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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231640/mind-the-gap-mechanisms-regulating-the-endothelial-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Mariya Y Radeva, Jens Waschke
The endothelial barrier consists of intercellular contacts localized in the cleft between endothelial cells, which is covered by the glycocalyx in a sieve-like manner. Both types of barrier-forming junctions, i.e. the adherens junction (AJ) serving mechanical anchorage and mechanotransduction and the tight junction (TJ) sealing the intercellular space to limit paracelullar permeability, are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. Under resting conditions, the endothelium thereby builds a selective layer controlling the exchange of fluid and solutes with the surrounding tissue...
February 23, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231468/parkinson-sac-domain-mutation-in-synaptojanin-1-impairs-clathrin-uncoating-at-synapses-and-triggers-dystrophic-changes-in-dopaminergic-axons
#2
Mian Cao, Yumei Wu, Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Amber J McCartney, Heather Wheeler, Eric A Bushong, Daniela Boassa, Mark H Ellisman, Timothy A Ryan, Pietro De Camilli
Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230360/capsaicin-reduces-blood-glucose-by-increasing-insulin-levels-and-glycogen-content-better-than-capsiate-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Shiqi Zhang, Xiaohan Ma, Zhang Lei, Hui Sun, Xiong Liu
Chili peppers exhibit anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and pain- and itchiness-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue and is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229972/early-life-stress-experience-may-blunt-hypothalamic-leptin-signalling
#4
J H Lee, S B Yoo, J Y Kim, J Y Lee, B T Kim, K Park, J W Jahng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224917/regulation-of-the-wheat-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-by-14-3-3-proteins
#5
Mouna Ghorbel, Valérie Cotelle, Chantal Ebel, Ikram Zaidi, Mélanie Ormancey, Jean-Philippe Galaud, Moez Hanin
Plant MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are major regulators of MAPK signaling pathways and play crucial roles in controlling growth, development and stress responses. The presence of several functional domains in plant MKPs such as a dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, gelsolin, calmodulin-binding and serine-rich domains, suggests that MKPs can interact with distinct cellular partners, others than MAPKs. In this report, we identified a canonical mode I 14-3-3-binding motif (574KLPSLP579) located at the carboxy-terminal region of the wheat MKP, TMKP1...
April 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223354/il-1%C3%AE-induced-and-p38-mapk-dependent-activation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-activated-protein-kinase-mk-2-in-hepatocytes-signal-transduction-with-robust-and-concentration-independent-signal-amplification
#6
Andreas Kulawik, Raphael Engesser, Christian Ehlting, Andreas Raue, Ute Albrecht, Bettina Hahn, Wolf-Dieter Lehmann, Matthias Gaestel, Ursula Klingmüller, Dieter Häussinger, Jens Timmer, Johannes G Bode
The Interleukin (IL)-1β induced activation of the p38(MAPK)/MK2 pathway in hepatocytes is important for the control of acute phase response and regulation of liver regeneration. Many aspects of regulatory relevance of this pathway have been investigated in immune cells in the context of inflammation. However, very little is known about concentration-dependent activation kinetics and signal propagation in hepatocytes and the role of MK2. We established a mathematical model for IL-1β induced activation of the p38(MAPK)/MK2 pathway in hepatocytes that was calibrated to quantitative data on time- and IL-1β concentration-dependent phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and MK2 in primary mouse hepatocytes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222387/baicalein-enhances-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#7
Li-Jiao Chen, Bi-Bo Hu, Xin-Lian Shi, Man-Man Ren, Wen-Bin Yu, Sheng-Dan Cen, Rong-Dang Hu, Hui Deng
OBJECTIVE: Periodontium regeneration is one of the most important processes for periodontitis therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) play a vital role in the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues. Our study aimed to investigated the mechanisms underlying the promotion of hPLDCs osteogenic differentiation by baicalein. DESIGN: hPDLCs were obtained from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues by primary culture. The MTT assay was used to determine the growth curves of hPDLCs treated with different concentrations of baicalein (1...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220078/inhibition-of-vegfr2-activation-and-its-downstream-signaling-to-erk1-2-and-calcium-by-thrombospondin-1-tsp1-in-silico-investigation
#8
Hojjat Bazzazi, Jeffery S Isenberg, Aleksander S Popel
VEGF signaling through VEGFR2 is a central regulator of the angiogenic response. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by the stress-induced matricellular protein TSP1 plays a role in modulating the angiogenic response to VEGF in both health and disease. TSP1 binding to CD47 inhibits VEGFR2 activation. The full implications of this inhibitory interaction are unknown. We developed a detailed rule-based computational model to inquire if TSP1-CD47 signaling through VEGF had downstream effects upon ERK1/2 and calcium. Our Simulations suggest that enhanced degradation of VEGFR2 initiated by the binding of TSP1 to CD47 is sufficient to explain the inhibition of VEGFR2 phosphorylation, calcium elevation, and ERK1/2 activation downstream of VEGF...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219134/-role-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-cytoplasmic-1-on-vascular-calcification-in-rats-with-chronic-renal-failure
#9
J X Zhang, J S Xu, Y Y Han, Y L Bai, L W Cui, H R Zhang, S L Zhang
Objective: To explore the role of nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) on vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats. Methods: Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated group (n=6), 5/6 Nephrectomy (Nx) group (n=6), 5/6 Nx+ calcitriol group (n=7). Vascular calcification was determined by von Kossa staining and orthocresolphthalein complexone (OCPC) method. Protein expressions of NFATc1 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in aortas were measured by immunohistochemistry...
February 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218391/mapk3-1-participates-in-the-activation-of-primordial-follicles-through-mtorc1-kitl-signaling
#10
Yu Zhao, Yu Zhang, Jia Li, Nana Zheng, Xiaoting Xu, Jing Yang, Guoliang Xia, Meijia Zhang
The majority of ovarian primordial follicles are preserved in a dormant state to maintain the female reproductive lifespan, and only a few primordial follicles are activated to enter the growing follicle pool in each wave. Recent studies have shown that primordial follicular activation depends on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-KIT ligand (KITL) signaling in pre-granulosa cells and its receptor (KIT)-phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling in oocytes. However, the upstream regulator of mTORC1 signaling is unclear...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216905/green-biosynthesis-characterization-in-vitro-antidiabetic-activity-and-investigational-acute-toxicity-studies-of-some-herbal-mediated-silver-nanoparticles-on-animal-models
#11
Kalakotla Shanker, Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan, Md Ashwaq Hussain, Naradala Jayarambabu, Poka Lakshmi Pravallika
: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. In recent studies, Nanoscience and nanotechnology are blazing fields for researchers; for researchers; of late there has been a prodigious excitement in the field of nanopharmacology to study silver nanoparticle (SNP) synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize SNPs using medicinally active plants having an antidiabetic role, and this made us to assess the biologically synthesized SNPs from the seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216157/staphylococcal-lipoteichoic-acid-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mouse-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-increasing-autophagic-activity
#12
Xin Liu, Yuan Wang, Zhen Cao, Ce Dou, Yun Bai, Chuan Liu, Shiwu Dong, Jun Fei
This study sought to explore the effect of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on autophagy in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and then influence osteogenesis through the change of autophagy. C3H10T1/2 cells were induced by osteogenic medium with the treatment of LTA at different concentrations (1, 5, 10 μg/mL); 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the autophagy inhibitor, and rapamycin (rapamycin, Rap) were used to activate autophagy; the effects on osteogenesis were detected by alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red staining, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blotting; autophagic activity was investigated by the expression of LC3-Ⅱand p62 proteins...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215872/detection-of-specific-antibodies-in-cats-infected-with-the-lung-nematode-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus
#13
Eva-Maria Zottler, Christina Strube, Manuela Schnyder
Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongylid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an underestimated respiratory parasitosis. Its diagnosis currently mainly relies on the isolation of first stage larvae from fresh faecal samples. The aim of our study was to develop a serological test for the detection of specific antibodies against A. abstrusus by ELISA. We used recombinant major sperm protein (MSP) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus as detection antigen and evaluated two different ELISA plates (Maxisorp and Immobilizer™ Amino-plate, Nunc Roskilde, Denmark) with two different enzyme systems [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)]...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213930/antibiotic-administration-alleviates-the-aggravating-effect-of-orthodontic-force-on-ligature-induced-experimental-periodontitis-bone-loss-in-mice
#14
J Shi, Z Liu, T Kawai, Y Zhou, X Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is recognized that orthodontic force (OF) has an aggravating effect on the progression of destructive periodontitis if periodontitis have not been well controlled. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear. This study was to investigate the effect of antibiotic administration on OF-aggravated, ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 wk old) were divided into three groups (n = 8)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213359/methylation-of-the-phosphatase-transcription-activator-eya1-by-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-1-mechanistic-functional-and-structural-studies
#15
Xingguo Li, Allison Eberhardt, Jeanne N Hansen, Dirk Bohmann, Haitao Li, Nina F Schor
The eyes absent (EYA) family proteins are conserved transcriptional coactivators with intrinsic protein phosphatase activity. They play an essential role in the development of various organs in metazoans. These functions are associated with a unique combination of phosphatase and transactivation activities. However, it remains poorly understood how these activities and the consequent biologic functions of EYA are regulated. Here, we demonstrate that 2 conserved arginine residues, R304 and R306, of EYA1 are essential for its in vitro phosphatase activity and in vivo function during Drosophila eye development...
February 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213130/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-impairs-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes
#16
Kerstin Rufinatscha, Bernhard Radlinger, Jochen Dobner, Sabrina Folie, Claudia Bon, Elisabeth Profanter, Claudia Ress, Karin Salzmann, Gabriele Staudacher, Herbert Tilg, Susanne Kaser
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4) has evolved into an important target in diabetes therapy due to its role in incretin hormone metabolism. In contrast to its systemic effects, cellular functions of membranous DPP-4 are less clear. Here we studied the role of DPP-4 in hepatic energy metabolism. In order to distinguish systemic from cellular effects we established a cell culture model of DPP-4 knockdown in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. DPP-4 suppression was associated with increased basal glycogen content due to enhanced insulin signaling as shown by increased phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212453/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-hybridized-with-nano-anchored-oligonucleotides-on-titanium-implants-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-in-vivo
#17
Florian Böhrnsen, Jennifer Rublack, Nelia Aeckerle, Anne Foerster, Bernd Schwenzer, Judith Reichert, Dieter Scharnweber, Henning Schliephake
PURPOSE: Previous in vitro studies have shown that DNA oligonucleotides (ODN) can be successfully used as anchor strands for the binding and retarded release of biologically active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rhBMP-2 bound to the surface of titanium implants through hybridization with nano-anchored ODN strands is biologically active and can enhance the induction of osteogenic markers in peri-implant bone in vivo...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212343/oxyresveratrol-supplementation-to-c57bl-6-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet-ameliorates-obesity-associated-symptoms
#18
Hui Yuan Tan, Iris Mei Ying Tse, Edmund Tsze Shing Li, Mingfu Wang
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211947/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-and-collagen-i-alpha-2-synthesis-via-induction-of-mrna-binding-protein-larp6-expression
#19
Yue Guo, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Yun-Zhi Feng, Hou-De Zhou
This study explored the mechanism underlying the stimulation of collagen synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in primary mouse osteoblasts. Primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts were cultured and treated with various doses of IGF1 before transfection with siRNA targeting the collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2) or La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (Larp6) genes. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin staining, alizarin red quantification and the expression level of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were performed to assess the differentiation of pre-osteoblasts...
February 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211493/25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-induces-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Yan-Ru Lou, Tai Chong Toh, Yee Han Tee, Hanry Yu
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] has recently been found to be an active hormone. Its biological actions are demonstrated in various cell types. 25(OH)D3 deficiency results in failure in bone formation and skeletal deformation. Here, we investigated the effect of 25(OH)D3 on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We also studied the effect of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25-(OH)2D3], a metabolite of 25(OH)D3. One of the vitamin D responsive genes, 25(OH)D3-24-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1) mRNA expression is up-regulated by 25(OH)D3 at 250-500 nM and by 1α,25-(OH)2D3 at 1-10 nM...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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