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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818355/glucose-transporter-8-immunoreactivity-in-astrocytic-and-microglial-cells-in-subependymal-areas-of-human-brains
#1
Masato Mashima, Yoichi Chiba, Ryuta Murakami, Naoya Uemura, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Kenji Kanenishi, Toshiyuki Hata, Masaki Ueno
Glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8), a glucose/fructose transporter, has been shown to be expressed in neuronal cells in several brain areas. A recent immunohistochemical study has shown the presence of GLUT8 in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and ependymal cells. In this study, localization of GLUT8 in glial cells was investigated using immunohistochemical methods. Immunoreactivity for GLUT8 was observed in cells showing astrocytic or microglial structural features located around the lateral ventricles...
November 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818039/regenerative-potential-of-ependymal-cells-for-spinal-cord-injuries-over-time
#2
Xiaofei Li, Elisa M Floriddia, Konstantinos Toskas, Karl J L Fernandes, Nicolas Guérout, Fanie Barnabé-Heider
Stem cells have a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). We have shown previously that endogenous stem cell potential is confined to ependymal cells in the adult spinal cord which could be targeted for non-invasive SCI therapy. However, ependymal cells are an understudied cell population. Taking advantage of transgenic lines, we characterize the appearance and potential of ependymal cells during development. We show that spinal cord stem cell potential in vitro is contained within these cells by birth...
October 28, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810639/combined-polymer-curcumin-conjugate-and-ependymal-progenitor-stem-cell-treatment-enhances-spinal-cord-injury-functional-recovery
#3
Raquel Requejo-Aguilar, Ana Alastrue-Agudo, Marta Cases-Villar, Eric Lopez-Mocholi, Richard England, María J Vicent, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Animal models of acute SCI have provided evidence that transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord (epSPCs) induces functional recovery, while systemic administration of the anti-inflammatory curcumin provides neuroprotection. However, functional recovery from chronic stage SCI requires additional enhancements in available therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a combination treatment for SCI using epSPCs and a pH-responsive polymer-curcumin conjugate...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796638/endogenous-neurogenesis-in-adult-mammals-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Hongmei Duan, Wei Song, Wen Zhao, Yudan Gao, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
During the whole life cycle of mammals, new neurons are constantly regenerated in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Thanks to emerging methodologies, great progress has been made in the characterization of spinal cord endogenous neural stem cells (ependymal cells) and identification of their role in adult spinal cord development. As recently evidenced, both the intrinsic and extrinsic molecular mechanisms of ependymal cells control the sequential steps of the adult spinal cord neurogenesis...
October 27, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753657/a-comparative-immunohistochemical-study-of-epithelial-membrane-antigen-and-nherf1-ebp50-in-the-diagnosis-of-ependymomas
#5
Aruna Nambirajan, Mehar C Sharma, Madhu Rajeshwari, Aanchal Kakkar, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar
Ependymomas are gliomas that recapitulate normal ependymal cells. The epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) shows "dot-like" and "ring-like" staining patterns, highlighting "microlumens" or intracytoplasmic rosettes, a pathognomonic ultrastructural feature. NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein localized at the apical plasma membrane of human epithelia, has been found to localize to these microlumens. We aimed to analyze the staining patterns of EMA and EBP50 in ependymomas and other tumors, and thereby compare their diagnostic utility...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746040/expression-of-aquaporin-7-and-aquaporin-9-in-tanycyte-cells-and-choroid-plexus-during-mouse-estrus-cycle
#6
A Yaba, B Sozen, B Suzen, N Demir
Tanycytes are special ependymal cells located in the ventrolateral wall and floor of the third ventricle having processes extending nuclei that regulate reproductive functions and around of vessels in median eminance. The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that transport water and glycerol. AQP-7 and -9 are permeable to other small molecules as glycerol and therefore called aquaglyceroporins. In this study, we aimed to show localization of AQP-7 and -9 in epithelial cells of choroid plexus and tanycytes during female mouse estrus cycle...
October 13, 2016: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722925/wnts-are-expressed-in-the-ependymal-region-of-the-adult-spinal-cord
#7
Carlos Gonzalez-Fernandez, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Beatriz Paniagua-Torija, Isidro Ferrer, Francisco J Rodriguez, Daniel Garcia-Ovejero
The Wnt family of proteins plays key roles during central nervous system development and in several physiological processes during adulthood. Recently, experimental evidence has linked Wnt-related genes to regulation and maintenance of stem cells in the adult neurogenic niches. In the spinal cord, the ependymal cells surrounding the central canal form one of those niches, but little is known about their Wnt expression patterns. Using microdissection followed by TaqMan® low-density arrays, we show here that the ependymal regions of young, mature rats and adult humans express several Wnt-related genes, including ligands, conventional and non-conventional receptors, co-receptors, and soluble inhibitors...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714686/physiological-functions-of-glial-cell-hemichannels
#8
Juan A Orellana
The brain performs exceptionally complex and dynamic tasks that depend on the coordinated interaction of neurons, glial cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, ependymal cells, and circulating blood cells. Among these cells, glial cells have emerged as crucial protagonists in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neural function. Indeed, these cells express a wide range of receptors that enable them to sense changes in neuronal activity and the microenvironment by responding locally via the release of bioactive molecules known as gliotransmitters...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677351/inhibition-of-hypothalamic-mct1-expression-increases-food-intake-and-alters-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neuropeptide-expression
#9
Roberto Elizondo-Vega, Christian Cortés-Campos, María José Barahona, Claudio Carril, Patricio Ordenes, Magdiel Salgado, Karina Oyarce, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
Hypothalamic glucosensing, which involves the detection of glucose concentration changes by brain cells and subsequent release of orexigenic or anorexigenic neuropeptides, is a crucial process that regulates feeding behavior. Arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons are classically thought to be responsible for hypothalamic glucosensing through a direct sensing mechanism; however, recent data has shown a metabolic interaction between tanycytes and AN neurons through lactate that may also be contributing to this process...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620881/the-organic-mercury-compounds-methylmercury-and-ethylmercury-inhibited-ciliary-movement-of-ventricular-ependymal-cells-in-the-mouse-brain-around-the-concentrations-reported-for-human-poisoning
#10
Shigeru Yoshida, Shinsaku Matsumoto, Takuya Kanchika, Teruki Hagiwara, Takeshi Minami
Functions of the nervous system are supported by the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is driven by the ciliary beating of ventricular ependymal cells. The aim of the present study was to examine whether methylmercury (MeHg), a substance with potent neurotoxicity in humans, affects the ciliary movement. The effects of another organic mercury compound, ethylmercury (EtHg), were also assessed for comparison. Toxicity of MeHg or EtHg was evaluated by measuring alterations in the ciliary beat frequency of ependymal cells lining the third ventricle of mouse brain slices...
September 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609618/prenatal-evaluation-imaging-features-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-prenatally-diagnosed-periventricular-pseudocysts
#11
S Cooper, O Bar-Yosef, M Berkenstadt, C Hoffmann, R Achiron, E Katorza
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periventricular pseudocysts are cystic cavities that lack the ependymal cell lining found in true cysts. The aim of this study was to characterize periventricular pseudocysts and related findings and their neurodevelopmental outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of periventricular pseudocysts detected prenatally on fetal MR imaging in 26 fetuses. The fetuses were divided into group A (n = 8), which included cases with isolated periventricular pseudocysts, and group B (n = 18), which included cases of periventricular pseudocysts with additional findings...
September 8, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606337/mcidas-and-gemc1-lynkeas-specify-embryonic-radial-glial-cells
#12
Christina Kyrousi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Eleni Skavatsou, Zoi Lygerou, Stavros Taraviras
Ependymal cells are multiciliated cells located in the wall of the lateral ventricles of the adult mammalian brain and are key components of the subependymal zone niche, where adult neural stem cells reside. Through the movement of their motile cilia, ependymal cells control the cerebrospinal fluid flow within the ventricular system from which they receive secreted molecules and morphogens controlling self-renewal and differentiation decisions of adult neural stem cells. Multiciliated ependymal cells become fully differentiated at postnatal stages however they are specified during mid to late embryogenesis from a population of radial glial cells...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583098/central-nervous-system-tumours-in-children-in-ibadan-nigeria-a-histopathologic-study
#13
Gabriel Olabiyi Ogun, Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Taiwo Olabimpe Babatunde, Olufunmilola Abimbola Ogun, Ayodeji Salami, Biobele Jotham Brown, Effiong Akang
INTRODUCTION: Contrary to some earlier teachings that central nervous system (CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from Ibadan was in 1985. An update of the data on paediatric CNS neoplasms at our centre is presented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed CNS tumours in children (0-14 years) from January 2001 to December 2010 from the database of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was done...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571065/aquaporin-4-in-astroglial-cells-in-the-cns-and-supporting-cells-of-sensory-organs-a-comparative-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Corinna Gleiser, Andreas Wagner, Petra Fallier-Becker, Hartwig Wolburg, Bernhard Hirt, Andreas F Mack
The main water channel of the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is one of the classical water-specific aquaporins. It is expressed in many epithelial tissues in the basolateral membrane domain. It is present in the membranes of supporting cells in most sensory organs in a specifically adapted pattern: in the supporting cells of the olfactory mucosa, AQP4 occurs along the basolateral aspects, in mammalian retinal Müller cells it is highly polarized. In the cochlear epithelium of the inner ear, it is expressed basolaterally in some cells but strictly basally in others...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569418/dystroglycan-suppresses-notch-to-regulate-stem-cell-niche-structure-and-function-in-the-developing-postnatal-subventricular-zone
#15
Freyja K McClenahan, Himanshu Sharma, Xiwei Shan, Christopher Eyermann, Holly Colognato
While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate neural stem cell quiescence in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ), the function of ECM in the developing SVZ remains unknown. Here, we report that the ECM receptor dystroglycan regulates a unique developmental restructuring of ECM in the early postnatal SVZ. Dystroglycan is furthermore required for ependymal cell differentiation and assembly of niche pinwheel structures, at least in part by suppressing Notch activation in radial glial cells, which leads to the increased expression of MCI, Myb, and FoxJ1, transcriptional regulators necessary for acquisition of the multiciliated phenotype...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528042/uncovering-floor-plate-descendants-in-the-ependyma-of-adult-mouse-cns-using-mapping-of-nato3-expressing-cells
#16
Sophie Khazanov, Yael Paz, Amit Hefetz, Ben Jerry Gonzales, Yaara Netser, Abed AlFatah Mansour, Nissim Ben-Arie
During embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS), the expression of the bHLH transcription factor Nato3 (Ferd3l) is unique and restricted to the floor plate of the neural tube. In mice lacking Nato3 the floor plate cells of the spinal cord do not fully maturate, whereas in the midbrain floor plate, progenitors lose some neurogenic activity, giving rise to a reduced population of dopaminergic neurons. Since the floor plate is considered to be disintegrated at the time of birth, Nato3 expression was never tested postnatally and in adult mice...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521454/sodium-sensing-in-the-subfornical-organ-and-body-fluid-homeostasis
#17
Takeshi Y Hiyama, Masaharu Noda
The brain monitors conditions of body fluids and levels of circulating neuroactive factors to maintain the systemic homeostasis. Unlike most regions in the brain, circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack the blood-brain barrier, and serve as the sensing center. Among the CVOs, the subfornical organ (SFO) is the sensing site of Na(+) levels in body fluids to control water and salt intake. The SFO harbors neuronal cell bodies with a variety of hormone receptors and innervates many brain loci. In addition, the SFO harbors specialized glial cells (astrocytes and ependymal cells) expressing Nax, a Na(+)-level-sensitive sodium channel...
August 10, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503700/quantitative-analyses-of-cellularity-and-proliferative-activity-revealed-the-dynamics-of-the-central-canal-lining-during-postnatal-development-of-rat
#18
Anna Alexovič Matiašová, Juraj Ševc, Zoltán Tomori, Zuzana Gombalová, Štefánia Gedrová, Zuzana Daxnerová
According to previous opinion, the derivation of neurons and glia from the central canal (CC) lining of the spinal cord in rodents should occur in the embryonic period. Reports of the mitotic activity that is observed in the lining during postnatal development have often been contradictory, and proliferation was ascribed to the generation of ependymocytes, which are necessary for the elongation of CC walls. In our recent study, we quantified the intensity of proliferation and determined the cellularity of the CC lining in reference to lumbar spinal segment L4 during the postnatal development of rats...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503597/variable-proopiomelanocortin-expression-in-tanycytes-of-the-adult-rat-hypothalamus-and-pituitary-stalk
#19
Gábor Wittmann, Erzsébet Farkas, Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Balázs Gereben, Csaba Fekete, Ronald M Lechan
It is generally believed that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is expressed exclusively by neurons in the adult rodent brain. Unbeknownst to most researchers, however, Pomc in situ hybridization studies in the rat show specific labeling in the ventral wall of the hypothalamic third ventricle, which is formed by specialized ependymal cells, called tanycytes. Here we characterized this non-neuronal POMC expression in detail using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, and report two unique characteristics...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487660/-cell-contact-protein-beta-catenin-in-ependymal-and-epithelial-cells-of-the-choroid-plexus-of-the-cerebral-lateral-ventricles
#20
O V Kirik, D A Sufieyva, A V Nazarenkova, D E Korzhevskiy
The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution pattern of cellular contacts protein beta-catenin in the choroid plexus and ependyma of lateral ventricles of the brain. The study was conducted on frontal sections of the brain of Wistar rats (n = 10) using polyclonal antibodies against beta-catenin. The obtained preparations were analyzed by microscopy in transmitted light and using confocal laser microscopy. To study the distribution of beta-catenin in different projections, three-dimensional reconstruction was performed...
2016: Morfologi︠a︡
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