keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Vestibular nucleus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#1
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314977/isolated-vestibular-syndromes-due-to-brainstem-and-cerebellar-lesions
#2
Sung-Hee Kim, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Dizziness/vertigo is the most common symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Isolated vestibular symptoms and signs without other neurologic deficits have been found in infarctions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. In the brainstem, infarctions responsible for isolated vestibular syndrome are usually restricted to the dorsal portion that contains the vestibular nucleus and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. Cerebellar lesions confined to the flocculus, tonsil, and nodulus also produce isolated vertigo and imbalance...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284887/downbeat-nystagmus-due-to-ranitidine-in-a%C3%A2-pediatric-patient
#3
Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Blanca Toledo Del Castillo, Cristina Rodríguez Jimenez, Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Jimena Pérez Moreno
BACKGROUND: Ranitidine has not been considered as a potential cause of ocular movement conditions. However, it is known that the vestibular nucleus complex, that has a key role in gaze control and vestibule-ocular reflexes, receives hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. Some studies reported the effect of ranitidine blocking the excitatory responses of vestibular nuclei neurons to histamine. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a downbeat nystagmus secondary to ranitidine in an infant...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265687/activation-of-the-thalamic-parafascicular-nucleus-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-nerve-in-rats
#4
Nari Kim, Myoung Ae Choi, Ho Koo, Byung Rim Park, Sang Who Han, Chaejoon Cheong, Min Sun Kim
The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of the thalamus is a primary structure in the feedback circuit of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system, as well as in the neural circuit of the vestibulo-thalamo-striatal pathway. We investigated the characteristics of the functional connectivity between the peripheral vestibular system and the PFN in rats. A single electrical stimulation was applied to the horizontal semicircular canal nerve in the peripheral vestibular end-organs. This resulted in polysynaptic local field potentials (LFPs) in the PFN, which were composed of long-lasting multiple waves...
March 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#5
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238850/further-studies-of-the-effects-of-aging-on-arginine-metabolites-in-the-rat-vestibular-nucleus-and-cerebellum
#6
P Liu, N Gupta, Y Jing, N D Collie, H Zhang, P F Smith
Some studies have demonstrated that aging is associated with impaired vestibular reflexes, especially otolithic reflexes, resulting in postural instability. However, the neurochemical basis of these age-related changes is still poorly understood. The l-arginine metabolic system has been implicated in changes in the brain associated with aging. In the current study, we examined the levels of l-arginine and its metabolizing enzymes and downstream metabolites in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) and cerebellum (CE) of rats with and without behavioral testing which were young (4months old), middle-aged (12months old) or aged (24months old)...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237301/aging-and-wave-component-latency-delays-in-ovemp-and-cvemp-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#7
Ysa Karen Dos Santos Macambira, Aline Tenório Lins Carnaúba, Luciana Castelo Branco Camurça Fernandes, Nassib Bezerra Bueno, Pedro de Lemos Menezes
INTRODUCTION: The natural aging process may result in morphological changes in the vestibular system and in the afferent neural pathway, including loss of hair cells, decreased numbers of vestibular nerve cells, and loss of neurons in the vestibular nucleus. Thus, with advancing age, there should be a decrease in amplitudes and an increase in latencies of the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, especially the prolongation of p13 latency. Moreover, many investigations have found no significant differences in latencies with advancing age...
February 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#8
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#9
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
April 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#10
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176264/the-integration-of-neural-information-by-a-passive-kinetic-stimulus-and-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus
#11
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Despite an easy control and the direct effects on vestibular neurons, the clinical applications of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) have been restricted because of its unclear activities as input. On the other hand, some critical conclusions have been made in the peripheral and the central processing of neural information by kinetic stimuli with different motion frequencies. Nevertheless, it is still elusive how the neural responses to simultaneous GVS and kinetic stimulus are modified during transmission and integration at the central vestibular area...
February 7, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026001/expression-of-glycine-receptors-and-gephyrin-in-rat-medial-vestibular-nuclei-and-flocculi-following-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#12
Wen Zhou, Liu-Qing Zhou, Hong Shi, Yang-Ming Leng, Bo Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus have been known to be the key areas involved in vestibular compensation (VC) following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In this study, we examined the role of gephyrin and glycine receptor (GlyR) in VC using Sprague-Dawley rats, in an aim to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for VC. The expression of the α1 and β subunits of GlyR and gephyrin was immunohistochemically localized in rat MVN and flocculi. The mRNA and protein expression of GlyR (α1 and β subunits) and gephyrin was quantitatively determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis at 8 h, and at 1, 3 and 7 days following UL...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989457/bk-channels-are-required-for-multisensory-plasticity-in-the-oculomotor-system
#13
Alexandra B Nelson, Michael Faulstich, Setareh Moghadam, Kimberly Onori, Andrea Meredith, Sascha du Lac
Neural circuits are endowed with several forms of intrinsic and synaptic plasticity that could contribute to adaptive changes in behavior, but circuit complexities have hindered linking specific cellular mechanisms with their behavioral consequences. Eye movements generated by simple brainstem circuits provide a means for relating cellular plasticity to behavioral gain control. Here we show that firing rate potentiation, a form of intrinsic plasticity mediated by reductions in BK-type calcium-activated potassium currents in spontaneously firing neurons, is engaged during optokinetic reflex compensation for inner ear dysfunction...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755359/inhibiting-p21-activated-kinase-induces-cell-death-in-vestibular-schwannoma-and-meningioma-via-mitotic-catastrophe
#15
Melania Ester Mercado-Pimentel, Craig Miller, Daniela N Rolph, Edrick F Villalobos, Allison M Dunn, Prithvi M Mohan, Suzu Igarashi, Xiangdang Liu, Macken Yrun-Duffy, Neal K Patel, Cecilia M Read, Ross H Francis, Adelina Isabella Lane, Swaroop Murugesh, Abraham Jacob
HYPOTHESIS: p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates signaling pathways that promote cell survival and proliferation; therefore, pharmacological inhibition of PAK will induce cell death in vestibular schwannomas (VS) and meningiomas. BACKGROUND: All VS and many meningiomas result from loss of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene product merlin, with ensuing PAK hyperactivation and increased cell proliferation/survival. METHODS: The novel small molecule PAK inhibitors PI-8 and PI-15-tested in schwannoma and meningioma cells-perturb molecular signaling and induce cell death...
January 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734216/central-aspects-of-nausea-and-vomiting-in-gi-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Prashant Singh, Braden Kuo
Nausea and vomiting result from continuous interactions among gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and autonomic nervous system. Despite being closely associated, central pathways of nausea and vomiting appear to be at least partly different and nausea is no longer considered only a penultimate step of vomiting. Although our understanding of central pathways of nausea has improved over the last one decade, it is still very basic. Afferent pathways from gastrointestinal tract via vagus, vestibular system, and chemoreceptor trigger zone project to nucleus tractus solitarius which, in turn, relays the signal to central pattern generator initiating multiple downstream pathways...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733568/nucleus-prepositus-hypoglossi-lesions-produce-a-unique-ocular-motor-syndrome
#17
Sung-Hee Kim, David S Zee, Sascha du Lac, Hyo Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. METHODS: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. RESULTS: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711146/distribution-and-structure-of-synapses-on-medial-vestibular-nuclear-neurons-targeted-by-cerebellar-flocculus-purkinje-cells-and-vestibular-nerve-in-mice-light-and-electron-microscopy-studies
#18
Hitomi Matsuno, Moeko Kudoh, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Soichi Nagao
Adaptations of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic response eye movements have been studied as an experimental model of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Several previous physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently suggested that the cerebellar flocculus (FL) Purkinje cells (P-cells) and the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons targeted by FL (FL-targeted MVN neurons) may respectively maintain the memory traces of short- and long-term adaptation. To study the basic structures of the FL-MVN synapses by light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), we injected green florescence protein (GFP)-expressing lentivirus into FL to anterogradely label the FL P-cell axons in C57BL/6J mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693510/characterization-of-novel-dystonia-musculorum-mutant-mice-implications-for-central-nervous-system-abnormality
#19
Masao Horie, Kazuyuki Mekada, Hiromi Sano, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Satomi Chiken, Takuro Someya, Keisuke Saito, M Ibrahim Hossain, Masaaki Nameta, Kuniya Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Katsuhiko Ono, Atsushi Nambu, Atsushi Yoshiki, Hirohide Takebayashi
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638073/acute-unilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#20
REVIEW
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
keyword
keyword
80998
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"