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Maximilian P Brandt, Kilian M Gust, Jens Mani, Stefan Vallo, Thomas Höfner, Hendrik Borgmann, Igor Tsaur, Christian Thomas, Axel Haferkamp, Eva Herrmann, Georg Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been reported to differ between countries within the European Union (EU). Besides occupational exposure to chemicals, other substances such as tobacco and nitrite in groundwater have been identified as risk factors for UC. We investigated if regional differences in UC incidence rates are associated with agricultural, industrial and residential land use. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cases of UC between 2003 and 2010 were included...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Jonathan R Thompson, Joshua S Plisinski, Pontus Olofsson, Christopher E Holden, Matthew J Duveneck
New England has lost more than 350,000 ha of forest cover since 1985, marking a reversal of a two-hundred-year trend of forest expansion. We a cellular land-cover change model to project a continuation of recent trends (1990-2010) in forest loss across six New England states from 2010 to 2060. Recent trends were estimated using a continuous change detection algorithm applied to twenty years of Landsat images. We addressed three questions: (1) What would be the consequences of a continuation of the recent trends in terms of changes to New England's forest cover mosaic? (2) What social and biophysical attributes are most strongly associated with recent trends in forest loss, and how do these vary geographically? (3) How sensitive are projections of forest loss to the reference period-i...
2017: PloS One
Kristin Haynert, Mirijam Kiggen, Bernhard Klarner, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu
Mesofauna taxa fill key trophic positions in soil food webs, even in terrestrial-marine boundary habitats characterized by frequent natural disturbances. Salt marshes represent such boundary habitats, characterized by frequent inundations increasing from the terrestrial upper to the marine pioneer zone. Despite the high abundance of soil mesofauna in salt marshes and their important function by facilitating energy and carbon flows, the structure, trophic ecology and habitat-related diet shifts of mesofauna species in natural salt marsh habitats is virtually unknown...
2017: PloS One
WeiYu Lu, Justin K Hwang, Fangfang Zeng, Walter S Leal
The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), is a multimodal compound that acts as a spatial repellent as well as an irritant (contact repellent), thus being perceived by the insect's olfactory and gustatory systems as an odorant and a tastant, respectively. Soon after DEET was developed, almost 6 decades ago, it was reported that it reduced mosquito feeding on blood mixed with this repellent. It is now known that the mosquito proboscis senses contact repellents with the tips (labella) of the labium, which remain in direct contact with the outer layers of the skin, while the stylets, including the feeding deterrent sensor (labrum), penetrate the skin...
2017: PloS One
Cuicui Ji, Yonghong Jia, Zhihai Gao, Huaidong Wei, Xiaosong Li
Desert vegetation plays significant roles in securing the ecological integrity of oasis ecosystems in western China. Timely monitoring of photosynthetic/non-photosynthetic desert vegetation cover is necessary to guide management practices on land desertification and research into the mechanisms driving vegetation recession. In this study, nonlinear spectral mixture effects for photosynthetic/non-photosynthetic vegetation cover estimates are investigated through comparing the performance of linear and nonlinear spectral mixture models with different endmembers applied to field spectral measurements of two types of typical desert vegetation, namely, Nitraria shrubs and Haloxylon...
2017: PloS One
Sean F Altekruse, Meredith S Shiels, Sharada P Modur, Stephanie R Land, Kristina A Crothers, Mari M Kitahata, Jennifer E Thorne, William C Mathews, Diana M Fernández-Santos, Angel M Mayor, John M Gill, Michael A Horberg, John T Brooks, Richard D Moore, Michael J Silverberg, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels
OBJECTIVE: With combination-antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected individuals live longer with an elevated burden of cancer. Given the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected populations, we examined the risk of incident cancers attributable to ever smoking cigarettes. DESIGN: Observational cohort of HIV-infected participants with 270,136 person-years of follow-up in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design consortium. Among 52,441 participants; 2306 were diagnosed with cancer during 2000-2015...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
Vicente Y Belizario, John Paul Caesar R Delos Trinos, Berne Silawan, Chiqui M De Veyra, Agapito Hornido, Hansel Amoguis, Dominic Basalo, Cherry Dema-Ala, Irenn Mantilla, Rosele Layan
Schistosomiasis (SCH) in The Philippines is caused by Schistosoma japonicum and remains endemic in 28 provinces in 12 regions. Effective SCH control requires describing areas at risk where control efforts may be focused. This study aims at demonstrating the utility of geographical information system (GIS) as a tool for SCH surveillance in the province of Davao del Norte. Qualitative and quantitative data on SCH determinants, obtained from local government offices, partner agencies and institutions, were standardised, formatted and incorporated into a GIS map...
November 6, 2017: Geospatial Health
J Joris Hage
BACKGROUND: To date, it remains unclear what inspired Dr Sterling Bunnell to start using the typical World War I military term no-man's land in hand surgical context, only in 1948. To commemorate that Bunnell passed away 60 years ago on August 20, I report on my quest to clarify this. METHODS: An extensive bibliography of Bunnell was made up by use of the McDowell Series of Plastic Surgery Indexes and cross-checked by use of a PubMed search. Bunnell's round-robin letters were searched for in the Sterling Bunnell Hand Surgery Archives of the California Pacific Medical Center Health Services Library in San Francisco, California...
December 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Sarah McFarlane
Melanopsin photopigments, Opn4x and Opn4m, were evolutionary selected to "see the light" in systems that regulate skin colour change. In this review, we analyze the roles of melanopsins, and how critical evolutionary developments, including the requirement for thermoregulation and ultraviolet protection, the emergence of a background adaptation mechanism in land-dwelling amphibian ancestors, and the loss of a photosensitive pineal gland in mammals, may have helped sculpt the mechanisms that regulate light-controlled skin pigmentation...
December 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Sheila Cardoso-Silva, Julio Cesar López-Doval, Viviane Moschini-Carlos, Marcelo Pompêo
Reservoirs in urban areas are used for different purposes and are liable to different types of pressures that can cause the loss of chemical and biological quality, hence diminishing their ecological, economic, and cultural benefits. Here, a study of surface water heterogeneity was undertaken at the Guarapiranga urban reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) in order to improve understanding of the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Sampling was performed during the dry and rainy seasons at 33 sites. Limnological variables and total contents of the metals cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc were analyzed...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sulata Maity, Janka Poráčová, Partha Dey, Janka Vašková, Ladislav Vaško, Vincent Sedlák, Marta Mydlárová Blaščáková
The soil of Slovak Republic is severely contaminated with heavy metals, creating hazards to soil health. In order to assess the current status with the prospect of selecting the appropriate treatment methods and land use, this investigation aimed to determine a panel of complementary and ecologically relevant biomarkers that reflect adverse biological responses towards terrestrial pollutants. To attain this objective, the concentration of reduced glutathione and enzymes of glutathione antioxidant system were assessed in clitellate earthworm, Aporrectodea caliginosa sampled from selected sites of eastern Slovakia along with the pH and total metal concentration (As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) of soils...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Girish S Mishra, Sushen H Bhatt
Head and neck cancers together (oral cavity, pharynx and larynx) are sixth commonest worldwide and are the commonest cancers in developing countries. The Cancer Project was started in Kheda/Anand, Gujarat, a harvest land of tobacco. The objective of this programme was to indoctrinate the most vulnerable and the least tended upon; the basics of head and neck cancers via the medium of their own kins. Voluntary village health workers were educated and trained to pick up the early signs of head and neck cancers...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Anna C Severin, Brendan J Burkett, Mark R McKean, Aaron N Wiegand, Mark G L Sayers
Background: The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Justin T Ridge, Antonio B Rodriguez, F Joel Fodrie
Ecosystems at the land-sea interface are vulnerable to rising sea level. Intertidal habitats must maintain their surface elevations with respect to sea level to persist via vertical growth or landward retreat, but projected rates of sea-level rise may exceed the accretion rates of many biogenic habitats. While considerable attention is focused on climate change over centennial timescales, relative sea level also fluctuates dramatically (10-30 cm) over month-to-year timescales due to interacting oceanic and atmospheric processes...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Heather L Hulton VanTassel, Michael D Bell, John Rotenberry, Robert Johnson, Michael F Allen
Many species have already experienced distributional shifts due to changing environmental conditions, and analyzing past shifts can help us to understand the influence of environmental stressors on a species as well as to analyze the effectiveness of conservation strategies. We aimed to (1) quantify regional habitat associations of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica); (2) describe changes in environmental variables and gnatcatcher distributions through time; (3) identify environmental drivers associated with habitat suitability changes; and (4) relate habitat suitability changes through time to habitat conservation plans...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
María Esther Nieto-Blázquez, Alexandre Antonelli, Julissa Roncal
The Caribbean archipelago is a region with an extremely complex geological history and an outstanding plant diversity with high levels of endemism. The aim of this study was to better understand the historical assembly and evolution of endemic seed plant genera in the Caribbean, by first determining divergence times of endemic genera to test whether the hypothesized Greater Antilles and Aves Ridge (GAARlandia) land bridge played a role in the archipelago colonization and second by testing South America as the main colonization source as expected by the position of landmasses and recent evidence of an asymmetrical biotic interchange...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Xianwei Song, Yang Gao, Sophie M Green, Jennifer A J Dungait, Tao Peng, Timothy A Quine, Bailian Xiong, Xuefa Wen, Nianpeng He
Karst topography covers more than 1/3 of the People's Republic of China in area. The porous, fissured, and soluble nature of the underlying karst bedrock (primarily dolomite and limestone) leads to the formation of underground drainage systems. Karst conduit networks dominate this system, and rainfall takes a crucial role on water cycle at China karst area. Nitrogen loss from the karst system is of particular concern, with regard to nutrient use efficiency as well as water quality, as much of the karst system, including steeply sloping terrain, is used for intensive agriculture...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, Wayne J Arendt, Joseph M Wunderle, T Mitchell Aide
An upward shift in elevation is one of the most conspicuous species responses to climate change. Nevertheless, downward shifts and, apparently, the absences of response have also been recently reported. Given the growing evidence of multiple responses of species distributions due to climate change and the paucity of studies in the tropics, we evaluated the response of a montane bird community to climate change, without the confounding effects of land-use change. To test for elevational shifts, we compared the distribution of 21 avian species in 1998 and 2015 using occupancy models...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
So Fujiyoshi, Daisuke Tanaka, Fumito Maruyama
Human health is influenced by various factors including microorganisms present in built environments where people spend most of their lives (approximately 90%). It is therefore necessary to monitor and control indoor airborne microbes for occupational safety and public health. Most studies concerning airborne microorganisms have focused on fungi, with scant data available concerning bacteria. The present review considers papers published from 2010 to 2017 approximately and factors affecting properties of indoor airborne bacteria (communities and concentration) with respect to temporal perspective and to multiscale interaction viewpoint...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Karini B Dos Santos, Paulo C Barauce Bento, Gleber Pereira, Carl Payton, André L F Rodacki
The aims of this study were to investigate whether land-based and tethered swimming strength tests can explain swimming performance in 200-meter front crawl and, whether these tests were able to identify bilateral symmetry in force production. In the first session, eighteen swimmers completed a maximum effort 200 m front crawl swim (swimming performance) and 15 seconds maximal effort tethered front crawl swim. In the second session, participants performed the upper extremity isometric strength test. Peak force production of tethered swimming and isometric strength tests were significantly correlated for the strongest and weakest sides (r = 0...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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