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Michael Kaspari, Karl A Roeder, Brittany Benson, Michael D Weiser, Nathan Sanders
Nitrogen and phosphorus frequently limit terrestrial plant production, but have a mixed record in regulating the abundance of terrestrial invertebrates. We contrasted four ways that Na could interact with an NP fertilizer to shape the plants and invertebrates of an inland prairie. We applied NP and Na to m(2) plots in a factorial design. Aboveground invertebrate abundance was independently co-limited by NaCl and NP, but with +NP plots supporting more individuals. We suggest the disparity arises because NP enhanced plant height by 35% (1SD) over controls, providing both food and habitat while NaCl provides only food...
December 9, 2016: Ecology
Liz Coldridge, Sarah Davies
BACKGROUND: midwifery is emotionally challenging work, and learning to be a midwife brings its own particular challenges. For the student midwife, clinical placement in a hospital labour ward is especially demanding. In the context of organisational tensions and pressures the experience of supporting women through the unpredictable intensity of the labour process can be a significant source of stress for student midwives. Although increasing attention is now being paid to midwives' traumatic experiences and wellbeing few researchers have examined the traumatic experiences of student midwives...
November 28, 2016: Midwifery
Ripu M Kunwar, Kedar Baral, Prashant Paudel, Ram P Acharya, Khum B Thapa-Magar, Mary Cameron, Rainer W Bussmann
Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades...
2016: PloS One
Shin'ichi Sato, Tomoki Chiba
We examined structural changes in the molluscan community for ten years (2001-2010) before and five years (2011-2015) after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Before the earthquake and tsunami, Ruditapes philippinarum, Macoma incongrua, Pillucina pisidium, and Batillaria cumingii were dominant, and an alien predator Laguncula pulchella appeared in 2002 and increased in number. After the tsunami, R. philippinarum and M. incongrua populations quickly recovered in 2012, but P...
2016: PloS One
Laurie Boithias, Marc Choisy, Noy Souliyaseng, Marine Jourdren, Fabrice Quet, Yves Buisson, Chanthamousone Thammahacksa, Norbert Silvera, Keooudone Latsachack, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Alain Pierret, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Sylvia Becerra, Olivier Ribolzi
BACKGROUND: The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. To our knowledge, few studies have related diarrhea incidences to catchment scale hydrological factors such as river discharge, and loads of suspended sediment and of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli, together with sociological factors such as hygiene practices...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Simon J Goring, David J Mladenoff, Charles V Cogbill, Sydne Record, Christopher J Paciorek, Stephen T Jackson, Michael C Dietze, Andria Dawson, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Jason S McLachlan, John W Williams
BACKGROUND: EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types...
2016: PloS One
J Sharma, S Tiwari
INTRODUCTION: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common morbidity landing women to attend medical attention in gynecology outpatient department. This study aims to evaluate the hysteroscopy finding in diagnosis of AUB and its correlation with ultrasonography finding and histopathological reports. METHODS: This was a prospective comparative study in which ultrasonography was performed in fifty patients with abnormal uterine bleeding attending OPD then hysteroscopy was performed...
July 2016: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Rebecca K Tonietto, John S Ascher, Daniel J Larkin
Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the Midwestern USA, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to provide ancillary benefits to bees through increased foraging and nesting resources...
December 9, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jay W Wason, Martin Dovciak
Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine if species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 meters above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
Michael J Osland, Richard H Day, Courtney T Hall, Marisa D Brumfield, Jason L Dugas, William R Jones
Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients...
October 17, 2016: Ecology
Jenny Liu, Sierra Kanetake, Yun-Hsuan Wu, Christina Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Kirkwood M Land, Mendel Friedman
The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of the commercial tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on three mucosal pathogenic protozoa that are reported to infect humans, cattle, and cats, respectively: Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3, Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1, and Tritrichomonas foetus strain C1. A preliminary screen showed that tomatine at 100 μM concentration completely inhibited the growth of all three trichomonads. In contrast, the inhibition of all three pathogens by tomatidine was much lower, suggesting the involvement of the lycotetraose carbohydrate side chain in the mechanism of inhibition...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Leiming Zhang, Zhiyong Wu, Irene Cheng, L Paige Wright, Mark L Olson, David A Gay, Martin R Risch, Steven Brooks, Mark S Castro, Gary D Conley, Eric S Edgerton, Thomas M Holsen, Winston Luke, Robert Tordon, Peter Weiss-Penzias
Dry deposition of atmospheric mercury (Hg) to various land covers surrounding 24 sites in North America was estimated for the years 2009 to 2014. Depending on location, multiyear mean annual Hg dry deposition was estimated to range from 5.1 to 23.8 μg m(-2) yr(-1) to forested canopies, 2.6 to 20.8 μg m(-2) yr(-1) to nonforest vegetated canopies, 2.4 to 11.2 μg m(-2) yr(-1) to urban and built up land covers, and 1.0 to 3.2 μg m(-2) yr(-1) to water surfaces. In the rural or remote environment in North America, annual Hg dry deposition to vegetated surfaces is dominated by leaf uptake of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), contrary to what was commonly assumed in earlier studies which frequently omitted GEM dry deposition as an important process...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Wan-Ying Xie, Steve P McGrath, Jian-Qiang Su, Penny R Hirsch, Ian M Clark, Qirong Shen, Yong-Guan Zhu, Fang-Jie Zhao
Land applications of municipal sewage sludge may pose a risk of introducing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from urban environments into agricultural systems. However, how the sewage sludge recycling and application method influence soil resistome and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) remains unclear. In the present study, high through-put quantitative PCR was conducted on the resistome of soils from a field experiment with past (between 1994 and 1997) and annual (since 1994) applications of five different sewage sludges...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tao Huang, Xiaodong Zhang, Zaili Ling, Leiming Zhang, Hong Gao, Chongguo Tian, Jiujiu Guo, Yuan Zhao, Li Wang, Jianmin Ma
This study quantifies the influence of large-scale land-use change induced by the artificial Three-Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) across northern China on the environmental cycling of organic chemicals. Atmospheric removal and long-term trends of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species, phenanthrene (PHE) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), resulting from increasing vegetation coverage and soil organic carbon in the TNRSF over the last two decades were examined. Field sampling data and modeling result showed that the total atmospheric removal of PHE by TNRSF increased from 36...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Atsushi Beniya, Hirohito Hirata, Yoshihide Watanabe
Relaxation dynamics of hot metal clusters on oxide surfaces play a crucial role in a variety of physical and chemical processes. However, their transient mobility has not been investigated as much as other systems such as atoms and molecules on metal surfaces due to experimental difficulties. To study the role of the transient mobility of clusters on the oxide surface, we investigated the initial adsorption process of size-selected Pt clusters on a thin Al2O3 film. Soft-landing the size-selected clusters while suppressing the thermal migration resulted in the transient migration controlling the initial adsorption states as an isolated and aggregated cluster, as revealed using scanning tunneling microscopy...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jeong-Hwan Kim, Maria Benelmekki
We report a novel method for generating magneto-plasmonic carbon nanofilms and nanoscrolls using a combination of two gas-phase synthetic techniques. Ternary Fe@Ag@Si "onion-like" nanoparticles (NPs) are produced by a magnetron sputtering inert gas condensation source and are in situ landed onto the surface of carbon nanofilms, which were previously deposited by a DC arc discharge technique. Subsequently, a polyethylenimine-mediated chemical exfoliation process is performed to obtain carbon nanoscrolls (CNS) with embedded NPs (CNS-NPs)...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
C R Pockett, J W Moore, H G El-Said
BACKGROUND: Adverse events from Melody valve implantation may be catastrophic. To date a role for three dimensional rotational angiography of the aortic root (3DRAA) during Melody valve implantation has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of 3DRAA in the assessment of Melody valve candidacy and to demonstrate that it may improve outcomes. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac catheterisation for Melody valve implantation and 3DRAA between August 2013 and February 2015 were reviewed...
December 8, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
Panpan Jing, Dan Wang, Chunwu Zhu, Jiquan Chen
Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Claudia Tocco, Martin H Villet
BACKGROUND: Traditional agro-pastoral practices are in decline over much of the Alps (MacDonald et al. 2000), leading to shrub and tree encroachment, and this represents one of the main threats for the conservation of alpine biodiversity, as many plant and animal species are dependent on the presence of semi-natural open habitats. However, quantifying this environmental change and assessing its impact on biodiversity may be difficult, especially in the context of sparse historical survey data...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Jasper Verheul, Adam C Clansey, Mark J Lake
It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations prior to and during the first half of stance, and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n=13) and low mileage (LM; <15 km/wk, n=13) runners ran at four speeds (2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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