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Cholinergic receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#1
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928157/alteration-of-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-rat-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-modified-electrophysiological-function-of-heart
#2
Shu-Jie Wu, Yue-Chun Li, Zhe-Wei Shi, Zhong-Hao Lin, Zhi-Heng Rao, Si-Chao Tai, Mao-Ping Chu, Lei Li, Jia-Feng Lin
BACKGROUND: With chronic ischemia after myocardial infarction, the resulting scar tissue result in electrical and structural remodeling vulnerable to an arrhythmogenic substrate. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway elicited by vagal nerve via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChR) can modulate local and systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we aimed to clarify a novel mechanism for the antiarrhythmogenic properties of vagal nerve during the ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#3
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely-held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917975/the-memory-ameliorating-effects-of-dhp1402-an-herbal-mixture-on-cholinergic-blockade-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Haneul Kim, Hyung Eun Lee, In Ho Jung, Se Jin Jeon, Jiabao Zhang, Yubeen Kwon, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F Chow (rhamnaceae) and Codonopsis lanceolata (Siedbold & Zucc.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Trautv. (campanulaceae), compositions of DHP1402, have long been used for treating anti-dementia or hypomnesia as folk medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: It has been reported that Z. jujuba var. spinosa and C. lanceolata are effective on cognitive function with different mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the synergistic effects of Ziziphus jujuba var...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917942/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-testing-of-native-%C3%AE-conotoxins-from-the-injected-venom-of-conus-purpurascens
#5
REVIEW
Mickelene F Hoggard, Alena M Rodriguez, Herminsul Cano, Evan Clark, Han-Shen Tae, David J Adams, Tanja A Godenschwege, Frank Marí
α-Conotoxins inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, express nAChRs in their CNS that are suitable to investigate the neuropharmacology of α-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two novel α-conotoxins, PIC and PIC[O7], from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912862/astragalus-polysaccharides-combined-with-ibuprofen-exhibit-a-therapeutic-effect-on-septic-rats-via-an-anti-inflammatory-cholinergic-pathway
#6
Li Liu, Shibiao Chen, Xiaoyun Xu, Benchao Hou, Fei Mo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) in combination with ibuprofen (IBU) in the treatment of sepsis and the underlying mechanism. The combined drug treatment was evaluated in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and acetylcholine (ACh) were determined. Nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α7 receptor expression and histopathological changes in the lung tissue were also observed...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#7
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904985/cholinergic-activity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-a-multitracer-molecular-imaging-study
#8
Joachim Brumberg, Sebastian Küsters, Ehab Al-Momani, Giorgio Marotta, Kelly P Cosgrove, Christopher H van Dyck, Ken Herrmann, György A Homola, Gianni Pezzoli, Andreas K Buck, Jens Volkmann, Samuel Samnick, Ioannis U Isaias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between levodopa-induced dyskinesias and striatal cholinergic activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This study included 13 Parkinson's disease patients with peak-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias, 12 nondyskinetic patients, and 12 healthy controls. Participants underwent 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine single-photon emission computed tomography, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, [(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computed tomography, to measure dopamine reuptake transporter density and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess regional cerebral metabolic activity...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901737/melatonin-improves-cognitive-deficits-via-restoration-of-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-scopolamine-induced-amnesia
#9
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Dae Won Kim, Jinseu Park, Soo Young Choi, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Bing Chun Yan, Il-Jun Kang, Bich Na Shin, Yun Lyul Lee, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Young Joo Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Melatonin is known to improve cognitive deficits and its functions have been studied in various disease models, including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated effects of melatonin on cognition and the cholinergic system of the septum and hippocampus in a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg) and melatonin (10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to mice for 2 and 4 weeks. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests revealed that both treatments of scopolamine significantly impaired spatial learning and memory; however, 2- and 4-week melatonin treatments significantly improved the spatial learning and memory...
September 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901528/beyond-symptomatic-effects-donepezil-s-potential-for-neuroprotection-and-disease-modification-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Seung Hyun Kim, Nagaendran Kandiah, Jung-Lung Hsu, Chuthamanee Suthisisang, Chesda Udommongkol, Amitabh Dash
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with neurodegenerative changes resulting clinically in progressive cognitive and functional deficits. The only therapies are the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist memantine. Donepezil acts primarily on the cholinergic system as symptomatic treatment, but it also has potential for disease modification and may reduce the rate of progression of AD. This review explores the potential for a disease modifying effect of donepezil...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901405/genotype-phenotype-analysis-in-a-male-patient-with-partial-trisomy-4p-and-monosomy-20q-due-to-maternal-reciprocal-translocation%C3%A2-4-20-a-case-report
#11
Dong Wu, Hui Zhang, Qiaofang Hou, Hongdan Wang, Tao Wang, Shixiu Liao
Translocations are the most frequent structural aberration in the human genome. Carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangement exhibit an increased risk of abortion and/or a chromosomally‑unbalanced child. The present study reported a clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a child who exhibited typical trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q features, including intellectual disability, delayed speech, tall stature, seizures and facial dysmorphism. The karyotype of the proband exhibited 46, XY, add(20) (q13.3). The karyotype of the mother indicated a balanced translocation karyotype: 46, XX, t(4;20) (p15...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901280/neuronal-and-extraneuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#12
Michele Zoli, Susanna Pucci, Antonietta Vilella, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a super-family of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels that respond to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or other cholinergic ligands. These receptors are also the targets of drugs such as nicotine (the main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke) and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression and/or function of nAChRs is compromised in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895408/sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-innervation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
L Zhang, L L Wu, H B Huan, X J Chen, X D Wen, D P Yang, F Xia
Autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the development of multiple cancers via regulating cancer cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. However, no detailed studies have been performed to study the role of autonomic nerve fibers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as its correlation with the progression of HCC. Here, we examined the distribution of the autonomic nerve fibers and analyzed the correlation between autonomic nerve fibers and the pathological characteristics of HCC patients...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893667/amnestic-drugs-in-the-odor-span-task-effects-of-flunitrazepam-zolpidem-and-scopolamine
#14
Mark Galizio, Michael Mathews, Madeleine Mason, Danielle Panoz-Brown, Ashley Prichard, Paul Soto
The odor span task is an incrementing non-matching-to-sample procedure designed to provide an analysis of working memory capacity in rodents. The procedure takes place in an arena apparatus and rats are exposed to a series of odor stimuli in the form of scented lids with the selection of new stimuli reinforced. This procedure makes it possible to study drug effects as a function of the number of stimuli to remember. In the present study, the non-selective positive allosteric GABAA receptor modulator flunitrazepam impaired odor span performance at doses that did not affect a control odor discrimination...
September 8, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890048/molecular-cellular-and-circuit-basis-of-cholinergic-modulation-of-pain
#15
Paul V Naser, Rohini Kuner
In addition to being a key component of the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a prominent neurotransmitter and neuromodulator upon release from key groups of cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons distributed across the central nervous system. It has been more than forty years since it was discovered that cholinergic transmission profoundly modifies the perception of pain. Directly activating cholinergic receptors or extending the action of endogenous acetylcholine via pharmacological blockade of acetylcholine esterase reduces pain in rodents as well as humans; conversely, inhibition of muscarinic cholinergic receptors induces nociceptive hypersensitivity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#16
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884083/hydro-alcoholic-extract-of-matricaria-recutita-exhibited-dual-anti-spasmodic-effect-via-modulation-of-ca-2-channels-no-and-pka2-kinase-pathway-in-rabbit-jejunum
#17
Hamidreza Yazdi, Akhtar Seifi, Shima Changizi, Vahid Khori, Fatemeh Hossini, Ali Davarian, Yahya Jand, Ayesheh Enayati, Masumeh Mazandarani, Fateme Nanvabashi
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown the antispasmodic activity of Matricariarecutita without detailing the underlying mechanism(s). The present study was designed to determine whether the antispasmodic mechanisms of M. recutita extract mediated via histaminergic/cholinergic receptors, Ca(2+)channels, activation of PKA2 and NO release in isolated rabbit jejunum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration- dependent (3 × 10(-3)-1.3 × 10(-2) mg/ml) antispasmodic effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of M...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878678/verapamil-blocks-scopolamine-enhancement-effect-on-memory-consolidation-in-passive-avoidance-task-in-rats
#18
Verónica Giménez De Béjar, María Caballero Bleda, Natalija Popović, Miroljub Popović
Our recent data have indicated that scopolamine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, improves memory consolidation, in a passive avoidance task, tested in rats. It has been found that verapamil, a phenylalkylamine class of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonist, inhibits [3H] N-methyl scopolamine binding to M1 muscarinic receptors. However, there are no data about the effect of verapamil on memory consolidation in the passive avoidance task, in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of verapamil (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878260/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-fetal-brain-microglia-first-evidence-of-interference-by-iron-homeostasis
#19
M Cortes, M Cao, H L Liu, C S Moore, L D Durosier, P Burns, G Fecteau, A Desrochers, L B Barreiro, J P Antel, M G Frasch
Neuroinflammation in utero may result in life-long neurological disabilities. Microglia play a pivotal role, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. No early postnatal treatment strategies exist to enhance neuroprotective potential of microglia. We hypothesized that agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) in fetal microglia will augment their neuroprotective transcriptome profile, while the antagonistic stimulation of α7nAChR will achieve the opposite. Using an in vivo - in vitro model of developmental programming of neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we validated this hypothesis in primary fetal sheep microglia cultures re-exposed to LPS in presence of a selective α7nAChR agonist or antagonist...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874448/glycinergic-input-to-the-mouse-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#20
Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Balázs Pál, Áron Kőszeghy, Tamás Wilheim, Masahiko Watanabe, László Záborszky, Zsolt Liposits, Imre Kalló
The basal forebrain (BF) receives afferents from brain stem ascending pathways, which has been implicated first by Moruzzi and Magoun (Moruzzi and Magoun, 1949) to induce forebrain activation and cortical arousal/waking behavior; however, it is very little known about how brain stem inhibitory inputs affect cholinergic functions. In the current study, glycine, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of brain stem neurons, and gliotransmitter of local glial cells, was tested for potential interaction with basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons in male mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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