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Vestibular nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978765/convergence-of-linear-acceleration-and-yaw-rotation-signals-on-non-eye-movement-neurons-in-the-vestibular-nucleus-of-macaques
#1
Shawn D Newlands, Ben Abbatematteo, Min Wei, Laurel H Carney, Hongge Luan
Roughly half of all vestibular nucleus neurons without eye movement sensitivity respond to both angular rotation and linear acceleration. Linear acceleration signals arise from otolith organs and rotation signals arise from semicircular canals. In the vestibular nerve, these signals are carried by different afferents. Vestibular nucleus neurons represent the first point of convergence for these distinct sensory signals. This study systematically evaluated how rotational and translational signals interact in single neurons in the vestibular nuclei: multisensory integration at the first opportunity for convergence between these two independent vestibular sensory signals...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965517/not-a-one-trick-pony-diverse-connectivity-and-functions-of-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-complex
#2
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#4
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842421/effects-of-selective-deafferentation-on-the-discharge-characteristics-of-medial-rectus-motoneurons
#5
Rosendo G Hernández, Beatriz Benítez-Temiño, Camilo J Morado-Díaz, María América Davis-López de Carrizosa, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor
Medial rectus motoneurons receive two main pontine inputs: abducens internuclear neurons, whose axons course through the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus, whose axons project through the ascending tract of Deiters (ATD). Abducens internuclear neurons are responsible for conjugate gaze in the horizontal plane, whereas ATD neurons provide medial rectus motoneurons with a vestibular input comprising mainly head velocity. To reveal the relative contribution of each input to the oculomotor physiology, single-unit recordings from medial rectus motoneurons were obtained in the control situation and after selective deafferentation from cats with unilateral transection of either the MLF or the ATD...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816686/vestibular-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-otolith-organs-implications-in-the-development-of-a-vestibular-implant-for-the-improvement-of-the-sensation-of-gravitoinertial-accelerations
#6
Angel Ramos de Miguel, Juan Carlos Falcon Gonzalez, Angel Ramos Macias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation of the utricular and saccular portions of the vestibular nerve improves stability in patients suffering from vestibular dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to evaluate a new technique, vestibular response telemetry (VRT), for measuring the electrically evoked vestibular compound action potential (saccular and utricular) after stimulating the otolith organ (saccular and utricular) in adults. This study used evidence that the otolith organ can be electrically stimulated in order to develop a new vestibular implant design to improve the sensation of gravitoinertial acceleration...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667681/escapees-from-rhombomeric-lineage-restriction-extensive-migration-rostral-to-the-r4-r5-border-of-hox-a3-expression
#7
Charles Watson, Gayeshika Leanage, Nadja Makki, Petr Tvrdik
The rhombomeric compartments of the hindbrain are characterized by lineage restriction; cells born in one compartment generally remain there and do not migrate to neighboring rhombomeres. Two well-known exceptions are the substantial migrations of the pontine nuclei and the mammalian facial nucleus. In this study we used Hoxa3-Cre lineage to permanently mark cells that originate in rhombomeres caudal to r4. We found that cells born caudal to the r4/r5 border migrate forwards to a number of different locations in rhombomeres 1-4; the final locations include the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus, the principal trigeminal nucleus, the pontine nuclei, the reticulotegmental nucleus, the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the lateral and medial vestibular nuclei...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649492/relationship-between-brainstem-neurodegeneration-and-clinical-impairment-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Patrick Grabher, Claudia Blaiotta, John Ashburner, Patrick Freund
BACKGROUND: Brainstem networks are pivotal in sensory and motor function and in recovery following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To quantify neurodegeneration and its relation to clinical impairment in major brainstem pathways and nuclei in traumatic SCI. METHODS: Quantitative MRI data of 30 chronic traumatic SCI patients (15 with tetraplegia and 15 with paraplegia) and 23 controls were acquired. Patients underwent a full neurological examination...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#9
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567027/transient-vestibulopathy-in-wallenberg-s-syndrome-pathologic-analysis
#10
Jorge C Kattah, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Sigrun Roeber, Meena Gujrati, Sarah E Bach, David E Newman Toker, Ari M Blitz, Anja K E Horn
OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual lateral medullary stroke (LMS) associated with transient unidirectional horizontal, nystagmus, and decreased horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (h-VOR) gain that mimicked a peripheral vestibulopathy. MRI suggested involvement of caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); however, the rapid resolution of the nystagmus and improved h-VOR gain favored transient ischemia without infarction. Decreased h-VOR gain is expected with peripheral vestibular lesions within the labyrinth or superior vestibular nerve; less frequently lateral pontine strokes involving the vestibular root entry, the vestibular fascicle, or neurons within the MVN may be responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505527/amino-acid-and-acetylcholine-chemistry-in-the-central-auditory-system-of-young-middle-aged-and-old-rats
#11
Donald A Godfrey, Kejian Chen, Thomas R O'Toole, Abdurrahman I A A Mustapha
Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats...
July 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483393/activation-of-5-ht7-receptors-reverses-nmda-r-dependent-ltd-by-activating-pka-in-medial-vestibular-neurons
#12
Yan-Hai Li, Lei Han, Kenneth Lap Kei Wu, Ying-Shing Chan
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is a major output station for neurons that project to the vestibulo-spinal pathway. MVN neurons show capacity for long-term depression (LTD) during the juvenile period. We investigated LTD of MVN neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. High frequency stimulation (HFS) robustly induced LTD in 90% of type B neurons in the MVN, while only 10% of type A neurons were responsive, indicating that type B neurons are the major contributors to LTD in the MVN. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) is known to modulate LTD in neural circuits of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus...
May 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450830/spiral-ganglion-neuron-projection-development-to-the-hindbrain-in-mice-lacking-peripheral-and-or-central-target-differentiation
#13
Karen L Elliott, Jennifer Kersigo, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Bernd Fritzsch
We investigate the importance of the degree of peripheral or central target differentiation for mouse auditory afferent navigation to the organ of Corti and auditory nuclei in three different mouse models: first, a mouse in which the differentiation of hair cells, but not central auditory nuclei neurons is compromised (Atoh1-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ); second, a mouse in which hair cell defects are combined with a delayed defect in central auditory nuclei neurons (Pax2-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ), and third, a mouse in which both hair cells and central auditory nuclei are absent (Atoh1(-/-))...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396651/descending-influences-on-vestibulospinal-and-vestibulosympathetic-reflexes
#14
REVIEW
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392756/brain-metabolic-changes-in-rats-following-acoustic-trauma
#15
Jun He, Yejin Zhu, Jiye Aa, Paul F Smith, Dirk De Ridder, Guangji Wang, Yiwen Zheng
Acoustic trauma is the most common cause of hearing loss and tinnitus in humans. However, the impact of acoustic trauma on system biology is not fully understood. It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma is unlikely to be generated by a single pathological source, but rather a complex network of changes involving not only the auditory system but also systems related to memory, emotion and stress. One obvious and significant gap in tinnitus research is a lack of biomarkers that reflect the consequences of this interactive "tinnitus-causing" network...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349227/effects-of-bilateral-vestibular-deafferentation-in-rat-on-hippocampal-theta-response-to-somatosensory-stimulation-acetylcholine-release-and-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus
#16
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
Vestibular dysfunction has been shown to cause spatial memory impairment. Neurophysiological studies indicate that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL), in particular, is associated with an impairment of the response of hippocampal place cells and theta rhythm. However, the specific neural pathways through which vestibular information reaches the hippocampus are yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the hypothesised 'theta-generating pathway' from the brainstem vestibular nucleus to the hippocampus...
March 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#17
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314977/isolated-vestibular-syndromes-due-to-brainstem-and-cerebellar-lesions
#18
Sung-Hee Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Dizziness/vertigo is the most common symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Isolated vestibular symptoms and signs without other neurologic deficits have been found in infarctions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. In the brainstem, infarctions responsible for isolated vestibular syndrome are usually restricted to the dorsal portion that contains the vestibular nucleus and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. Cerebellar lesions confined to the flocculus, tonsil, and nodulus also produce isolated vertigo and imbalance...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284887/downbeat-nystagmus-due-to-ranitidine-in-a%C3%A2-pediatric-patient
#19
Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Blanca Toledo Del Castillo, Cristina Rodríguez Jimenez, Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Jimena Pérez Moreno
BACKGROUND: Ranitidine has not been considered as a potential cause of ocular movement conditions. However, it is known that the vestibular nucleus complex, that has a key role in gaze control and vestibule-ocular reflexes, receives hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. Some studies reported the effect of ranitidine blocking the excitatory responses of vestibular nuclei neurons to histamine. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a downbeat nystagmus secondary to ranitidine in an infant...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265687/activation-of-the-thalamic-parafascicular-nucleus-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-nerve-in-rats
#20
Nari Kim, Myoung Ae Choi, Ho Koo, Byung Rim Park, Sang Who Han, Chaejoon Cheong, Min Sun Kim
The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of the thalamus is a primary structure in the feedback circuit of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system, as well as in the neural circuit of the vestibulo-thalamo-striatal pathway. We investigated the characteristics of the functional connectivity between the peripheral vestibular system and the PFN in rats. A single electrical stimulation was applied to the horizontal semicircular canal nerve in the peripheral vestibular end-organs. This resulted in polysynaptic local field potentials (LFPs) in the PFN, which were composed of long-lasting multiple waves...
May 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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