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Vestibular nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#1
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#2
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#3
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176264/the-integration-of-neural-information-by-a-passive-kinetic-stimulus-and-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus
#4
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Despite an easy control and the direct effects on vestibular neurons, the clinical applications of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) have been restricted because of its unclear activities as input. On the other hand, some critical conclusions have been made in the peripheral and the central processing of neural information by kinetic stimuli with different motion frequencies. Nevertheless, it is still elusive how the neural responses to simultaneous GVS and kinetic stimulus are modified during transmission and integration at the central vestibular area...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026001/expression-of-glycine-receptors-and-gephyrin-in-rat-medial-vestibular-nuclei-and-flocculi-following-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#5
Wen Zhou, Liu-Qing Zhou, Hong Shi, Yang-Ming Leng, Bo Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus have been known to be the key areas involved in vestibular compensation (VC) following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In this study, we examined the role of gephyrin and glycine receptor (GlyR) in VC using Sprague-Dawley rats, in an aim to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for VC. The expression of the α1 and β subunits of GlyR and gephyrin was immunohistochemically localized in rat MVN and flocculi. The mRNA and protein expression of GlyR (α1 and β subunits) and gephyrin was quantitatively determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis at 8 h, and at 1, 3 and 7 days following UL...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989457/bk-channels-are-required-for-multisensory-plasticity-in-the-oculomotor-system
#6
Alexandra B Nelson, Michael Faulstich, Setareh Moghadam, Kimberly Onori, Andrea Meredith, Sascha du Lac
Neural circuits are endowed with several forms of intrinsic and synaptic plasticity that could contribute to adaptive changes in behavior, but circuit complexities have hindered linking specific cellular mechanisms with their behavioral consequences. Eye movements generated by simple brainstem circuits provide a means for relating cellular plasticity to behavioral gain control. Here we show that firing rate potentiation, a form of intrinsic plasticity mediated by reductions in BK-type calcium-activated potassium currents in spontaneously firing neurons, is engaged during optokinetic reflex compensation for inner ear dysfunction...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755359/inhibiting-p21-activated-kinase-induces-cell-death-in-vestibular-schwannoma-and-meningioma-via-mitotic-catastrophe
#8
Melania Ester Mercado-Pimentel, Craig Miller, Daniela N Rolph, Edrick F Villalobos, Allison M Dunn, Prithvi M Mohan, Suzu Igarashi, Xiangdang Liu, Macken Yrun-Duffy, Neal K Patel, Cecilia M Read, Ross H Francis, Adelina Isabella Lane, Swaroop Murugesh, Abraham Jacob
HYPOTHESIS: p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates signaling pathways that promote cell survival and proliferation; therefore, pharmacological inhibition of PAK will induce cell death in vestibular schwannomas (VS) and meningiomas. BACKGROUND: All VS and many meningiomas result from loss of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene product merlin, with ensuing PAK hyperactivation and increased cell proliferation/survival. METHODS: The novel small molecule PAK inhibitors PI-8 and PI-15-tested in schwannoma and meningioma cells-perturb molecular signaling and induce cell death...
January 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734216/central-aspects-of-nausea-and-vomiting-in-gi-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Prashant Singh, Braden Kuo
Nausea and vomiting result from continuous interactions among gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Despite being closely associated, central pathways of nausea and vomiting appear to be at least partly different and nausea is no longer considered only a penultimate step of vomiting. Although our understanding of central pathways of nausea has improved over the last one decade, it is still very basic. Afferent pathways from gastrointestinal tract via vagus, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius which, in turn, relays the signal to central pattern generator initiating multiple downstream pathways...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733568/nucleus-prepositus-hypoglossi-lesions-produce-a-unique-ocular-motor-syndrome
#10
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711146/distribution-and-structure-of-synapses-on-medial-vestibular-nuclear-neurons-targeted-by-cerebellar-flocculus-purkinje-cells-and-vestibular-nerve-in-mice-light-and-electron-microscopy-studies
#11
Hitomi Matsuno, Moeko Kudoh, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Soichi Nagao
Adaptations of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic response eye movements have been studied as an experimental model of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Several previous physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently suggested that the cerebellar flocculus (FL) Purkinje cells (P-cells) and the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons targeted by FL (FL-targeted MVN neurons) may respectively maintain the memory traces of short- and long-term adaptation. To study the basic structures of the FL-MVN synapses by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), we injected green florescence protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus into FL to anterogradely label the FL P-cell axons in C57BL/6J mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693510/characterization-of-novel-dystonia-musculorum-mutant-mice-implications-for-central-nervous-system-abnormality
#12
Masao Horie, Kazuyuki Mekada, Hiromi Sano, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Satomi Chiken, Takuro Someya, Keisuke Saito, M Ibrahim Hossain, Masaaki Nameta, Kuniya Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Katsuhiko Ono, Atsushi Nambu, Atsushi Yoshiki, Hirohide Takebayashi
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638073/acute-unilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#13
REVIEW
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595591/h1-histamine-receptor-densities-are-increased-in-brain-regions-of-rats-with-genetically-generalized-epilepsies
#14
Inna S Midzyanovskaya, Lidia M Birioukova, Alla B Shatskova, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Leena M Tuomisto
Genetic animal models for convulsive, non-convulsive and mixed types of generalized epilepsies were used to establish putative histaminergic brain sites involved in the control of different types of epilepsy. Age matched rats of the KM strain (audiogenic seizures, AGS), WAG/Rij strain (absence seizures) and the WAG/Rij-AGS substrain (mixed model) were compared with a control group of Wistar rats on regional binding densities of H1 histamine receptors. Coronal slices of adult brains of the four groups were labeled with 3H pyrilamine, an antagonist of H1 histamine receptor and density of receptors was quantified with image analyses...
November 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473923/noise-induced-hearing-loss-neuropathic-pain-via-ntrk1-signaling
#15
Senthilvelan Manohar, Kimberly Dahar, Henry J Adler, Ding Dalian, Richard Salvi
Severe noise-induced damage to the inner ear leads to auditory nerve fiber degeneration thereby reducing the neural input to the cochlear nucleus (CN). Paradoxically, this leads to a significant increase in spontaneous activity in the CN which has been linked to tinnitus, hyperacusis and ear pain. The biological mechanisms that lead to an increased spontaneous activity are largely unknown, but could arise from changes in glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission or neuroinflammation. To test this hypothesis, we unilaterally exposed rats for 2h to a 126dB SPL narrow band noise centered at 12kHz...
September 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440244/vestibular-nucleus-neurons-respond-to-hindlimb-movement-in-the-conscious-cat
#16
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Bill J Yates
The limbs constitute the sole interface with the ground during most waking activities in mammalian species; it is therefore expected that somatosensory inputs from the limbs provide important information to the central nervous system for balance control. In the decerebrate cat model, the activity of a subset of neurons in the vestibular nuclei (VN) has been previously shown to be modulated by hindlimb movement. However, decerebration can profoundly alter the effects of sensory inputs on the activity of brain stem neurons, resulting in epiphenomenal responses...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435250/electrical-stimulation-normalizes-c-fos-expression-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-of-depressive-like-rats-implication-of-antidepressant-activity
#17
Gemma Huguet, Elisabet Kadar, Yasin Temel, Lee Wei Lim
The electrical stimulation of specific brain targets has been shown to induce striking antidepressant effects. Despite that recent data have indicated that cerebellum is involved in emotional regulation, the mechanisms by which stimulation improved mood-related behaviors in the cerebellum remained largely obscure. Here, we investigated the stimulation effects of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and lateral habenular nucleus on the c-Fos neuronal activity in various deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei using the unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression...
July 19, 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421984/-pathogenesis-and-molecular-pathology-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#18
M Brodhun, V Stahn, A Harder
Schwannomas are benign Schwann cell-derived tumors of the peripheral nerve sheath often involving the vestibular cranial nerve (vestibular schwannoma). Histologically, they consist of bipolar spindle cells and show a moderate cellularity. Typically, Antoni A regions with a storiform pattern and loose Antoni B regions are intermingled. Verocay bodies are the pathognomonic palisading structures. Malignant transformation is rare. Merlin (schwannomin), the protein product of NF2, is inactivated by mutations, loss of heterozygosity or methylation...
July 15, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396693/role-of-the-abdominal-vagus-and-hindbrain-in-inhalational-anesthesia-induced-vomiting
#19
Ragini G Gupta, Claire Schafer, Yolande Ramaroson, Michael G Sciullo, Charles C Horn
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be as high as 80% in patients with risk factors (e.g., females, history of motion sickness). PONV delays postoperative recovery and costs several hundred million dollars annually. Cell-based assays show that halogenated ethers (e.g., isoflurane) activate 5-HT3 receptors, which are found on gastrointestinal vagal afferents and in the hindbrain - key pathways for producing nausea and vomiting. This project evaluated the role of the vagus and activation of the hindbrain in isoflurane-induced emesis in musk shrews, a small animal model with a vomiting reflex, which is lacking in rats and mice...
January 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358462/implications-of-lateral-cerebellum-in-proactive-control-of-saccades
#20
Jun Kunimatsu, Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
UNLABELLED: Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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