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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775163/methylprednisolone-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-in-nonhuman-primates-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Jichao Ye, Yi Qin, Yong Tang, Mengjun Ma, Peng Wang, Lin Huang, Rui Yang, Keng Chen, Chaopeng Chai, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
OBJECTIVE The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on the proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (ENSCs) in nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS A total of 14 healthy cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) (4-5 years of age) were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (n = 6), SCI group (n = 6), and methylprednisolone therapy group (n = 2). Only laminectomy was performed in the control animals at T-10. SCI was induced in monkeys using Allen's weight-drop method (50 mm × 50 g) to injure the posterior portion of the spinal cord at T-10...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727663/single-cell-transcriptomics-and-fate-mapping-of-ependymal-cells-reveals-an-absence-of-neural-stem-cell-function
#2
Prajay T Shah, Jo A Stratton, Morgan Gail Stykel, Sepideh Abbasi, Sandeep Sharma, Kyle A Mayr, Kathrin Koblinger, Patrick J Whelan, Jeff Biernaskie
Ependymal cells are multi-ciliated cells that form the brain's ventricular epithelium and a niche for neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In addition, ependymal cells are suggested to be latent NSCs with a capacity to acquire neurogenic function. This remains highly controversial due to a lack of prospective in vivo labeling techniques that can effectively distinguish ependymal cells from neighboring V-SVZ NSCs. We describe a transgenic system that allows for targeted labeling of ependymal cells within the V-SVZ...
May 3, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725181/supratentorial-pure-cortical-ependymoma-an-unusual-lesion-causing-focal-motor-aware-seizure
#3
Manish Beniwal, Ajit Mishra, K V L Narasinga Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Sampath Somanna
Ependymomas usually arise from the ependymal lining cells of the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord. Supratentorial ependymoma is a rare entity with the variable clinical course. In a small number of cases, ependymoma arises from supratentorial parenchyma. Only a few cases are reported in the literature. We report a case of 3-year-old girl with left frontal mass. Total removal of the mass lesion was performed without any neurological deficit. Pathological examination of the excised tumor was consistent with anaplastic ependymoma...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695808/uncovering-inherent-cellular-plasticity-of-multiciliated-ependyma-leading-to-ventricular-wall-transformation-and-hydrocephalus
#4
Khadar Abdi, Chun-Hsiang Lai, Patricia Paez-Gonzalez, Mark Lay, Joon Pyun, Chay T Kuo
Specialized, differentiated cells often perform unique tasks that require them to maintain a stable phenotype. Multiciliated ependymal cells (ECs) are unique glial cells lining the brain ventricles, important for cerebral spinal fluid circulation. While functional ECs are needed to prevent hydrocephalus, they have also been reported to generate new neurons: whether ECs represent a stable cellular population remains unclear. Via a chemical screen we found that mature ECs are inherently plastic, with their multiciliated state needing constant maintenance by the Foxj1 transcription factor, which paradoxically is rapidly turned over by the ubiquitin-proteasome system leading to cellular de-differentiation...
April 25, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689278/foxj1-regulates-spinal-cord-development-and-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-spinal-cord-stem-cell-potential
#5
Xiaofei Li, Elisa M Floriddia, Konstantinos Toskas, Chaima Chalfouh, Axel Honore, Anne Aumont, Nicolas Vallières, Steve Lacroix, Karl J L Fernandes, Nicolas Guérout, Fanie Barnabé-Heider
Development of the spinal cord requires dynamic and tightly controlled expression of numerous transcription factors. Forkhead Box protein J1 (FoxJ1) is a transcription factor involved in ciliogenesis and is specifically expressed in ependymal cells (ECs) in the adult central nervous system. However, using FoxJ1 fate-mapping mouse lines, we observed that FoxJ1 is also transiently expressed by the progenitors of other neural subtypes during development. Moreover, using a knock-in mouse line, we discovered that FoxJ1 is essential for embryonic progenitors to follow a normal developmental trajectory...
April 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682026/prognostic-implications-of-histological-clear-cells-in-high-grade-intracranial-ependymal-tumors-a-retrospective-analysis-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-pakistan
#6
Fauzan Alam Hashmi, Hamid Hussain Rai, Muhammad Faheem Khan, Muhammad Ehsan Bari
Background: Clear cell variant in ependymal tumors is rare. We aimed to compare the features and outcome of the World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3 ependymal tumors with clear cells to the WHO Grade 3 classic anaplastic ependymoma (AE). Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery, Aga Khan University, Pakistan, from 2003 to 2013. The medical records and radiology of patients with proven histopathology were reviewed...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665816/selective-localization-of-igg-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-brain-parenchyma
#7
Marlene Thorsen Mørch, Sofie Forsberg Sørensen, Reza Khorooshi, Nasrin Asgari, Trevor Owens
BACKGROUND: Encounter of autoantibodies with specific antigens can lead to hypersensitivity reactions and pathology. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD), immunoglobulin-G (IgG) deposition has been observed in pathological lesions in the central nervous system. The paradigmatic autoantibodies in NMOSD are specific for the water channel aquaporin-4, localized to astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier and ependymal cells at the cerebrospinal fluid-brain barrier...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#8
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651556/neurospheres-from-neural-stem-neural-progenitor-cells-nspcs-of-non-hydrocephalic-htx-rats-produce-neurons-astrocytes-and-multiciliated-ependyma-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-normal-and-hydrocephalic-rats-supports-such-a-differentiation
#9
Roberto Henzi, Montserrat Guerra, Karin Vío, César González, Cristian Herrera, Pat McAllister, Conrad Johanson, Esteban M Rodríguez
Fetal onset hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis are two inseparable phenomena turned on by a cell junction pathology first affecting neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and later the multiciliated ependyma. The neurological impairment of children born with hydrocephalus is not reverted by derivative surgery. NSPCs and neurosphere (NE) grafting into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of hydrocephalic fetuses thus appears as a promising therapeutic procedure. There is little information about the cell lineages actually forming the NE as they grow throughout their days in vitro (DIV)...
April 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649499/the-spinal-ependymal-zone-as-a-source-of-endogenous-repair-cells-across-vertebrates
#10
REVIEW
Catherina G Becker, Thomas Becker, Jean-Philippe Hugnot
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of neurons and axonal connections. In mammals, including humans, this loss is permanent, but is repaired in other vertebrates, such as salamanders and fishes. Cells in the ependymal niche play a pivotal role for the outcome after injury. These cells initiate proliferation and generate new neurons of different types in regenerating species, but only glial cells, contributing to the glial scar, in mammals. Here we compare the cellular and molecular properties of ependymal zone cells and their environment across vertebrate classes...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601528/stem-cells-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Marina Gazdic, Vladislav Volarevic, C Randall Harrell, Crissy Fellabaum, Nemanja Jovicic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag Stojkovic
Spinal cord injury (SCI), a serious public health issue, most likely occurs in previously healthy young adults. Current therapeutic strategies for SCI includes surgical decompression and pharmacotherapy, however, there is still no gold standard for the treatment of this devastating condition. Inefficiency and adverse effects of standard therapy indicate that novel therapeutic strategies are required. Because of their neuroregenerative and neuroprotective properties, stem cells are a promising tool for the treatment of SCI...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571787/advantages-of-high-b-value-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-preoperative-differential-diagnosis-between-embryonal-and-ependymal-tumors-at-3-t-mri
#12
Takeshi Takayasu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Yuji Akiyama, Megu Ohtaki, Taiichi Saito, Ryo Nosaka, Motoki Takano, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu
PURPOSE: It is often difficult to distinguish between embryonal and ependymal tumors using conventional MR imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) has been widely used for diagnosis, but its usefulness for differential diagnosis between embryonal and ependymal tumors has not been determined yet. Both DWI properties and ADC values of these two types of tumor at regular and high b-values on a 3 T MR scanner were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559584/gain-of-function-mutations-in-the-gene-encoding-the-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp2-induce-hydrocephalus-in-a-catalytically-dependent-manner
#13
Hong Zheng, Wen-Mei Yu, Ronald R Waclaw, Maria I Kontaridis, Benjamin G Neel, Cheng-Kui Qu
Catalytically activating mutations in Ptpn11 , which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause 50% of Noonan syndrome (NS) cases, whereas inactivating mutations in Ptpn11 are responsible for nearly all cases of the similar, but distinct, developmental disorder Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML; formerly called LEOPARD syndrome). However, both types of disease mutations are gain-of-function mutations because they cause SHP2 to constitutively adopt an open conformation. We found that the catalytic activity of SHP2 was required for the pathogenic effects of gain-of-function, disease-associated mutations on the development of hydrocephalus in the mouse...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550918/filamentous-aggregation-of-sequestosome-1-p62-in-brain-neurons-and-neuroepithelial-cells-upon-tyr-cre-mediated-deletion-of-the-autophagy-gene-atg7
#14
Supawadee Sukseree, Lajos László, Florian Gruber, Sophie Bergmann, Marie Sophie Narzt, Ionela Mariana Nagelreiter, Romana Höftberger, Kinga Molnár, Günther Rauter, Thomas Birngruber, Lionel Larue, Gabor G Kovacs, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
Defects in autophagy and the resulting deposition of protein aggregates have been implicated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. While gene targeting in the mouse has facilitated the characterization of these processes in different types of neurons, potential roles of autophagy and accumulation of protein substrates in neuroepithelial cells have remained elusive. Here we report that Atg7f/f Tyr-Cre mice, in which autophagy-related 7 (Atg7) is conditionally deleted under the control of the tyrosinase promoter, are a model for accumulations of the autophagy adapter and substrate sequestosome-1/p62 in both neuronal and neuroepithelial cells...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536742/neuronal-regeneration-in-injured-rat-spinal-cord-after-human-dental-pulp-derived-neural-crest-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
S Kabatas, C S Demir, E Civelek, I Yilmaz, A Kircelli, C Yilmaz, Y Akyuva, E Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. METHODS: Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535610/musashi-and-plasticity-of-xenopus-and-axolotl-spinal-cord-ependymal-cells
#16
Ellen A G Chernoff, Kazuna Sato, Hai V N Salfity, Deborah A Sarria, Teri Belecky-Adams
The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis , and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum , the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530987/fractone-bulbs-derive-from-ependymal-cells-and-their-laminin-composition-influence-the-stem-cell-niche-in-the-subventricular-zone
#17
Marcos Assis Nascimento, Lydia Sorokin, Tatiana Coelho-Sampaio
Fractones are extracellular matrix structures in the neural stem cell niche of the subventricular zone (SVZ), where they appear as round deposits named bulbs or thin branching lines called stems. Their cellular origin and what determines their localization at this site is poorly studied and it remains unclear whether they influence neural stem and progenitor cells formation, proliferation and/or maintenance. To address these questions, we analyzed whole mount preparations of the lateral ventricle of male and female mice by confocal microscopy using different extracellular matrix and cell markers...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507144/glutathione-conjugation-at-the-blood-csf-barrier-efficiently-prevents-exposure-of-the-developing-brain-fluid-environment-to-blood-borne-reactive-electrophilic-substances
#18
Ingrid Kratzer, Nathalie Strazielle, Elodie Saudrais, Kati Mönkkönen, Céline Malleval, Sandrine Blondel, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
Exposure of the developing brain to toxins, drugs, or deleterious endogenous compounds during the perinatal period can trigger alterations in cell division, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis, leading to lifelong neurological impairment. The brain is protected by cellular barriers acting through multiple mechanisms, some of which are still poorly explored. We used a combination of enzymatic assays, live tissue fluorescence microscopy, and an in vitro cellular model of the blood-CSF barrier to investigate an enzymatic detoxification pathway in the developing male and female rat brain...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504169/gliosarcoma-with-primitive-neuronal-chondroid-osteoid-and-ependymal-elements
#19
Yuka Yoshida, Munenori Ide, Hiroya Fujimaki, Nozomi Matsumura, Sumihito Nobusawa, Hayato Ikota, Hideaki Yokoo
A 51-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of malaise. MRI revealed a large solid and cystic lesion with ring enhancement measuring 6.5 cm in diameter in the right frontal lobe. Histologically, the tumor consisted of various components: diffuse growth of atypical astrocytic cells consistent with glioblastoma, fascicular proliferation of atypical spindle cells such as fibrosarcoma, clusters of primitive neuronal cells, and foci of ependymal cells. The sarcomatous component also focally exhibited chondroid and osteoid differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503202/overcoming-limitations-inherent-in-sulfamidase-to-improve-mucopolysaccharidosis-iiia-gene-therapy
#20
Yonghong Chen, Shujuan Zheng, Luis Tecedor, Beverly L Davidson
Sulfamidase (SGSH) deficiency causes mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA), a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) that affects the CNS. In earlier work in LSD mice and dog models, we exploited the utility of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) to transduce brain ventricular lining cells (ependyma) for secretion of lysosomal hydrolases into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with subsequent distribution of enzyme throughout the brain resulting in improved cognition and extending lifespan. A critical feature of this approach is efficient secretion of the expressed enzyme from transduced cells, for delivery by CSF to nontransduced cells...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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