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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735463/impact-of-pioglitazone-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-marrow-fat-content
#1
L M Pop, I Lingvay, Q Yuan, X Li, B Adams-Huet, N M Maalouf
Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. INTRODUCTION: Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734036/-epicatechin-regulates-blood-lipids-and-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diet-%C3%A2
#2
Hui Cheng, Na Xu, Wenxia Zhao, Jingjing Su, Mengru Liang, Zhongwen Xie, Xianli Wu, Qinglin Li
SCOPE: (-)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol monomer found in cocoa, green tea and a variety of other plant foods. In this study, effects of EC on blood lipids and hepatic steatosis, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A hyperlipidemic rat model was induced by high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. EC was then administrated to the animals by gavage at doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 12 weeks. Simvastatin was included as a positive control...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733781/bitc-and-s-carvone-restrain-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Sary Alsanea, Dexi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733671/short-chain-fatty-acids-and-inulin-but-not-guar-gum-prevent-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-differential-mechanisms-in-mice
#4
Karolin Weitkunat, Christin Stuhlmann, Anna Postel, Sandra Rumberger, Maria Fankhänel, Anni Woting, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Sabrina Gohlke, Tim J Schulz, Michael Blaut, Susanne Klaus, Sara Schumann
The role of dietary fibre and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in obesity development is controversially discussed. Here, we investigated how various types of dietary fibre and different SCFA ratios affect metabolic syndrome-related disorders. Male mice (B6) were fed high-fat diets supplemented with dietary fibres (either cellulose, inulin or guar gum) or different Ac:Pr ratios (high acetate (HAc) or propionate (HPr)) for 30 weeks. Body-fat gain and insulin resistance were greatly reduced by inulin, but not by guar gum, and completely prevented by SCFA supplementation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733574/metabolomic-characteristics-of-cholesterol-induced-non-obese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#5
Lan N Tu, Megan R Showalter, Tomas Cajka, Sili Fan, Viju V Pillai, Oliver Fiehn, Vimal Selvaraj
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non-obese patients remains a clinical condition with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. Using a metabolomics approach in a mouse model that recapitulates almost all the characteristic features of non-obese NAFLD, we aimed to advance mechanistic understanding of this disorder. Mice fed high fat, high cholesterol, cholate (HFHCC) diet for three weeks consistently developed hepatic pathology similar to NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without changes to body weight or fat pad weights...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733520/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#6
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733222/molecular-classification-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-in-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Nault, Valérie Paradis, Daniel Cherqui, Valérie Vilgrain, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
Incidental liver lesion depicted on preoperative imaging for bariatric surgery (BMI = 42) in a 34 year-old woman with oral contraceptive use of 15 years, normal blood liver tests and high CRP (11 mg/L, Nl <6). MRI showed a 6 cm liver nodule in segment V close to the gallbladder. The nodule was moderately hyperintense on T1 (in-phase) and showed a marked and heterogeneous drop in signal intensity on opposedphase sequence suggesting the presence of fat. On T2, the nodule was heterogeneous, hyperintense at the periphery and hypointense in most of the central part...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733207/uplc-q-tof-ms-based-urine-and-plasma-metabonomics-study-on-the-ameliorative-effects-of-aspirin-eugenol-ester-in-hyperlipidemia-rats
#8
Ning Ma, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Zhe Qin, Shi-Hong Li, Zeng-Hua Jiao, Peng-Cheng Dong, Ya-Jun Yang, Jian-Yong Li
The main objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) in hyperlipidemic rat. After five-week oral administration of AEE in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats, the impact of AEE on plasma and urine metabonomics was investigated to explore the underlying mechanism by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Blood lipid levels and histopathological changes of liver, stomach and duodenum were also evaluated after AEE treatment. Without obvious gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, AEE significantly relieved fatty degeneration of liver and reduced triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TCH) (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731841/survey-of-nutrition-management-practices-in-centers-for-pediatric-intestinal-rehabilitation
#9
Anita M Nucci, Kipp Ellsworth, Austin Michalski, Emily Nagel, Jackie Wessel
BACKGROUND: Nutrition management of pediatric intestinal failure (IF) requires interdisciplinary coordination of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) support. Nutrition strategies used by specialists in pediatric intestinal rehabilitation to promote gut adaptation and manage complications have not been previously summarized. METHODS: A practice survey was distributed to members of the dietitian subgroup of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Pediatric Intestinal Failure Section...
July 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731787/effect-of-euterpe-oleracea-mart-a%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-oil-on-dyslipidemia-caused-by-cocos-nucifera-l-saturated-fat-in-wistar-rats
#10
Belmira S Faria E Souza, Helison O Carvalho, Talisson Taglialegna, Albenise Santana A Barros, Edilson Leal da Cunha, Irlon Maciel Ferreira, Hady Keita, Andres Navarrete, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho
Dyslipidemia is caused by disturbances in lipid metabolism that lead to chronic elevations of serum lipids, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides, increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, atherogenic processes, and cardiovascular diseases. The oil from the fruits of Euterpe oleracea (OFEO) is rich in unsaturated fatty acids with potential for treating alterations in lipid metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of OFEO on hyperlipidemia induced by Cocos nucifera L...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731143/suppression-of-hepatic-dysfunction-in-tenascin%C3%A2-x%C3%A2-deficient-mice-fed-a-high%C3%A2-fat-diet
#11
Shinsaku Yamaguchi, Kohei Kawakami, Kazumi Satoh, Naoki Fukunaga, Kazuhito Akama, Ken-Ichi Matsumoto
Extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin‑X (TNX) is the largest member of the tenascin family. In the present study, the contribution of TNX to liver dysfunction was investigated by administration of high‑fat and high‑cholesterol diet with high levels of phosphorus and calcium (HFCD) to wild‑type (WT) and TNX‑knockout (KO) mice. After 16 weeks of HFCD administration, the ratio of liver weight to body weight was approximately 22% higher in the HFCD‑fed WT mice compared with the HFCD‑fed TNX‑KO mice, indicating hepatomegaly in HFCD‑fed WT mice...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730823/pathophysiological-analysis-of-the-progression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-stam-mice
#12
T Saito, M Muramatsu, Y Ishii, Y Saigo, T Konuma, Y Toriniwa, K Miyajima, T Ohta
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current health issue since the disease often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the pathogenesis of the disease has still not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological changes observed in hepatic lesions in STAM mice, a novel NASH model. STAM mice, high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice, and streptozotocin (STZ) treated mice were prepared, and changes over time, such as biological parameters, mRNA expression, and histopathological findings, were evaluated once animal reached 5, 7, and 10 weeks of age...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730729/traffic-related-air-pollution-associations-with-cytokeratin-18-a-marker-of-hepatocellular-apoptosis-in-an-overweight-and-obese-paediatric-population
#13
S Hsieh, B P Leaderer, A E Feldstein, N Santoro, L A McKay, S Caprio, R McConnell
INTRODUCTION: Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk. METHODS: Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729181/expression-of-cyp4v2-in-human-thp1-macrophages-and-its-transcriptional-regulation-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma
#14
Myeongjin Yi, Jae-Gook Shin, Su-Jun Lee
Because macrophages respond to a variety of pathological and pharmacological reagents, understanding the role of P450s in macrophages is important for therapeutic intervention. There has been a lack of research on CYP4 in macrophages, but fatty acid accumulation and lipid trafficking in macrophages have been suggested to be a main cause of atherosclerosis. All human CYP4 genes (n=12) were screened in THP1 macrophages by gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only CYP4V2 exhibited strong expression of both mRNA and protein...
July 17, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728746/linking-sex-differences-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-bile-acid-signaling-gut-microbiota-and-high-fat-diet
#15
John Y L Chiang
This commentary highlights the article by Jena et al that studied the complex interplay between diet, bile acids, sex, and dysbiosis in hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
August 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727970/severe-fat-accumulation-in-multiple-organs-in-pediatric-autopsies-an-uncommon-but-significant-finding
#16
Jeannette C Bleeker, Gepke Visser, Frits A Wijburg, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Hans R Waterham, Peter G J Nikkels
Background The observation of fat accumulation in different organs at pediatric autopsy may help determine the cause of death. However, a comprehensive study on fat accumulation and related etiologies is still lacking. Aim To investigate the incidence of fat accumulation in different organs in pediatric autopsies and their relevance to the cause of death. Methods From February 2004 until March 2015, fat accumulation was assessed in 561 routinely performed pediatric autopsies in our center. Age at death ranged from 14 weeks of gestation for fetuses to 16 years...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727846/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-versus-mild-intensity-endurance-training-on-metabolic-phenotype-and-corticosterone-response-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-or-control-diet
#17
Youqing Shen, Guoyuan Huang, Bryan P McCormick, Tao Song, Xiangfeng Xu
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727106/increasing-dietary-inclusions-of-camelina-cake-fed-to-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-safety-growth-performance-carcass-traits-and-n-3-enrichment-of-pork
#18
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727065/effects-of-feeding-camelina-cake-to-weaned-pigs-on-safety-growth-performance-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-pork
#19
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727051/carotenoid-intake-and-scd-genotype-exert-complementary-effects-over-fat-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-in-duroc-pigs
#20
E Henriquez-Rodriguez, R N Pena, A R Seradj, L Fraile, P Christou, M Tor, J Estany
Nutritional and genetic strategies are needed to enhance intramuscular fat (IMF) and MUFA content without altering carcass leanness. Dietary vitamin A restriction has been suggested to specifically promote IMF, whereas a polymorphism of the () gene has shown to specifically increase MUFA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid intake and genotype (>) on hepatic retinoid content and on the liver, muscle (LM and gluteus medius [GM]), and subcutaneous fat (SF) content and fatty acid composition...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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