COD concentration increased by one-fifth and the reactor adapted very well with a COD removal of 82%...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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