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M Kent, S Scott, S Lambert, E Kirk, B Terhune-Cotter, B Thompson, S Neal, B Dozier, M Bardi, K Lambert
Prior research with a rat model of behavioral therapy [i.e., effort-based reward (EBR) contingency training] suggests that strengthened associations between physical effort and desired outcomes enhance neurobiological indices of resilience. In the current study, male and female Long-Evans rats were exposed to either six weeks of EBR training or noncontingent training prior to 10 days of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to a problem-solving task and then trained in a spatial learning/foraging task, the dry land maze (DLM)...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Eric Guiry, Fiona Beglane, Paul Szpak, Rick Schulting, Finbar McCormick, Michael P Richards
Humans have always affected their ecosystems, but finding evidence for significant and lasting changes to preindustrial landscapes is rare. We report on human-caused changes to the nitrogen cycle in Ireland in the Bronze Age, associated with intensification of agriculture and animal husbandry that resulted in long-term changes to the nitrogen isotope values of animals (wild and domesticates) during the Holocene. Major changes to inputs and cycling of soil nitrogen occurred through deforestation, land clearance and management, and more intensive animal husbandry and cereal crop cultivation in the later Bronze Age; after this time, the Irish landscape took on its current form...
June 2018: Science Advances
Tingting Yang, Musa Ala, Yushu Zhang, Jiabing Wu, Anzhi Wang, Dexin Guan
Vegetation restoration as an effective sand fixation measure has made great achievements in China. However, soil water conditions deteriorate with the development and maturity of sand-fixing vegetation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between soil water content (SWC) and vegetation coverage (VC) at different portion (top, middle and bottom) on ten sand dunes during the growing season (April to October) in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China. We analyzed the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of SWC under different VC...
2018: PloS One
Ernest R Blatchley, John Cullen, Brian Petri, Keith Bircher, Nicholas Welschmeyer
The shipping industry is critical to international commerce; however, contemporary shipping practices involve uptake and discharge of ballast water, which introduces the potential for transfer of non-indigenous, invasive species among geographically distinct habitats. To counteract this hazard, regulations for ballast water management have been implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and by regulatory agencies such as the United States Coast Guard (USCG). IMO and USCG discharge standards are numerically identical, but involve different definitions of treatment endpoints, which are based on fundamentally-different biological assays for quantification of ballast water treatment effectiveness...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
J Wang, M Y Zhang, S Q Xu, J Cheng, Z J Yu, X M Hu
Although the precise mechanism is unknown, neuron apoptosis is believed to participate in neuropathy caused by acrylamide (ACR). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) exhibits an anti-apoptotic function, but its contribution to the pathogenesis of ACR neurotoxicity is unclear. We investigated adult male rats that were given 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg ACR three times/week for 4 weeks. We found that ACR treatment caused significant deficits in sensory/motor function as measured by gait score, landing foot spread distance, movement initiation test and tail immersion test...
June 21, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Jennifer Diana Evans, James Barrie Kirkpatrick, Kerry Lynn Bridle
Land use in many areas is highly contested. An understanding of the nature of such conflicts, and of spatial variation in their intensity, is required to develop planning solutions. We present a novel process for attaining these outcomes which involves mapping of values and potential conflict between stakeholders determined using participatory GIS (PGIS) processes. Our starting point was an a priori identification of the values that were potentially in conflict. We produced quantitative and qualitative maps of each of the values that formed a basis for workshop discussion among small stakeholder groups...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Management
Tim Newbold
Land-use and climate change are among the greatest threats facing biodiversity, but understanding their combined effects has been hampered by modelling and data limitations, resulting in part from the very different scales at which land-use and climate processes operate. I combine two different modelling paradigms to predict the separate and combined (additive) effects of climate and land-use change on terrestrial vertebrate communities under four different scenarios. I predict that climate-change effects are likely to become a major pressure on biodiversity in the coming decades, probably matching or exceeding the effects of land-use change by 2070...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Christopher H Martin, Bruce J Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Zhiheng Li, Zhonghe Zhou, Julia A Clarke
The tongue, with fleshy, muscular, and bony components, is an innovation of the earliest land-dwelling vertebrates with key functions in both feeding and respiration. Here, we bring together evidence from preserved hyoid elements from dinosaurs and outgroup archosaurs, including pterosaurs, with enhanced contrast x-ray computed tomography data from extant taxa. Midline ossification is a key component of the origin of an avian hyoid. The elaboration of the avian tongue includes the evolution of multiple novel midline hyoid bones and a larynx suspended caudal to these midline elements...
2018: PloS One
Deb Chamberlain, Jennifer Parent-Nichols
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Marcelo R Rosales, Jennifer Romack, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
PURPOSE: The aim was to explore the timing and duration of muscle activation during a landing task in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and compare their responses to those of children who are developing typically (TD). METHODS: Six children (ages 3-4.5 years), half with ASD, hung from a vertical bar, landed, and reacted to a light cue that signaled the child to run to the right or left or to stay in place. Electromyography and kinematics were recorded and compared between groups...
July 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Joan Forns, Jordi Sunyer, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Daniela Porta, Akhgar Ghassabian, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Tong Gong, Ulrike Gehring, Mette Sørensen, Marie Standl, Dorothee Sugiri, Catarina Almqvist, Ainara Andiarena, Chiara Badaloní, Rob Beelen, Dietrich Berdel, Giulia Cesaroni, Marie-Aline Charles, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Marisa Estarlich, Mariana F Fernandez, Anne Forhan, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul Lichtenstein, Aitana Lertxundi, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Iana Markevych, Audrey de Nazelle, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Rocío Pérez-Lobato, Claire Philippat, Rémy Slama, Carla Mt Tiesler, Frank C Verhulst, Andrea von Berg, Tanja Vrijkotte, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Barbara Heude, Ursula Krämer, Joachim Heinrich, Henning Tiemeier, Francesco Forastiere, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM)] were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Epidemiology
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Benjamin L Bodirsky, Isabelle Weindl, Florian Humpenöder, Korneel Rabaey, Nico Boon, Michele Bruschi, Zhiguo Yuan, Hannah van Zanten, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete, Alexander Popp
One of the main challenges for the 21st century is to balance the increasing demand for high-quality proteins while mitigating environmental impacts. In particular, cropland-based production of protein-rich animal feed for livestock rearing results in large-scale agricultural land-expansion, nitrogen pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we propose and analyze the long-term potential of alternative animal feed supply routes based on industrial production of microbial proteins (MP). Our analysis reveals that by 2050, MP can replace, depending on socio-economic development and MP production pathways, between 10-19% of conventional crop-based animal feed protein demand...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
A David McGuire, Hélène Genet, Zhou Lyu, Neal Pastick, Sarah Stackpoole, Richard Birdsey, David D'Amore, Yujie He, T Scott Rupp, Robert Striegl, Bruce K Wylie, Xiaoping Zhou, Qianlai Zhuang, Zhiliang Zhu
We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr-1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10-3 W m-2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance...
June 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
U Axelson, M Söderström, A Jonsson
Molybdenum is toxic to ruminants when present in high levels in forage, causing physiological copper deficiency. A critical level for ruminants is 3-10 mg Mo kg-1 dry matter. The average Mo level varies considerably between different arable soils, depending mainly on soil parent material. This study investigated the possibility of using various existing sources of geospatial information (geophysical, biogeochemical and soil chemical) to develop a geography-based risk assessment system. Forage samples (n = 173) were collected in 2006-2007...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Meeli Roose, Reija Hietala
The aim of the reformed EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020 is to enhance greening via an ecological focus area, arable crop diversification, and the maintenance of permanent grasslands. This study tests the greening process in the case of agricultural landscape in southwestern Finland by projecting land use between 2005 and 2017. The study method integrates the quantitative results of Markov chains and spatial features of a cellular automata model. Initially, land use change was recognized by appropriate metrics...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Wahida Ghiloufi, Juyoung Seo, Jinhyun Kim, Mohamed Chaieb, Hojeong Kang
Arid ecosystems constitute 41% of land's surface and play an important role in global carbon cycle. In particular, biological soil crusts (BSC) are known to be a hotspot of carbon fixation as well as mineralization in arid ecosystems. However, little information is available on carbon decomposition and microbes in BSC and key controlling variables for microbial activities in arid ecosystems. The current study, carried out in South Mediterranean arid ecosystem, aimed to evaluate the effects of intact and removed cyanobacteria/lichen crusts on soil properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial abundances (bacteria and fungi)...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Alejandro Estrada, Paul A Garber, Russell A Mittermeier, Serge Wich, Sidney Gouveia, Ricardo Dobrovolski, K A I Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, Anthony B Rylands, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Julio Bicca-Marques, Agustin Fuentes, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Steig Johnson, Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo, Leonardo Oliveira, Christoph Schwitzer, Christian Roos, Susan M Cheyne, Maria Cecilia Martins Kierulff, Brigitte Raharivololona, Mauricio Talebi, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, Jatna Supriatna, Ramesh Boonratana, Made Wedana, Arif Setiawan
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia...
2018: PeerJ
Nuno Batalha, Sónia Dias, Daniel A Marinho, José A Parraca
The continuous execution of swimming techniques, supported mainly by the upper limbs, may cause shoulder rotator muscle imbalances, which leads to injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two training programs on strength, balance and endurance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in youth swimmers. Twenty-five male swimmers were evaluated and randomly divided into two groups - the land group (n = 13), which conducted a conventional dry-land training program with elastic bands, and the water group (n = 12), which conducted a water resistance program...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Vanessa M S Vetter, Nils B Tjaden, Anja Jaeschke, Constanze Buhk, Veronika Wahl, Pawel Wasowicz, Anke Jentsch
Plant ecosystem engineers are widely used to combat land degradation. However, the ability of those plants to modulate limiting abiotic and biotic resources of other species can cause damage to ecosystems in which they become invasive. Here, we use Lupinus nootkatensis as example to estimate and project the hazardous potential of nitrogen fixing herbaceous plants in a sub-polar oceanic climate. L. nootkatensis was introduced to Iceland in the 1940s to address erosion problems and foster reforestation, but subsequently became a high-latitude invader...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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