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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222464/regulation-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-its-substrate-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-adipose-tissue-of-ob-ob-mice
#1
Jihoon Shin, Atsunori Fukuhara, Toshiharu Onodera, Chieko Yokoyama, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
The physiological function of DPP-4 in proteolytic inactivation of incretins has been well established, however, there is limited information on the expression and the significance of DPP-4 in white adipose tissue with regard to obesity. The objective of the work was to reveal the expression and regulation of DPP-4 in adipocytes and compare the expression and activity of DPP-4 in white adipose tissue and several other organs such as the liver, muscle and kidney. We also investigated the gene expression levels of DPP-4 substrate chemokines, and their receptors in white adipose tissue...
February 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220523/inflammation-is-independent-of-steatosis-in-a-murine-model-of-steatohepatitis
#2
Wei Wang, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Zhou Zhou, Haixia Cao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Pal Pacher, Shusen Zheng, Frank J Gonzalez, Bin Gao
Obesity and alcohol consumption synergistically promote steatohepatitis, and neutrophil infiltration is believed to be associated with steatosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a complex role in lipid metabolism and inflammation, therefore, the purpose of this study was to dissect its role in regulating steatosis and neutrophil infiltration in a clinically relevant mouse steatohepatitis model of 3-month high-fat diet (HFD) feeding plus a binge of ethanol (HFD -plus-binge ethanol)...
February 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220495/influence-of-hyperglycemia-on-liver-inflammatory-conditions-in-the-early-phase-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#3
Shinichi Harada, Kei Miyagi, Tokio Obata, Yasuko Morimoto, Kazuo Nakamoto, Ke Ih Kim, Soo Ki Kim, Soo Ryang Kim, Shogo Tokuyama
OBJECTIVES: A non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has high prevalence and now important issue of public health. In general, there exists strong interaction between NAFLD and diabetes, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of hyperglycemia on progression in the early phase of NAFLD in mice. METHODS: Male ddY mice were fed a choline-deficient, l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) consisting of 60% of kcal from fat and 0...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220319/cfd-assessment-of-the-effect-of-convective-mass-transport-on-the-intracellular-clearance-of-intracellular-triglycerides-in-macrosteatotic-hepatocytes
#4
Gabriel Yarmush, Lucas Santos, Joshua Yarmush, Srivathsan Koundinyan, Mubasher Saleem, Nir I Nativ, Martin L Yarmush, Francois Berthiaume, Timothy J Maguire, Chris Guaghan
Donor livers available to transplant for patients with end-stage liver disease are in severe shortage. One possible avenue to expand the donor pool is to recondition livers that would be otherwise discarded due to excessive fat content. Severely steatotic livers (also known as fatty livers) are highly susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury and as a result, primary liver non-function post-transplantation. Prior studies in isolated perfused rat livers suggest that "defatting" may be possible in a timeframe of a few hours; thus, it is conceivable that fatty liver grafts could be recovered by machine perfusion to clear stored fat from the organ prior to transplantation...
February 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220208/abcb4-missense-mutations-d243a-k435t-g535d-i490t-r545c-and-s978p-significantly-impair-the-lipid-floppase-and-likely-predispose-to-secondary-pathologies-in-the-human-population
#5
Edward J Andress, Michael Nicolaou, Farrell McGeoghan, Kenneth J Linton
Bile salts are natural detergents required to solubilise dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins. They are synthesised in hepatocytes and secreted into the luminal space of the biliary tree by the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the canalicular membrane. BSEP deficiency causes cytotoxic accumulation of bile salts in the hepatocyte that results in mild-to-severe forms of cholestasis. The resulting inflammation can also progress to hepatocellular cancer via a novel mechanism involving upregulation of proliferative signalling pathways...
February 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220041/butyrate-restores-hfd-induced-adaptations-in-brain-function-and-metabolism-in-mid-adult-obese-mice
#6
I A C Arnoldussen, M Wiesmann, C E Pelgrim, E M Wielemaker, W van Duyvenvoorde, P A Santos, L Verschuren, B J F Keijser, A Heerschap, R Kleemann, P Y Wielinga, A J Kiliaan
OBJECTIVE: Midlife obesity affects cognition and increases risk of developing dementia. Recent data suggest that intake of the short chain fatty acid butyrate could improve memory function, and may protect against diet-induced obesity by reducing bodyweight and adiposity. SUBJECTS: We examined the impact of a high fat diet (HFD) followed by intervention with 5% (w/w) dietary butyrate, on metabolism, microbiota, brain function and structure in the low-density-lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mouse model in mid- and late life...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220039/hormone-signaling-and-fatty-liver-in-females-analysis-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-mutant-mice
#7
S Hart-Unger, Y Arao, K J Hamilton, S L Lierz, D E Malarkey, S C Hewitt, M Freemark, K S Korach
BACKGROUND: Treatment with estrogen in early menopausal women protects against development of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD but estrogen has undesirable side effects which negate its beneficial effects in pre- and post-menopausal women. Targeted therapies require better understanding of the target sites and mechanisms by which estrogen signaling exerts its protective effects in women. ERα is thought to be the primary mediator for estrogen signaling to protect against hepatic steatosis...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219837/chronic-maternal-calcium-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-deficiency-in-wistar-rats-programs-abnormal-hepatic-gene-expression-leading-to-hepatic-steatosis-in-female-offspring
#8
Sona S Sharma, Nivedita M Jangale, Abhay M Harsulkar, Medha K Gokhale, Bimba N Joshi
Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218263/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-emerging-driving-force-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Giovanni Targher, Christopher D Byrne
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by an accumulation of fat in the liver; the condition can progress over time to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing rapidly owing to the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and NAFLD has been predicted to become the most important indication for liver transplantation over the next decade. It is now increasingly clear that NAFLD not only affects the liver but can also increase the risk of developing extra-hepatic diseases, including T2DM, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which have a considerable impact on health-care resources...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217809/-generation-and-phenotype-analysis-of-zebrafish-mutations-of-obesity-related-genes-lepr-and-mc4r
#10
Fei Fei, Shao-Yang Sun, Yu-Xiao Yao, Xu Wang
Obesity has become a severe public health problem across the world, and seriously affects the health and life quality of human beings. Here we generated lepr and mc4r mutant zebrafish via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, and performed morphological and functional characterizations of those mutants. We observed that there was no significant phenotypic difference between homozygous mutants and wild-type controls before 2.5 months post-fertilization (mpf). However, the adult lepr(-/-) and mc4r(-/-) individuals displayed increased food intake, heavier weight, and higher body fat percentage, the characteristics of obesity phenotypes...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215897/effects-of-body-condition-monensin-and-essential-oils-on-ruminal-lipopolysaccharide-concentration-inflammatory-markers-and-endoplasmatic-reticulum-stress-of-transition-dairy-cows
#11
C Drong, S Bühler, J Frahm, L Hüther, U Meyer, D von Soosten, D K Gessner, K Eder, H Sauerwein, S Dänicke
Evidence exists that dairy cows experience inflammatory-like phenomena in the transition period. Rumen health and alterations in metabolic processes and gene networks in the liver as the central metabolic organ might be key factors for cows' health and productivity in early lactation. This study made use of an animal model to generate experimental groups with different manifestations of postpartal fat mobilization and ketogenesis. In total, 60 German Holstein cows were allocated 6 wk antepartum to 3 high-body condition score (BCS) groups (BCS 3...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215317/docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-during-pregnancy-as-phospholipids-did-not-improve-the-incorporation-of-this-fatty-acid-into-rat-fetal-brain-compared-with-the-triglyceride-form
#12
Antonio Gázquez, Inmaculada Hernández-Albaladejo, Elvira Larqué
Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supply is important to ensure an adequate infant neurodevelopment. Several fat supplements with DHA under different chemical structures are available. There is an increased placental phospholipase activity at the end of pregnancy. The hypothesis of this study was to discern whether DHA consumption during pregnancy as phospholipids (PLs) could be more available for placental DHA uptake and fetal accretion than triglycerides (TGs) form. We aimed to evaluate maternofetal DHA status in pregnant rats fed with DHA as PL from egg yolk or TG from algae oil to determine which source might be most effective during pregnancy...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213107/hypoglycemic-effect-of-the-polyphenols-rich-extract-from-rose-rugosa-thunb-on-high-fat-diet-and-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#13
Liu Liu, Dan Tang, Haiqing Zhao, Xuelei Xin, Haji Akber Aisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosa rugosa Thunb is traditional Uygur medicine, it is widely used for regulating blood condition, nourishing liver and gallbladder in Uygur ancient prescription. But the mechanism of Rosa rugosa Thunb on diabetes is still unclear. In here, we studied the hypoglycemic effect and explained one probable pathway of polyphenols rich extract from Rosa rugosa Thunb (RPE) on diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, the effect of RPE on α-glucosidase inhibition was finished, and the antioxidant activity of RPE was evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assay...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212936/antihyperlipidemic-and-hepatoprotective-properties-of-selenium-modified-polysaccharide-from-lachnum-sp
#14
Maheen Mahwish Surhio, Yufen Wang, Ping Xu, Shah Faisal, Jinglei Li, Ming Ye
Hyperlipidemia is one of the major health problem people suffering throughout the world, which is also a major risk factor for chronic heart disease that can lead to death. The current study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of selenium modified exopolysaccharide of Lachnum sp (SeLEP-1b) on high-fat induced mice model. Nitric acid-sodium selenite (HNO3-Na2SeO3) method was used to selenize pure LEP-1b. FT-IR and (13)C NMR results confirmed the modification of LEP-1b into SeLEP-1b...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212548/branched-chain-amino-acids-prevent-hepatic-fibrosis-and-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-mouse-model
#15
Kai Takegoshi, Masao Honda, Hikari Okada, Riuta Takabatake, Naoto Matsuzawa-Nagata, Jean S Campbell, Masashi Nishikawa, Tetsuro Shimakami, Takayoshi Shirasaki, Yoshio Sakai, Taro Yamashita, Toshinari Takamura, Takuji Tanaka, Shuichi Kaneko
Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks...
February 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212343/oxyresveratrol-supplementation-to-c57bl-6-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet-ameliorates-obesity-associated-symptoms
#16
Hui Yuan Tan, Iris Mei Ying Tse, Edmund Tsze Shing Li, Mingfu Wang
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#17
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212301/the-phytocomplex-from-fucus-vesiculosus-and-ascophyllum-nodosum-controls-postprandial-plasma-glucose-levels-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-in-a-mouse-model-of-nash
#18
Daniela Gabbia, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Iole Maria Di Gangi, Sara Bogialli, Valentina Caputi, Laura Albertoni, Ilaria Marsilio, Nicola Paccagnella, Maria Carrara, Maria Cecilia Giron, Sara De Martin
Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
February 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212052/proton-density-fat-fraction-measurements-at-1-5-and-3-t-hepatic-mr-imaging-same-day-agreement-among-readers-and-across-two-imager-manufacturers
#19
Suraj D Serai, Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout
Purpose To determine the agreement of proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements obtained with hepatic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging among readers, imager manufacturers, and field strengths. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board. After providing informed consent, 24 adult volunteers underwent imaging with one 1.5-T MR unit (Ingenia; Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) and two different 3.0-T units (750 W [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wis] and Ingenia) on the same day to estimate hepatic PDFF...
February 24, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212047/multimaterial-decomposition-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-liver-fat-content-by-using-fast-kilovolt-peak-switching-dual-energy-ct-clinical-evaluation
#20
Tomoko Hyodo, Norihisa Yada, Masatoshi Hori, Osamu Maenishi, Peter Lamb, Kosuke Sasaki, Minori Onoda, Masatoshi Kudo, Teruhito Mochizuki, Takamichi Murakami
Purpose To assess the clinical accuracy and reproducibility of liver fat quantification with the multimaterial decomposition (MMD) algorithm, comparing the performance of MMD with that of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy by using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-three patients suspected of having hepatic steatosis underwent non-contrast material-enhanced and triple-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (CT) (80 and 140 kVp) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy within 30 days before liver biopsy...
February 17, 2017: Radiology
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