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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454206/less-sensitive-of-urban-surface-to-climate-variability-than-rural-in-northern-china
#1
Rui Yao, Lunche Wang, Xin Huang, Jiangping Chen, Jiarui Li, Zigeng Niu
In this study, the relationships between interannual variations of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) and climate variability were studied in 31 cities of China for the period 2001-2016. For cold and dry Northern China, it was found that the interannual variations of SUHI intensity (SUHII, land surface temperature (LST) in urban minus rural) in urban cores was significantly (p<0.05) and negatively correlated with rural LST in 9 (in summer days (SDs)) and 8 (in winter days (WDs)) of the 15 northern cities, respectively...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454205/how-can-local-representations-of-changes-of-the-availability-in-natural-resources-assist-in-targeting-conservation
#2
Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos, Elcida de Lima Araújo, Orou G Gaoue, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
The use and appropriation of natural resources by human groups may be strongly related to the perception that these groups have of the abundance or scarcity of these resources. Researches on environmental representation can be useful to understand the criteria involved in the selection and use of natural resources, to verify if people realize changes in the availability of these resources and the possible causes of these changes and to elaborate conservation strategies, if necessary. However, if people are not realizing these changes, of if they do not perceive themselves as a cause of such scarcity, the developing of conservation strategies will be very difficult to implement...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454202/global-patterns-of-extreme-drought-induced-loss-in-land-primary-production-identifying-ecological-extremes-from-rain-use-efficiency
#3
Ling Du, Nathaniel Mikle, Zhenhua Zou, Yuanyuan Huang, Zheng Shi, Lifen Jiang, Heather R McCarthy, Junyi Liang, Yiqi Luo
Quantifying the ecological patterns of loss of ecosystem function in extreme drought is important to understand the carbon exchange between the land and atmosphere. Rain-use efficiency [RUE; gross primary production (GPP)/precipitation] acts as a typical indicator of ecosystem function. In this study, a novel method based on maximum rain-use efficiency (RUE max ) was developed to detect losses of ecosystem function globally. Three global GPP datasets from the MODIS remote sensing data (MOD17), ground upscaling FLUXNET observations (MPI-BGC), and process-based model simulations (BESS), and a global gridded precipitation product (CRU) were used to develop annual global RUE datasets for 2001-2011...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454201/nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-near-zero-water-exchange-brackish-recirculating-aquaculture-systems
#4
Uri Yogev, Adiel Atari, Amit Gross
The development of intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with low water exchange has accelerated in recent years as a result of environmental, economic and other concerns. In these systems, fish are commonly grown at high density, 50 to 150kg/m 3 , using high-protein (30%-60%) feeds. Typically, the RAS consists of a solid treatment and a nitrification unit; in more advanced RAS, there is an additional denitrification step. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a byproduct during nitrification and denitrification processes, is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys the ozone layer...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454197/cigarette-butts-may-have-low-toxicity-to-soil-dwelling-invertebrates-evidence-from-a-land-snail
#5
Hussan Gill, Kyler Rogers, Bilal Rehman, John Moynihan, Elizabeth A Bergey
Cigarette butts are a common form of litter that is often deposited on soil, where toxins from butts may affect soil-dwelling organisms. We examined possible toxicity of cigarette butts to the woodland snail Anguispira alternata using a toxicity study with cigarette butt effluent and a lab-based habitat choice experiment in which snails could feed or rest on areas with different butt densities. No mortality occurred during the 32-day toxicity study, which used six effluent concentrations ranging from 0 to 4butts/l (0 to 0...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454041/potential-risks-of-zika-and-chikungunya-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-modelling-study
#6
Breno S Aguiar, Camila Lorenz, Flávia Virginio, Lincoln Suesdek, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
OBJECTIVES: While Brazil has witnessed an unprecedented Zika (ZIK) epidemic, in recent times, Chikungunya (CHIK) has also come into prominence as a threat, in the Americas. We aimed to identify the regions with increased probabilities of ZIK and CHIK occurrence, based on environmental and social conditions. METHODS: To assess the potential spatial risk of ZIK and CHIK dissemination, we used a statistical Maxent model, which considered the number of probable autochthonous ZIK and CHIK cases, in 2015 and 2016, with environmental variables and social indicators...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453994/land-use-change-and-conversion-effects-on-ground-water-quality-trends-an-integration-of-land-change-modeler-in-gis-and-a-new-ground-water-quality-index-developed-by-fuzzy-multi-criteria-group-decision-making-models
#7
Mohammad Reza Shooshtarian, Mansooreh Dehghani, Ferrante Margherita, Oliveri Conti Gea, Shima Mortezazadeh
This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed...
February 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453812/cognitive-outcomes-in-children-and-adolescents-born-very-preterm-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Christopher R Brydges, Jasmin K Landes, Corinne L Reid, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Mike Anderson
AIM: To estimate the association between very preterm birth (<32wks' gestation) and intelligence, executive functioning, and processing speed throughout childhood and adolescence, and to examine the effects of gestational age, birthweight, and age at assessment. METHOD: Studies were included if children were born at earlier than 32 weeks' gestation, aged 4 to 17 years, had an age-matched term control group, and if the studies used standardized measures, were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, and placed no restrictions on participants based on task performance...
February 17, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453723/macroelements-and-heavy-metals-content-in-energy-crops-cultivated-on-contaminated-soil-under-different-fertilization-case-studies-on-autumn-harvest
#9
Marta Pogrzeba, Szymon Rusinowski, Jacek Krzyżak
Heavy metals (HMs) contamination of soils is a major problem occurring worldwide. Utility of energy crops for biofuel feedstock production systems offers a feasible solution for a commercial exploitation of an arable land contaminated with HMs. Experiments involved field testing of Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina pectinata cultivated on HMs-contaminated soil with standard NPK fertilizers and commercially available microbial inoculum. Biomass yield, water content, macronutrients (N, P, K, Mg, Ca), and heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Zn) concentrations in plant shoots were assessed at the end of the first and the second growing season...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453352/redefining-ecosystem-multifunctionality
#10
REVIEW
Peter Manning, Fons van der Plas, Santiago Soliveres, Eric Allan, Fernando T Maestre, Georgina Mace, Mark J Whittingham, Markus Fischer
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in ecosystem multifunctionality, a concept that has developed in the largely separate fields of biodiversity-ecosystem function and land management research. Here we discuss the merit of the multifunctionality concept, the advances it has delivered, the challenges it faces and solutions to these challenges. This involves the redefinition of multifunctionality as a property that exists at two levels: ecosystem function multifunctionality and ecosystem service multifunctionality...
March 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453183/spatial-assessment-of-land-degradation-through-key-ecosystem-services-the-role-of-globally-available-data
#11
Stefania Cerretelli, Laura Poggio, Alessandro Gimona, Getahun Yakob, Shiferaw Boke, Mulugeta Habte, Malcolm Coull, Alessandro Peressotti, Helaina Black
Land degradation is a serious issue especially in dry and developing countries leading to ecosystem services (ESS) degradation due to soil functions' depletion. Reliably mapping land degradation spatial distribution is therefore important for policy decisions. The main objectives of this paper were to infer land degradation through ESS assessment and compare the modelling results obtained using different sets of data. We modelled important physical processes (sediment erosion and nutrient export) and the equivalent ecosystem services (sediment and nutrient retention) to infer land degradation in an area in the Ethiopian Great Rift Valley...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453173/land-use-change-impacts-on-the-amount-and-quality-of-recharge-water-in-the-loess-tablelands-of-china
#12
Yanan Huang, Qingrui Chang, Zhi Li
Exploring how land use change (LUC) influences the amount and quality of recharge water is important for groundwater sustainability and land use planning. With loess of up to 200m in thickness and unsaturated zones up to 100m below the surface, the loess tablelands in China can store abundant groundwater resources. However, groundwater depletion and substantial LUC have been simultaneously observed. It is thus necessary to investigate the relationship between LUC and groundwater. We sampled 10-m soil profiles for three land use types (farmlands, apple orchards of 10 and 20years old)...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453116/developing-a-methodology-for-real-time-trading-of-water-withdrawal-and-waste-load-discharge-permits-in-rivers
#13
Maryam Soltani, Reza Kerachian
In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453067/applying-no-depletion-equilibrium-sampling-and-full-depletion-bioaccessibility-extraction-to-35-historically-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-contaminated-soils
#14
Nora Bartolomé, Isabel Hilber, Dayana Sosa, Rainer Schulin, Philipp Mayer, Thomas D Bucheli
Assessing the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in contaminated soils is considered a complement to measurements of total concentrations in risk assessment and legislation. Consequently, methods for its quantification require validation with historically contaminated soils. In this study, 35 such soils were obtained from various locations in Switzerland and Cuba. They were exposed to different pollution sources (e.g., pyrogenic and petrogenic) at various distance (i.e., urban to rural) and were subject to different land use (e...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453014/predictors-of-illegal-dumping-at-charitable-collection-points
#15
Breanna Wright, Liam Smith, Fraser Tull
Cleaning and disposal of illegal dumping at charitable collection points costs charities and diverts funds from their charitable programs. However, there is no published literature that attempts to better understand this problem. The current study assesses site-specific characteristics, community level indicators and sociodemographic factors as predictors of both charity stores and collection bin dumping in the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of dumping at stores were predicted by being open on Sundays, the presence of gates/fencing, bringing bins in at night, greater 5-year mobility and lower levels of education and occupation in the area...
February 13, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450861/revision-of-aemilia-pagana-species-group-lepidoptera-erebidae-arctiinae-with-a-description-of-a-new-endemic-species-and-comments-on-the-conservation-status
#16
H M Beccacece, G San Blas, M E Drewniak, M J Barrionuevo, E R Krauczuk, A E Chalup, A I Zapata
A taxonomical rearrangement of "Aemilia" pagana species-group is proposed: Leucanopsis pagana (Schaus in Proc Zool Soc London 1894:225-243, 1894) comb. nov. and L. ninae (Orfila in Rev Soc Entomol Argent 21:67-70, 1959) comb. nov. A new endemic species from Pampa de Achala, Córdoba, Argentina, closer to both species, is described: Leucanopsis navarroi sp. nov. These three species can be recognized because the color pattern is the darkest among species of Leucanopsis. Characteristics of male genitalia suggest the nomenclatural rearrangement proposed...
February 15, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450772/dissolved-organic-matter-distribution-and-its-association-with-colloidal-aluminum-and-iron-in-the-selenga-river-basin-from-ulaanbaatar-to-lake-baikal
#17
Morimaru Kida, Orgilbold Myangan, Bolormaa Oyuntsetseg, Viacheslav Khakhinov, Masayuki Kawahigashi, Nobuhide Fujitake
The Selenga River Basin (Mongolia and Russia) has suffered from heavy metal contamination by placer gold mining and urban activities in recent decades. The objectives of this study were to provide the first distribution data of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and humic substances (HS) in this data-scarce region, and to investigate their association with dissolved and colloidal metals. Two sampling campaigns were conducted in August of 2013 and 2014. A constant proportion of HS (%HS; coefficient of variation of 2%) was observed from the headwater of Tuul River to the end of the delta before Lake Baikal, spanning > 1000 km in distance...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450770/how-can-water-quality-be-improved-when-the-urban-waste-water-directive-has-been-fulfilled-a-case-study-of-the-lot-river-france
#18
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Vincent Thieu, Julien Némery, Sylvain Théry, Gilles Billen, Alexandra Coynel
The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450655/transcription-factors-network-in-root-endosymbiosis-establishment-and-development
#19
REVIEW
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448940/comparative-analysis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-l-leaf-transcriptomes-reveals-genotype-specific-salt-tolerance-mechanisms
#20
Yunting Lei, Yuxing Xu, Christian Hettenhausen, Chengkai Lu, Guojing Shen, Cuiping Zhang, Jing Li, Juan Song, Honghui Lin, Jianqiang Wu
BACKGROUND: Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. RESULTS: Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress...
February 15, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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