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Cholinergic receptor

Chang Liu, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Sheng Li, Jianfeng Liu
Genomic structural variation (SV) is noticed for the contribution to genetic diversity and phenotypic changes. Guizhou indigenous pig (GZP) has been raised for hundreds of years with many special characteristics. The present paper aimed to uncover the influence of SV on gene polymorphism and the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits for GZP. Eighteen GZPs were chosen for resequencing by Illumina sequencing platform. The confident SVs of GZP were called out by both programs of pindel and softSV simultaneously and compared with the SVs deduced from the genomic data of European pig (EUP) and the native pig outside of Guizhou, China (NPOG)...
2018: PloS One
Mariana Carla Mendes, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Flavia Justino Fêo, Rodrigo Vargas, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Allan Cezar Faria Araujo, Sandra Lucinei Balbo
PURPOSE: Duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) operation improves glucose homeostasis in morbid obesity, independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, through mechanisms not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of DJB upon glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreatic morphology, and β-cell responsiveness to potentiating agents of cholinergic and cAMP pathways, in western diet (WD) obese rats, at 2 months after operation. METHODS: From 8 to 18 weeks of age male Wistar rats fed on a WD...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Verena M Throm, David Männle, Thomas Giese, Andrea S Bauer, Matthias M Gaida, Juergen Kopitz, Thomas Bruckner, Konstanze Plaschke, Svetlana P Grekova, Klaus Felix, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia A Giese, Oliver Strobel
Smoking is associated with increased risk and poorer prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Nicotine acts through cholinergic nicotinic receptors, preferentially α7 (CHRNA7) that also binds the endogenous ligand SLURP1 (Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-Related Protein 1). The clinical significance of SLURP1 and its interaction with nicotine in PDAC are unclear. We detected similar levels of SLURP1 in sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis or PDAC; higher preoperative values were associated with significantly better survival in patients with resected tumors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
LaDonya Jackson, Wael Eldahshan, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
For many years, modulators of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) have been trusted by clinicians for the control of essential hypertension. It was recently demonstrated that these modulators have other pleiotropic properties independent of their hypotensive effects, such as enhancement of cognition. Within the brain, different components of the RAS have been extensively studied in the context of neuroprotection and cognition. Interestingly, a crosstalk between the RAS and other systems such as cholinergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems have been demonstrated...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gardave S Bhumbra, Marco Beato
Spinal motoneurones (Mns) constitute the final output for the execution of motor tasks. In addition to innervating muscles, Mns project excitatory collateral connections to Renshaw cells (RCs) and other Mns, but the latter have received little attention. We show that Mns receive strong synaptic input from other Mns throughout development and into maturity, with fast-type Mns systematically receiving greater recurrent excitation than slow-type Mns. Optical recordings show that activation of Mns in one spinal segment can propagate to adjacent segments even in the presence of intact recurrent inhibition...
March 2018: PLoS Biology
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Etta Y L Liu, Miranda L Xu, Yan Jin, Qiyun Wu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Genistein, 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, is a major isoflavone in soybean, which is known as phytestrogen having known benefit to brain functions. Being a common phytestrogen, the possible role of genistein in the brain protection needs to be further explored. In cultured PC12 cells, application of genistein significantly induced the expression of neurofilaments (NFs), markers for neuronal differentiation. In parallel, the expression of tetrameric form of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked acetyl-cholinesterase (G4 AChE), a key enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, was induced in a dose-dependent manner: this induction included the associated protein PRiMA...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Allison Quach, Ali I Mohammed, Michael Romano, Krishnakanth Kondabolu, Nancy J Kopell, Xue Han, Michelle M McCarthy
Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) β oscillations (15-30 Hz) are ele- vated in Parkinson's disease and correlated with movement disability. To date, no experimental paradigm outside of loss of dopamine has been able to specifically elevate β oscillations in the CBT loop. Here, we show that activation of striatal cholinergic receptors selectively increased β oscillations in mouse striatum and motor cortex. In individuals showing simultaneous β increases in both striatum and M1, β partial directed coherence (PDC) increased from striatum to M1 (but not in the reverse direction)...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ariel A Batallán-Burrowes, C Andrew Chapman
Persistent firing in layer III entorhinal cortex neurons that can be evoked during muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to mechanisms of working memory. The entorhinal cortex receives strong dopaminergic inputs which may modulate working memory for motivationally significant information. We used whole cell recordings in in vitro rat brain slices to assess the effects of dopamine on persistent firing in layer III neurons initiated by depolarizing current injection. Persistent firing during pharmacological block of ionotropic excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, and in the presence of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 μM), was observed in 39% of layer III pyramidal cells...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Andrea Boente Juncal, Aida G Mendez, Carmen Vale, Mercedes R Vieytes, Luis M Botana
Spirolides are marine toxins, produced by dinoflagellates that act as potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These compounds are not toxic for humans and since there are no reports of human intoxications caused by this group of toxins they are not yet currently regulated in Europe. Currently 13-desmethyl spirolide C, 13,19-didesmethyl spirolide C and 20-methyl spirolide G are commercially available as reference materials. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that after 4 days of treatment of primary mice cortical neurons with 13-desmethyl spirolide C, the compound ameliorated the glutamate induced toxicity and increased acetylcholine levels and the expression of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme being useful both in vitro and in vivo to decrease the brain pathology associated with Alzheimer´s disease...
March 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nicolaas I Bohnen, Michel J Grothe, Nicola J Ray, Martijn L T M Müller, Stefan J Teipel
Purpose of review: Although the cholinergic hypothesis of dementia provided a successful paradigm for the development of new drugs for dementia, this hypothesis has waned in popularity. Cholinergic brain imaging may provide novel insights into the viability of this hypothesis. Recent findings: Cholinergic receptor and forebrain volumetric studies suggest an important role of the cholinergic system in maintaining brain network integrity that may deteriorate with cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Lewy body disorders (LBD)...
March 2018: Current Geriatrics Reports
Anand M Bokare, Mandar Bhonde, Rajan Goel, Yogendra Nayak
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: 5-HT6 receptors are mainly expressed in brain areas associated with learning and memory. Several studies have reported procognitive effects of both 5-HT6 agonist and antagonists. However, the exact mechanism 5-HT6 receptor modulation has not been properly studied especially in the context of cholinergic functions, cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain-derived neural factor (BDNF), oxidative stress, and behavioral changes. METHODS: In the present study, memory impairment was induced in albino Wistar rats by two doses of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 3 mg/kg) on first and third day...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber, Christopher N Balakrishnan
Amongst an array of stimuli from countless species, animals must recognize salient signals, including those of their own species. In songbirds, behavioral tests have demonstrated that preferences for conspecific male songs are determined by both preexisting biases and social experience with a male 'tutor' during the sensitive period for learning. Although immediate early gene expression (e.g. ZENK) and electrophysiological experiments generally find greater neural responses for conspecific songs, it remains unclear whether distinct mechanisms, such as sensory gating, are engaged to filter out irrelevant heterospecific songs...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Alena Randáková, Vladimír Rudajev, Vladimír Doležal, John Boulos, Jan Jakubík
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop potent and long-acting antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 4-hexyloxy and 4-butyloxy derivatives of 1-[2-(4-oxidobenzoyloxy)ethyl]-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-ium were synthesized and tested for biological activity. Antagonists with long- residence time at receptors are therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric human diseases. Their long acting effects allow for reduced daily doses and adverse effects...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Leniz F Nurullin, Evgeny E Nikolsky, Artem I Malomouzh
It is generally accepted that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule abundant in central synapses. In a number of studies though, it has been shown that GABA signaling functions in the peripheral nervous system as well, in particular, in the synapses of sympathetic ganglia. However, there exists no firm evidence on the presence of GABAergic signaling cascade in the intercellular junctions of the somatic nerve system. By the use of immunohistochemistry methods, in the synaptic area of cholinergic neuromuscular contact in rat diaphragm, we have detected glutamate decarboxylase, the enzyme involved in synthesis of GABA, molecules of GABA, and also GAT-2, a protein responsible for transmembrane transport of GABA...
February 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
X A Perez, T Bordia, M Quik
Cholinergic signaling plays a key role in regulating striatal function. The principal source of acetylcholine in the striatum is the cholinergic interneurons which, although low in number, densely arborize to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This modulation occurs via strategically positioned nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that influence striatal dopamine, GABA and other neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic interneurons integrate multiple striatal synaptic inputs and outputs to regulate motor activity under normal physiological conditions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Srinidhi Desikan, David E Koser, Angela Neitz, Hannah Monyer
The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a pivotal role in processing and conveying spatial information to the hippocampus. It has long been known that EC neurons are modulated by cholinergic input from the medial septum. However, little is known as to how synaptic release of acetylcholine affects the different cell types in EC. Here we combined optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings to study the effect of cholinergic axon stimulation on distinct neurons in EC. We found dense cholinergic innervations that terminate in layer I and II (LI and LII)...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaoyan Jie, Xu Li, Jian-Qing Song, Dan Wang, Jian-Hua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) by measurement of vagal activity in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. METHODS: Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced in 30 rats by feeding them a HFD for 12 weeks. A further 10 rats fed normal food comprised the lean diet (LD) control group. DIO rats were further subdivided into three groups that received a HFD only (HFD group, n=10), a HFD plus electroacupuncture (HFD+EA group, n=10) or a HFD plus minimal acupuncture (HFD+MA group, n=10)...
February 27, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Sarah E Scullion, Gareth R I Barker, E Clea Warburton, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown
Neurodegenerative diseases affecting cognitive dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia, are often associated impairments in the visual recognition memory system. Recent evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity, in particular long term depression (LTD), in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical cellular mechanism underlying recognition memory. In this study, we have examined novel object recognition and PRh LTD in rTg4510 mice, which transgenically overexpress tauP301L . We found that 8-9 month old rTg4510 mice had significant deficits in long- but not short-term novel object recognition memory...
February 26, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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