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L Katharina Schmidt, Mathias Bochow, Hannes K Imhof, Sascha E Oswald
Following the widespread assumption that a majority of ubiquitous marine microplastic particles originate from land-based sources, recent studies identify rivers as important pathways for microplastic particles (MPP) to the oceans. Yet a detailed understanding of the underlying processes and dominant sources is difficult to obtain with the existing accurate but extremely time-consuming methods available for the identification of MPP. Thus in the presented study, a novel approach applying short-wave infrared imaging spectroscopy for the quick and semi-automated identification of MPP is applied in combination with a multitemporal survey concept...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Haiyan Li, Youshu Wang, Fei Liu, Linlin Tong, Kun Li, Hua Yang, Liang Zhang
Stormwater samples were collected from six different land use sites with three time-intervals during a precipitation event on August 12, 2016, from a community of Beijing, China. A total of 46 species volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in these stormwater samples, including methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aromatics, Halogenated alkanes, and alkenes. The total VOC concentrations varied in the six sites following order: highway junction > city road > gas station > park > campus > residential area, except for MTBE, which was much higher at gas station compared to other land use sites...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
C V Z Cipro, P Bustamante, M V Petry, R C Montone
Global distillation is classically pointed as the biggest responsible for contaminant inputs in Polar ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) and other trace elements (TEs) also present natural sources, whereas the biologically mediated input is typically ignored. However, bioaccumulation and biomagnification combined with the fact that seabirds gather in large numbers into large colonies and excrete on land might represent an important local TEs input. A previous work suggested these colonies as sources of not only nutrients, but also organic contaminants...
March 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Yue Shi, Wenjiang Huang, Yingying Dong, Dailiang Peng, Qiong Zheng, Puyun Yang
Landscape structure and vegetation coverage are important habitat conditions for Oriental Migratory Locust infestation in East Asia. Characterizing the landscape's dynamics of locust habitat is meaningful for reducing the occupation of locusts and limiting potential risks. To better understand causes and consequences of landscape pattern and locust habitat, it is not enough to simply detect locust habitat of each year. Rather, landcover transitions causing the change of locust habitat area must also be explored...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Josh M Colston, Tahmeed Ahmed, Cloupas Mahopo, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret Kosek, Francisco de Sousa Junior, Prakash Sunder Shrestha, Erling Svensen, Ali Turab, Benjamin Zaitchik
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal and time series analyses are needed to characterize the associations between hydrometeorological parameters and health outcomes. Earth Observation (EO) climate data products derived from satellites and global model-based reanalysis have the potential to be used as surrogates in situations and locations where weather-station based observations are inadequate or incomplete. However, these products often lack direct evaluation at specific sites of epidemiological interest...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Asgeir Lande, Irene Andersen, Torstein Egeland, Benedicte A Lie, Marte K Viken
We report HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 allele frequencies and estimated haplotype frequencies from 4514 healthy Norwegians who volunteered to participate in the Norwegian Bone Marrow Donor Registry. HLA genotyping was conducted on a Next Generation Sequencing platform. Data were analyzed using Arlequin and Pypop software. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium were noted at any of the loci studied. We discuss the representability for the Norwegian population and argue that the presented HLA data could serve as a Norwegian reference panel...
April 20, 2018: Human Immunology
Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Shannon Hagerman, Robert Kozak, George Hoberg
The role of forest management in mitigating climate change is a central concern for the Canadian province of British Columbia. The successful implementation of forest management activities to achieve climate change mitigation in British Columbia will be strongly influenced by public support or opposition. While we now have increasingly clear ideas of the management opportunities associated with forest mitigation and some insight into public support for climate change mitigation in the context of sustainable forest management, very little is known with respect to the levels and basis of public support for potential forest management strategies to mitigate climate change...
2018: PloS One
Thor Hanson
The activities involved in preparing for, executing, and recovering from armed conflict are globally pervasive and consequential, with significant impacts on natural systems. Effects on biodiversity are predominantly negative, produced by direct and indirect battlefield impacts, as well as the general breakdown of social, economic, and governance systems during wartime. Certain conservation opportunities do occur, however, particularly on lands set aside for training exercises, buffer zones, and peace parks...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
F J Valencia, E E Hernandez-Vazquez, E M Bringa, J L Moran-Lopez, J Rogan, R I Gonzalez, F Munoz
We studied the soft landing of Ni atoms on a previously damaged graphene sheet by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We found a monotonic decrease of the cluster frequency as a function of its size, but few big clusters comprise an appreciable fraction of the total number of Ni atoms. The aggregation of Ni atoms is also modeled by means of a simple phenomenological model. The results are in clear contrast with the case of hard or energetic landing of metal atoms, where there is a tendency to form mono-disperse metal clusters...
April 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Gene Combs
Privilege is the freedom to ignore things that other people are forced to confront; dramatic things like being gunned down by a vigilante on the way home from a convenience store or less urban and visible things like having to live on secluded parcels of land that no one else wants. Most family therapists enjoy the freedom not to experience such events. Many of the people who come to us for help don't have that freedom. My intent here is to increase felt awareness of the injustice of institutional racism and to suggest some actions that White family therapists can take to bring forth a more just society in terms of education, housing, access to wealth, and basic safety...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Sergey Y Morozov, Irina A Milyutina, Tatiana N Erokhina, Liudmila V Ozerova, Alexey V Troitsky, Andrey G Solovyev
Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) are transcribed from protein non-coding genomic TAS loci and belong to a plant-specific class of endogenous small RNAs. These siRNAs have been found to regulate gene expression in most taxa including seed plants, gymnosperms, ferns and mosses. In this study, bioinformatic and experimental PCR-based approaches were used as tools to analyze TAS3 and TAS6 loci in transcriptomes and genomic DNAs from representatives of evolutionary distant non-vascular plant taxa such as Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta...
2018: PeerJ
M S Parvez, M M Shahriar
Injuries during cultivation of land are the significant causes of recession for an agricultural country like Bangladesh. Thousands of tools are used in agricultural farm having much probability of getting injury at their workplaces. For the injury prevention, proper hand tool designs need to be recommended with ergonomic evaluations. This paper represents the main causes of agricultural injuries among the Bangladeshi farmers. Effective interventions had been discussed in this paper to reduce the rate of injury...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Yongyut Trisurat, Aekkapol Aekakkararungroj, Hwan-Ok Ma, John M Johnston
Water resources support more than 60 million people in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) and are important for food security-especially rice production-and economic security. This study aims to quantify water yield under near- and long-term climate scenarios and assess the potential impacts on rice cultivation. The InVEST model (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) forecasted water yield, and land evaluation was used to delineate suitability classes. Pattern-downscaled climate data were specially generated for the LMB...
2018: Ecological Research
J Wickham, S V Stehman, C G Homer
Research on spatial non-stationarity of land-cover classification accuracy has been ongoing for over two decades with most of the work focusing on single date maps. We extend the understanding of thematic map accuracy spatial patterns by: (1) quantifying spatial patterns of map-reference agreement for class-specific land-cover change rather than class-specific land cover for both omission and commission expressions of map error; (2) reporting goodness-of-fit estimates for the empirical models, which have been lacking in previous assessments, and; (3) using the empirical model results to map the locations of the relative likelihoods of map-reference agreement for specific land-cover change classes...
2018: International Journal of Remote Sensing
Hee-Myong Ro, Pan-Gun Kim, Ji-Suk Park, Seok-In Yun, Junho Han
Constructed coastal marsh regulates land-born nitrogen (N) loadings through salinity-dependent microbial N transformation processes. A hypothesis that salinity predominantly controls N removal in marsh was tested through incubation in a closed system with added-15 NH4 + using sediments collected from five sub-marshes in Shihwa marsh, Korea. Time-course patterns of concentrations and 15 N-atom% of soil-N pools were analyzed. Sediments having higher salinity and lower soil organic-C and acid-extractable organic-N exhibited slower rates of N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, and denitrification...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Manuel López-Vicente, Yuichi Onda, Junko Takahashi, Hiroaki Kato, Shinya Chayama, Keigo Hisadome
Owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident a vast amount of radiocesium was released polluting the land. Afterwards, a variety of decontamination practices has been done, reducing the ambient dose rates. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of eight forest decontamination practices by means of monitoring the radiocesium (137 Cs) concentration in soil and leaf samples, and the daily discharge rates in ten plots during 27 months (May 2013-July 2015). A forest plantation located 16 km southwest to the FDNPP and within the exclusion area was selected...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ana C Dvorak, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Andrea Galletti, Bernardo Benzecry, Hannah Malone, Vicki Boguszewski, Jason Bird
Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yanqing Guo, Xiaotian Chen, Yuanyuan Wu, Lu Zhang, Jimin Cheng, Gehong Wei, Yanbing Lin
Revegetation of degraded lands has a profound impact on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. However, the impacts of this land use change on functional diversity of soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Here, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared the taxonomic and functional communities of soil microbiome, and analyzed the effects of plant diversity and soil chemical properties, in a chronosequence of restored ex-farmland that had been naturally revegetated to grassland over periods of 5, 15 and 30years with adjacent farmland, on the Loess Plateau, China...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Xiao, Jiapeng Wu, Hailong Li, Yiguo Hong, Alicia M Wilson, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Meghan Shananan
Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
B M C Gorissen, F M Serra Bragança, C F Wolschrijn, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
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