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Vestibular nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677359/essential-infantile-esotropia-potential-pathogenetic-role-of-extended-subcortical-neuroplasticity
#1
Michael C Brodsky
Essential infantile esotropia is generated by prenuclear visual pathways that increase esotonus and gradually drive the eyes into a convergent position. Contrary to the prevailing notion that infantile esotropia reflects a primary disturbance within the visual cortex, accumulating evidence suggests that infantile esotropia is generated by lower subcortical centers that subserve nasalward optokinesis. These phylogenetically older visuo-vestibular pathways include the nucleus of the optic tract, accessory optic system, inferior olive, cerebellar flocculus, and vestibular nucleus...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#2
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577174/non-associative-learning-processes-in-vestibular-nucleus
#3
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Simple non-associative learning processes, habituation and sensitization, are known to be systemically involved in different neurotransmissions, and these processes in the vestibular nucleus (VN) often show opposite responding patterns to repeated stimuli. However, their roles and mechanisms of the reciprocal responses at the cellular level are still elusive. Here, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment to investigate the neuronal responses to repeated stimuli in the VN, characterizing the neuronal responding patterns of habituation and sensitization...
March 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557546/whole-brain-mapping-of-direct-inputs-to-and-axonal-projections-from-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone
#4
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
March 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541016/galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-augments-deficient-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn-connectivity-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-fmri-effects-of-different-stimuli
#5
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490911/recent-advances-in-head-impulse-test-findings-in-central-vestibular-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The head impulse test (HIT) is used to evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during a high-velocity head rotation. Corrective catch-up saccades that occur during or after the HITs usually indicate peripheral vestibular hypofunction, whereas in acute vestibular syndrome, normal clinical (bedside) HITs should prompt a search for a central lesion. However, recent quantitative studies that evaluated HITs using magnetic search coils or video-based techniques have demonstrated that specific patterns of HIT abnormalities are associated with central vestibular disorders...
March 27, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487123/role-of-rostral-fastigial-neurons-in-encoding-a-body-centered-representation-of-translation-in-three-dimensions
#7
Christophe Z Martin, Jessica X Brooks, Andrea M Green
Many daily behaviors rely critically on estimates of our body motion. Such estimates must be computed by combining neck proprioceptive signals with vestibular signals that have been transformed from a head- to a body-centered reference frame. Recent studies showed that deep cerebellar neurons in the rostral fastigial nucleus (rFN) reflect these computations, but whether they explicitly encode estimates of body motion remains unclear. A key limitation in addressing this question is that to date cell tuning properties have only been characterized for a restricted set of motions across head-re-body orientations in the horizontal plane...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#8
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436382/acupuncture-relieves-motion-sickness-via-the-ir%C3%AE-erk1-2-dependent-insulin-receptor-signalling-pathway
#9
Dawei Tian, Fengfeng Mo, Xingjian Cai, Zhiyuan Miao, Feng Xiao, Yifang Chang, Lusha Wu, Yuxiao Tang, Xin Wang, Chen Ye, Xiaolu Qian, Wei Gu, Min Li
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture has been widely used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this research was to study the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of MS. METHODS: To observe the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of MS, 80 rats were randomised into five groups that were subjected to acceleration and either remained untreated (CTRL), or received restraint (REST), scopolamine (SCOP) or acupuncture at SP4 (sham) or PC6+ST36 (verum) acupuncture points...
February 7, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433118/-trigeminal-herpes-zoster-presenting-with-high-intensity-signals-for-the-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus-and-tract-on-diffusion-weighted-image-a-case-report-of-stroke-mimic
#10
Takahiro Himeno, Shinichi Takeshima, Satoshi Kubo, Naoyuki Hara, Akio Tanaka, Masaru Kuriyama
A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with dysesthesia on the right upper portion of her face and a headache. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high-intensity signals in the dorsolateral portion of the medulla oblongata. She was diagnosed with lateral medullary infarction and was intravenously treated with sodium ozagrel. On the second day of hospitalization, she had nausea and vomiting and showed nystagmus to all directions, suggesting damage to the vestibular nucleus...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386118/balance-control-mediated-by-vestibular-circuits-directing-limb-extension-or-antagonist-muscle-co-activation
#11
Andrew J Murray, Katherine Croce, Timothy Belton, Turgay Akay, Thomas M Jessell
Maintaining balance after an external perturbation requires modification of ongoing motor plans and the selection of contextually appropriate muscle activation patterns that respect body and limb position. We have used the vestibular system to generate sensory-evoked transitions in motor programming. In the face of a rapid balance perturbation, the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) generates exclusive extensor muscle activation and selective early extension of the hindlimb, followed by the co-activation of extensor and flexor muscle groups...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361882/awake-craniotomy-for-assisting-placement-of-auditory-brainstem-implant-in-nf2-patients
#12
Qiangyi Zhou, Zhijun Yang, Zhenmin Wang, Bo Wang, Xingchao Wang, Chi Zhao, Shun Zhang, Tao Wu, Peng Li, Shiwei Li, Fu Zhao, Pinan Liu
OBJECTIVES: Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) may be the only opportunity for patients with NF2 to regain some sense of hearing sensation. However, only a very small number of individuals achieved open-set speech understanding and high sentence scores. Suboptimal placement of the ABI electrode array over the cochlear nucleus may be one of main factors for poor auditory performance. In the current study, we present a method of awake craniotomy to assist with ABI placement. METHODS: Awake surgery and hearing test via the retrosigmoid approach were performed for vestibular schwannoma resections and auditory brainstem implantations in four patients with NF2...
January 23, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357731/medullary-astrogliosis-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-varies-with-sleeping-environment-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-of-death-in-alone-versus-co-sleepers
#13
Jade Spinelli, Roger W Byard, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino
Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year, and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The current study investigated the hypothesis that co-sleepers die more rapidly from causes such as suffocation from overlaying by comparing levels of reactive astrogliosis in the medulla of infants who died sleeping alone to those who died co-sleeping. The amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining in alone sleepers was significantly higher than shared sleepers in 3 specific areas of the medulla, the inferior vestibular nucleus, the medial vestibular nucleus and the cochlear nucleus...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343821/focal-hyperintensity-in-the-dorsal-brain-stem-of-patients-with-cerebellopontine-angle-tumor-a-high-resolution-3%C3%A2-t-mri-study
#14
Hirotaka Yamamoto, Atsushi Fujita, Taichiro Imahori, Takashi Sasayama, Kohkichi Hosoda, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Eiji Kohmura
Focal hyperintensity (FHI) in the dorsal brain stem on T2-weighted images of patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor was thought to indicate degeneration of the vestibular nucleus and to be specific to vestibular schwannoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FHI by using high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3 T MRI) and the relation to clinical characteristics. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and MRI of 45 patients with CPA tumors (34 vestibular schwannomas and 11 other tumors)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306256/isolation-and-culture-of-adult-mouse-vestibular-nucleus-neurons
#15
Aydın Him, Serap Altuntaş, Gürkan Öztürk, Ender Erdoğan, Nureddin Cengiz
Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties.Materials and methods: Vestibular nucleus neurons were mechanically and enzymatically isolated and cultured using a defined medium with known growth factors...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238682/cochlear-implantation-in-children-with-anomalous-cochleovestibular-anatomy-our-experience
#16
Mohnish Grover, Shitanshu Sharma, Shruti Bhargava, Shashank Nath Singh, Gaurav Gupta, Man Prakash Sharma
To report operative findings, postoperative course, and postimplantation performance in patients with cochlear malformations who underwent cochlear implantation. Seventeen patients with malformations which included enlarged vestibular aqueduct (n = 6), Mondini's dysplasia (n = 5) common cavity deformity (n = 3) and incomplete partition type 2 (n = 3) underwent cochlear implantation with Nucleus 22 straight array device at our center. Operative findings described facial nerve anatomy and cerebrospinal fluid leak...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200911/dual-control-of-the-vestibulosympathetic-reflex-following-hypotension-in-rats
#17
Sang Eon Park, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Byung Rim Park
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with symptoms including headache, dizziness, and syncope. The incidence of OH increases with age. Attenuation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) is also associated with an increased incidence of OH. In order to understand the pathophysiology of OH, we investigated the physiological characteristics of the VSR in the disorder. We applied sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation in order to induce hypotension. Expression of pERK in the intermediolateral cell column (IMC) of the T4~7 thoracic spinal regions, blood epinephrine levels, and blood pressure were evaluated following the administration of glutamate and/or SNP...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189907/neural-circuits-underlying-jaw-movements-for-the-prey-catching-behavior-in-frog-distribution-of-vestibular-afferent-terminals-on-motoneurons-supplying-the-jaw
#18
András Birinyi, Nóra Rácz, Szilvia Kecskes, Clara Matesz, Gabriella Kovalecz
Coordinated movement of the jaw is essential for catching and swallowing the prey. The majority of the jaw muscles in frogs are supplied by the trigeminal motoneurons. We have previously described that the primary vestibular afferent fibers, conveying information about the movements of the head, established close appositions on the motoneurons of trigeminal nerve providing one of the morphological substrates of monosynaptic sensory modulation of prey-catching behavior in the frog. The aim of our study was to reveal the spatial distribution of vestibular close appositions on the somatodendritic compartments of the functionally different trigeminal motoneurons...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#19
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3- to 12-Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, using either natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167054/cerebral-gray-matter-changes-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness
#20
Sebastian Wurthmann, Steffen Naegel, Benedict Schulte Steinberg, Nina Theysohn, Hans-Christoph Diener, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Mark Obermann, Dagny Holle
BACKGROUND: Persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is the most common vestibular syndrome in middle-aged patients. Multisensory maladjustment involving alterations of sensory response pattern including vestibular, visual and motion stimuli is thought to be a key pathophysiological correlate of this disorder. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify regional gray matter changes in PPPD patients that might be involved in the underlying pathophysiology of this disorder...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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