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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431387/cypermethrin-toxication-leads-to-histopathological-lesions-and-induces-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#1
Harun Arslan, Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun
Cypermethrin (Cyp), a known neurotoxic pesticide, is widely used in agricultural applications. In the present study, the aim was to determine the histopathological effects of Cyp toxication and evaluate the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) using an immunofluorescence assay. Thereafter, we identified the expressions of caspase 3, capsase 8, iNOS, and metallothionein 1 (MT1) genes in common carp using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#2
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421968/chronic-toxicology-studies-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-in-rats-and-dogs-a-novel-pegylated-insulin-lispro-analog-with-a-prolonged-duration-of-action
#3
Richard A Byrd, Jamie L Blackbourne, Mary Pat Knadler, Albert E Schultze, John L Vahle
Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) consists of insulin lispro with a 20-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety covalently attached to lysine B28. Because chronic parenteral administration of PEGylated proteins to animals has sometimes resulted in PEG vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and choroid plexus ependymal cells, we investigated whether chronic subcutaneous (sc) injection of BIL in rats (52 weeks) and dogs (39 weeks) was associated with systemic toxicities or other changes, including vacuolation of tissue macrophages, renal tubular cells, and ependymal cells...
April 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413862/a-simple-strategy-for-culturing-morphologically-conserved-rat-hypothalamic-tanycytes
#4
Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Maia Uriarte, Victoria Frassa, Francina Agosti, Jesica Raingo, Mario Perello
Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the floor of the third ventricle. Given their strategic location, tanycytes are believed to play several key functions including being a selective barrier and controlling the amount of hypothalamic-derived factors reaching the anterior pituitary. The in vitro culture of these cells has proved to be difficult. Here, we report an improved method for the generation of primary cultures of rat hypothalamic tanycytes. Ependymal cultures were derived from tissue dissected out of the median eminence region of 10-day-old rats and cultured in a chemically defined medium containing DMEM:F12, serum albumin, insulin, transferrin and the antibiotic gentamycin...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373692/a-missense-mutation-in-katnal1-underlies-behavioural-neurological-and-ciliary-anomalies
#5
G Banks, G Lassi, A Hoerder-Suabedissen, F Tinarelli, M M Simon, A Wilcox, P Lau, T N Lawson, S Johnson, A Rutman, M Sweeting, J E Chesham, A R Barnard, N Horner, H Westerberg, L B Smith, Z Molnár, M H Hastings, R A Hirst, V Tucci, P M Nolan
Microtubule severing enzymes implement a diverse range of tissue-specific molecular functions throughout development and into adulthood. Although microtubule severing is fundamental to many dynamic neural processes, little is known regarding the role of the family member Katanin p60 subunit A-like 1, KATNAL1, in central nervous system (CNS) function. Recent studies reporting that microdeletions incorporating the KATNAL1 locus in humans result in intellectual disability and microcephaly suggest that KATNAL1 may play a prominent role in the CNS; however, such associations lack the functional data required to highlight potential mechanisms which link the gene to disease symptoms...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370142/morphological-study-of-a-connexin-43-gfp-reporter-mouse-highlights-glial-heterogeneity-amacrine-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#6
Panos Theofilas, Christian Steinhäuser, Martin Theis, Amin Derouiche
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the main astrocytic connexin and forms the basis of the glial syncytium. The morphology of connexin-expressing cells can be best studied in transgenic mouse lines expressing cytoplasmic fluorescent reporters, since immunolabeling the plaques can obscure the shapes of the individual cells. The Cx43kiECFP mouse generated by Degen et al. (FASEBJ 26:4576, 2012) expresses cytosolic ECFP and has previously been used to establish that Cx43 may not be expressed by all astrocytes within a population, and this can vary in a region-dependent way...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365894/gene-expression-analysis-and-microdialysis-suggest-hypothalamic-triiodothyronine-t3-gates-daily-torpor-in-djungarian-hamsters-phodopus-sungorus
#7
Jonathan H H Bank, Ceyda Cubuk, Dana Wilson, Eddy Rijntjes, Julia Kemmling, Hanna Markovsky, Perry Barrett, Annika Herwig
Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating seasonal adaptations of mammals. Several studies suggested that reduced availability of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypothalamus is required for the physiological adaptation to winter in Djungarian hamsters. We have previously shown that T3 is involved in the regulation of daily torpor, but it remains unclear, whether T3 affects torpor by central or peripheral mechanisms. To determine the effect of T3 concentrations within the hypothalamus in regulating daily torpor, we tested the hypothesis that low hypothalamic T3 metabolism would favour torpor and high T3 concentrations would not...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348798/primary-pyogenic-ventriculitis-caused-by-neisseria-meningitidis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Firza Gronthoud, Ibrahim Hassan, Pippa Newton
Background. Pyogenic ventriculitis is a well-known complication of meningitis, brain abscesses and intraventricular drains. Primary pyogenic ventriculitis is a rare entity and few cases have been described so far. We report the first case of primary pyogenic ventriculitis in an adult caused by Neisseria meningitidis and present an overview of all reported adult primary pyogenic ventriculitis cases in the English literature. Methods. A PubMed search was performed using the terms ependymitis, ventricular empyema, pyocephalus and ventriculitis...
January 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#9
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionein-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cell homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336928/expression-of-canine-distemper-virus-receptor-nectin-4-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-dogs
#11
Watanyoo Pratakpiriya, Angeline Ping Ping Teh, Araya Radtanakatikanon, Nopadon Pirarat, Nguyen Thi Lan, Makoto Takeda, Somporn Techangamsuwan, Ryoji Yamaguchi
Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits lymphotropic, epitheliotropic, and neurotropic nature, and causes a severe systemic infection in susceptible animals. Initially, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) expressed on immune cells has been identified as a crucial cellular receptor for CDV. Currently, nectin-4 expressed in epithelia has been shown to be another receptor for CDV. Our previous study demonstrated that neurons express nectin-4 and are infected with CDV. In this study, we investigated the distribution pattern of nectin-4 in various cell types in the canine central nervous system and showed its relation to CDV infection to further clarify the pathology of disease...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336567/sox9-is-an-astrocyte-specific-nuclear-marker-in-the-adult-brain-outside-the-neurogenic-regions
#12
Wei Sun, Adam Cornwell, Jiashu Li, Sisi Peng, M Joana Osorio, Nadia Aalling Su Wanga, Abdellatif Benraiss, Nanhong Lou, Steven A Goldman, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes have in recent years become the focus of intense experimental interest, yet markers for their definitive identification remain both scarce and imperfect. Astrocytes may be recognized as such by their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)quaporin-4 (AQP4)ldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1)nd other proteins. Yet these proteins may all be regulated both developmentally and functionally, restricting their utility...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320419/cerebellar-ependymoma-with-overlapping-features-of-clear-cell-and-tanycytic-variants-mimicking-hemangioblastoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Xiu-Peng Zhang, Yang Liu, Di Zhang, Qin Zheng, Chen Wang, Liang Wang, Qing-Chang Li, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Imaging and histology of clear-cell ependymoma and cerebellum-based hemangioblastoma are similar; distinguishing between them is a diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old Chinese woman presented with an intermittent headache of 8 years' duration. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the cerebellum. Neurological imaging suggested hemangioblastoma (HB). Histologically, the tumor included cellular and paucicellular areas, in which cells were arranged in nests or diffusely distributed; and a highly vascular area, in which tumor cells were arranged in clusters and separated by capillaries...
March 20, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317216/human-and-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-differ-in-aquaporin-4-polarization-toward-microvessels
#14
Vigdis Andersen Eidsvaag, Rune Enger, Hans-Arne Hansson, Per Kristian Eide, Erlend A Nagelhus
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocytes and ependymal cells. In rodents AQP4 is highly polarized to perivascular astrocytic endfeet and loss of AQP4 polarization is associated with disease. The present study was undertaken to compare the expression pattern of AQP4 in human and mouse cortical astrocytes. Cortical tissue specimens were sampled from 11 individuals undergoing neurosurgery wherein brain tissue was removed as part of the procedure, and compared with cortical tissue from 5 adult wild-type mice processed similarly...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316792/jak-stat-pathway-activation-in-response-to-spinal-cord-injury-in-regenerative-and-non-regenerative-stages-of-xenopus-laevis
#15
Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302022/glial-cell-a-potential-target-for-cellular-and-drug-based-therapy-in-various-cns-diseases
#16
Shakeeb Ahmed, Azka Gull, Tahir Khuroo, Mohd Aqil, Yasmin Sultana
Glial cells are integrated part of neurovascular unit of blood brain barrier (BBB). They undergo mitosis and mainly classified as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells and nerve glial antigen 2 cells. Being a most versatile glial cell, astrocytes provide structural support to neurons, maintain brain homeostasis, take part in neuronal communication, and perform some housekeeping functions. Oligodendrocytes myelinate the neuronal axons for proper transmission of nerve impulse and microglia are brain immune cells...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295292/differential-neuronal-and-glial-expression-of-nuclear-factor-i-proteins-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-adult-mice
#17
Kok-Siong Chen, Lachlan Harris, Jonathan W C Lim, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper, Richard M Gronostajski, Linda J Richards, Jens Bunt
The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of nuclear factor IA (NFIA), nuclear factor IB (NFIB), or nuclear factor IX (NFIX) results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB, and NFIX is currently unknown...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260163/micrornas-contribute-to-postnatal-development-of-laminar-differences-and-neuronal-subtypes-in-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#18
Lene C Olsen, Kally C O'Reilly, Nina B Liabakk, Menno P Witter, Pål Sætrom
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is important in spatial navigation and memory formation and its layers have distinct neuronal subtypes, connectivity, spatial properties, and disease susceptibility. As little is known about the molecular basis for the development of these laminar differences, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression differences between rat MEC layer II and layers III-VI during postnatal development. We identified layer and age-specific regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which included processes related to neuron specialization and locomotor behavior...
March 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238866/the-distribution-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate-diaphorase-nadph-d-in-the-medulla-oblongata-spinal-cord-cranial-and-spinal-nerves-of-frog-microhyla-ornata
#19
Arun G Jadhao, Saikat P Biswas, Rahul C Bhoyar, Claudia Pinelli
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) enzymatic activity has been reported in few amphibian species. In this study, we report its unusual localization in the medulla oblongata, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and ganglions of the frog, Microhyla ornata. In the rhombencephalon, at the level of facial and vagus nerves, the NADPH-d labeling was noted in the nucleus of the abducent and facial nerves, dorsal nucleus of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the nucleus of hypoglossus nerve, dorsal and lateral column nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal field of spinal grey, the lateral and medial motor fields of spinal grey and radix ventralis and dorsalis (2-10)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195245/ependymoma-with-diffuse-signet-ring-features-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
L Cima, S Beccari, C Ghimenton, G Pinna, A Beltramello, M Chilosi, M Brunelli, A Eccher
Signet-ring cell ependymoma is a rare variant of ependymoma with only seven cases described in literature. Biological behavior and prognosis of this entity are not well-known until now. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of headache and gait instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an upper cervical tumor with cystic component and mural nodule. The patient underwent surgery. Microscopically some cells displayed an eccentric nucleus compressed to the periphery by vacuolated cytoplasm...
March 2016: Pathologica
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