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Vestibular nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861128/conjugate-eye-deviation-caused-by-upper-medial-medullary-infarction-a-case-report
#1
Takashi Ogawa, Yuji Ueno, Hikaru Kamo, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Kazuo Yamashiro, Ryota Tanaka, Yasushi Shimo, Nobutaka Hattori
Conjugate eye deviation (CED) is defined as a sustained shift in horizontal gaze toward 1 side, together with gaze failure to the other side, caused by lesions in the brainstem, basal ganglia, or cortical frontal eye fields. To date, very few reports have described CED in patients with medullary infarction. A 76-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of vertigo and right hemiparesis, accompanied by CED to the right with gaze palsy to the left. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed left upper medial medullary infarction involving the left nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) and adjacent to the left inferior olivary nucleus (ION)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801897/paraneoplastic-seesaw-nystagmus-and-opsoclonus-provides-evidence-for-hyperexcitable-reciprocally-innervating-mesencephalic-network
#2
Macym T Rizvi, Lauren Cameron, Camilla Kilbane, Aasef G Shaikh
Seesaw nystagmus is characterized by the rhythmic combination of vertical and torsional dysconjugate oscillations where one eye moves up and inward while the other moves down and outward. Common association of seesaw nystagmus with accessory optic track lesions lead to traditional hypothesis that it is due to the mismatch in the vision and vestibular systems. Here we propose a novel mechanism for seesaw nystagmus. We hypothesize that reverberations due to abnormal increases in the excitability of the reciprocally innervating circuit of excitatory burst neuron in the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal causes the seesaw nystagmus...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798409/-the-fmri-research-of-vestibular-migraine-neural-pathways
#3
H X Yu, H Y Li, Z X Yin, J L Zhang, G Liu
Objective: To investigate the abnormal functional response of neural pathways of vestibular migraine (VM) patients, located the functional area, and inferred the possible mechanism. Method: Twenty patients of VM, 20 of migraine without aura (MwoA), and 20 of healthy controls (HC), underwent whole-brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI during ear irrigation with cold water. We chose the stimulation image and the diapause stimulation image. Analyses explored functional area with BOLD signal change of the three groups...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794451/intraoperative-auditory-system-monitoring
#4
Hidemi Miyazaki, Per Caye-Thomasen
A new electrophysiological system for intraoperative, continuous, near-real time monitoring of cochlear nerve function through acoustic stimulation in the ear canal and recording of the evoked dorsal cochlear nucleus potentials (DNAPs) by a specially designed DNAP electrode placed directly on the brainstem is described. The system is denominated "(cerebellopontine angle) CPA Master" and is designed for hearing preservation surgery in the cerebello-pontine angle, through the retro-sigmoid or the retro-labyrinthine approach...
2018: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#5
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#6
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677359/essential-infantile-esotropia-potential-pathogenetic-role-of-extended-subcortical-neuroplasticity
#7
Michael C Brodsky
Essential infantile esotropia is generated by prenuclear visual pathways that increase esotonus and gradually drive the eyes into a convergent position. Contrary to the prevailing notion that infantile esotropia reflects a primary disturbance within the visual cortex, accumulating evidence suggests that infantile esotropia is generated by lower subcortical centers that subserve nasalward optokinesis. These phylogenetically older visuo-vestibular pathways include the nucleus of the optic tract, accessory optic system, inferior olive, cerebellar flocculus, and vestibular nucleus...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656497/altered-brain-function-in-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-a-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Jin-Ok Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Ji-Soo Kim, Young-Beom Lee, Yong Jeong, Byung Se Choi, Jae-Hyoung Kim, Jeffrey P Staab
This study used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whole brain networks in patients with persistent postural perceptual dizziness (PPPD). We compared rsfMRI data from 38 patients with PPPD and 38 healthy controls using whole brain and region of interest analyses. We examined correlations among connectivity and clinical variables and tested the ability of a machine learning algorithm to classify subjects using rsfMRI results. Patients with PPPD showed: (a) increased connectivity of subcallosal cortex with left superior lateral occipital cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, (b) decreased connectivity of left hippocampus with bilateral central opercular cortices, left posterior opercular cortex, right insular cortex and cerebellum, and (c) decreased connectivity between right nucleus accumbens and anterior left temporal fusiform cortex...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577174/non-associative-learning-processes-in-vestibular-nucleus
#9
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Simple non-associative learning processes, habituation and sensitization, are known to be systemically involved in different neurotransmissions, and these processes in the vestibular nucleus (VN) often show opposite responding patterns to repeated stimuli. However, their roles and mechanisms of the reciprocal responses at the cellular level are still elusive. Here, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment to investigate the neuronal responses to repeated stimuli in the VN, characterizing the neuronal responding patterns of habituation and sensitization...
March 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557546/whole-brain-mapping-of-direct-inputs-to-and-axonal-projections-from-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone
#10
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
June 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541016/galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-augments-deficient-pedunculopontine-nucleus-ppn-connectivity-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-fmri-effects-of-different-stimuli
#11
Jiayue Cai, Soojin Lee, Fang Ba, Saurabh Garg, Laura J Kim, Aiping Liu, Diana Kim, Z Jane Wang, Martin J McKeown
Falls and balance difficulties remain a major source of morbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are stubbornly resistant to therapeutic interventions. The mechanisms of gait impairment in PD are incompletely understood but may involve changes in the Pedunculopontine Nucleus (PPN) and its associated connections. We utilized fMRI to explore the modulation of PPN connectivity by Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) in healthy controls ( n = 12) and PD subjects even without overt evidence of Freezing of Gait (FOG) while on medication ( n = 23)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490911/recent-advances-in-head-impulse-test-findings-in-central-vestibular-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The head impulse test (HIT) is used to evaluate the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during a high-velocity head rotation. Corrective catch-up saccades that occur during or after the HITs usually indicate peripheral vestibular hypofunction, whereas in acute vestibular syndrome, normal clinical (bedside) HITs should prompt a search for a central lesion. However, recent quantitative studies that evaluated HITs using magnetic search coils or video-based techniques have demonstrated that specific patterns of HIT abnormalities are associated with central vestibular disorders...
March 27, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487123/role-of-rostral-fastigial-neurons-in-encoding-a-body-centered-representation-of-translation-in-three-dimensions
#13
Christophe Z Martin, Jessica X Brooks, Andrea M Green
Many daily behaviors rely critically on estimates of our body motion. Such estimates must be computed by combining neck proprioceptive signals with vestibular signals that have been transformed from a head- to a body-centered reference frame. Recent studies showed that deep cerebellar neurons in the rostral fastigial nucleus (rFN) reflect these computations, but whether they explicitly encode estimates of body motion remains unclear. A key limitation in addressing this question is that, to date, cell tuning properties have only been characterized for a restricted set of motions across head-re-body orientations in the horizontal plane...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#14
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436382/acupuncture-relieves-motion-sickness-via-the-ir%C3%AE-erk1-2-dependent-insulin-receptor-signalling-pathway
#15
Dawei Tian, Fengfeng Mo, Xingjian Cai, Zhiyuan Miao, Feng Xiao, Yifang Chang, Lusha Wu, Yuxiao Tang, Xin Wang, Chen Ye, Xiaolu Qian, Wei Gu, Min Li
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture has been widely used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this research was to study the mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of MS. METHODS: To observe the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of MS, 80 rats were randomised into five groups that were subjected to acceleration and either remained untreated (CTRL), or received restraint (REST), scopolamine (SCOP) or acupuncture at SP4 (sham) or PC6+ST36 (verum) acupuncture points...
February 7, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433118/-trigeminal-herpes-zoster-presenting-with-high-intensity-signals-for-the-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus-and-tract-on-diffusion-weighted-image-a-case-report-of-stroke-mimic
#16
Takahiro Himeno, Shinichi Takeshima, Satoshi Kubo, Naoyuki Hara, Akio Tanaka, Masaru Kuriyama
A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with dysesthesia on the right upper portion of her face and a headache. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high-intensity signals in the dorsolateral portion of the medulla oblongata. She was diagnosed with lateral medullary infarction and was intravenously treated with sodium ozagrel. On the second day of hospitalization, she had nausea and vomiting and showed nystagmus to all directions, suggesting damage to the vestibular nucleus...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386118/balance-control-mediated-by-vestibular-circuits-directing-limb-extension-or-antagonist-muscle-co-activation
#17
Andrew J Murray, Katherine Croce, Timothy Belton, Turgay Akay, Thomas M Jessell
Maintaining balance after an external perturbation requires modification of ongoing motor plans and the selection of contextually appropriate muscle activation patterns that respect body and limb position. We have used the vestibular system to generate sensory-evoked transitions in motor programming. In the face of a rapid balance perturbation, the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) generates exclusive extensor muscle activation and selective early extension of the hindlimb, followed by the co-activation of extensor and flexor muscle groups...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361882/awake-craniotomy-for-assisting-placement-of-auditory-brainstem-implant-in-nf2-patients
#18
Qiangyi Zhou, Zhijun Yang, Zhenmin Wang, Bo Wang, Xingchao Wang, Chi Zhao, Shun Zhang, Tao Wu, Peng Li, Shiwei Li, Fu Zhao, Pinan Liu
OBJECTIVES: Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) may be the only opportunity for patients with NF2 to regain some sense of hearing sensation. However, only a very small number of individuals achieved open-set speech understanding and high sentence scores. Suboptimal placement of the ABI electrode array over the cochlear nucleus may be one of main factors for poor auditory performance. In the current study, we present a method of awake craniotomy to assist with ABI placement. METHODS: Awake surgery and hearing test via the retrosigmoid approach were performed for vestibular schwannoma resections and auditory brainstem implantations in four patients with NF2...
January 23, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357731/medullary-astrogliosis-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-varies-with-sleeping-environment-evidence-for-different-mechanisms-of-death-in-alone-versus-co-sleepers
#19
Jade Spinelli, Roger W Byard, Corinna Van Den Heuvel, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino
Sudden infant death syndrome remains the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year, and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. The current study investigated the hypothesis that co-sleepers die more rapidly from causes such as suffocation from overlaying by comparing levels of reactive astrogliosis in the medulla of infants who died sleeping alone to those who died co-sleeping. The amount of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining in alone sleepers was significantly higher than shared sleepers in 3 specific areas of the medulla, the inferior vestibular nucleus, the medial vestibular nucleus and the cochlear nucleus...
March 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343821/focal-hyperintensity-in-the-dorsal-brain-stem-of-patients-with-cerebellopontine-angle-tumor-a-high-resolution-3%C3%A2-t-mri-study
#20
Hirotaka Yamamoto, Atsushi Fujita, Taichiro Imahori, Takashi Sasayama, Kohkichi Hosoda, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Eiji Kohmura
Focal hyperintensity (FHI) in the dorsal brain stem on T2-weighted images of patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumor was thought to indicate degeneration of the vestibular nucleus and to be specific to vestibular schwannoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate FHI by using high-resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3 T MRI) and the relation to clinical characteristics. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and MRI of 45 patients with CPA tumors (34 vestibular schwannomas and 11 other tumors)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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