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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124086/the-pediatric-ependymoma-protein-database-pepd
#1
George Th Tsangaris, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
Proteomics, through application of modern high-end mass spectrometric (MS) approaches, offers the advantage of in-depth analysis of cancer tissues regarding their protein composition. Pediatric brain tumor malignancies are scarcely approached by modern holistic technologies (e.g. genomics, proteomics) due to rarity of samples and most importantly difficulty in their collection. Ependymoma, is the third most common tumor in children and is thought to arise from ependymal cells in the wall of the cerebral ventricles or the spinal canal...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121947/interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-fenestrated-capillaries-is-sufficient-to-trigger-sickness-responses-in-mice
#2
J Gabriel Knoll, Stephanie M Krasnow, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: The physiological and behavioral symptoms of sickness, including fever, anorexia, behavioral depression, and weight loss can be both beneficial and detrimental. These sickness responses are triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on cells within the brain. Previous research demonstrates that the febrile response to peripheral insults depends upon prostaglandin production by vascular endothelial cells, but the mechanisms and specific cell type(s) responsible for other sickness responses remain unknown...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083995/engineered-core-shell-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-mr-dual-modal-tracking-and-safe-magnetic-manipulation-of-ependymal-cells-in-live-rodent
#3
Peng Yung-Kang, Cathy N P Lui, Yu-Wei Chen, Shang-Wei Chou, Chou Pi-Tai, Ken K L Yung, Edman Chi Tsang
Tagging recognition group(s) on superparamagnetic iron oxide is known to aid localization (imaging), stimulation and separation of biological entities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic agitation/separation (MAS) techniques. Despite the wide applicability of iron oxide nanoparticle in T2-weighted MRI and MAS, the quality of image and safe manipulation of exceptionally delicate neural cells in a live brain are currently the key challenges. Here, we demonstrate the engineered manganese oxide clusters-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticle as a MR dual-modal contrast agent (DMCA) for the applications in neural stem cells imaging and magnetic manipulation in live rodent...
October 30, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081477/hydromyelia-in-a-japanese-black-calf
#4
Konosuke Otomaru, Keisuke Ono, Kenta Wataya, Kohei Akioka, Takaaki Ando, Akira Yabuki, Chikara Kubota, Noriaki Miyoshi, Yasuaki Kawasaki
A Japanese Black calf, manifested by clinical signs of inability to stand and extending hind limbs after birth, was investigated clinically and pathologically. In the neurological inspection, gastrocnemius reflex and patellar tendon reflex of the right hind limb were hyperactive, and gastrocnemius reflex and crossed extension reflex of the left hind limb were also hyperactive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination showed a cavity in the cord at the area of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae in T2-weighted imaging...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055382/subdural-effusion-protects-the-aging-brain-from-harmful-ventriculomegaly
#5
Chun-Chih Liao, Furen Xiao
The human brain loses its volume and its function during aging. The solid part of the brain within the intracranial space, the brain parenchyma, decreases in volume with age; while the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume increases. With progressive loss of brain parenchymal volume (BPV), CSF may shift from cerebral ventricles to the subdural space, forming subdural effusion (SDE), whose role in the brain aging process remains unclear. We hypothesize that damages associated with ventriculomegaly can be lessened after formation of SDE...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024103/functional-interleukin-6-receptor-%C3%AE-is-located-to-tanycytes-at-the-base-of-the-third-ventricle
#6
Fredrik Anesten, Cristiano Santos, Edwin Gidestrand, Erik Schéle, Vilborg Pálsdóttir, Teodor Swedung-Wettervik, Björn Meister, Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, John-Olov Jansson
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) (-) /(-) mice develop mature onset obesity, while intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of IL-6 decreases obesity in rodents. Moreover, levels of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be inversely correlated with obesity in humans. Tanycytes lining the base of the 3(rd) ventricle in the hypothalamus have recently been reported to be of importance for metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether tanycytes could respond to IL-6 in the CSF. With immunohistochemistry using a well characterized antibody directed against the ligand binding receptor for IL-6, IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα), it was found that tanycytes, identified by the two markers vimentin and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), contained IL-6Rα...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987163/cellular-reactions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Gabor G Kovacs
Major cell types of the central nervous system comprise neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia), choroid plexus cells, cells related to blood vessels and coverings. These cells show a wide range of reactions to various noxious agents, which can be detected in routine stainings. Some of these reactions are nonspecific to different injuries; however some, such as the appearance of inclusion bodies, can be highly disease-specific. Immunohistochemical markers are widely used in neuropathologic diagnostic practice and help to understand the pathogenesis of diseases...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980312/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-are-activated-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#8
Eab Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975373/the-impact-of-thyroid-hormone-in-seasonal-breeding-has-a-restricted-transcriptional-signature
#9
Didier Lomet, Juliette Cognié, Didier Chesneau, Emeric Dubois, David Hazlerigg, Hugues Dardente
Thyroid hormone (TH) directs seasonal breeding through reciprocal regulation of TH deiodinase (Dio2/Dio3) gene expression in tanycytes in the ependymal zone of the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH). Thyrotropin secretion by the pars tuberalis (PT) is a major photoperiod-dependent upstream regulator of Dio2/Dio3 gene expression. Long days enhance thyrotropin production, which increases Dio2 expression and suppresses Dio3 expression, thereby heightening TH signaling in the MBH. Short days appear to exert the converse effect...
October 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965234/clinical-responses-of-patients-with-diffuse-leptomeningeal-glioneuronal-tumors-to-chemotherapy
#10
Dolly Aguilera, Robert Craig Castellino, Anna Janss, Mathew Schniederjan, Renee McNall, Tobey MacDonald, Claire Mazewski
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumors (DLGT) have been recognized in the most recent WHO classification as a distinct entity. OBJECTIVE: We describe seven pediatric cases of DLGT and the responses to therapy and outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of charts from 1985 to 2013. RESULTS: DBS is an effective therapeutic modality for intractable TLE, particularly in patients with lateralized EEG A total of seven patients were identified...
September 30, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942513/loco-regional-extensions-of-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumors-a-retrospective-radiological-analysis-of-100-patients
#11
Loïc Duron, Flavie Sadones, Philippe Thiesse, Cécile Cellier, Claire Alapetite, François Doz, Didier Frappaz, Hervé J Brisse
PURPOSE: The current staging system of central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCT) includes a binary classification in "localized" or "metastatic" disease based on the absence or presence of leptomeningeal dissemination. Loco-regional tumor dissemination has been barely described whereas its accurate definition might be useful in terms of prognosis and treatment, especially for radiation therapy planning. Our purpose was therefore to describe MR patterns and prevalence of loco-regional extensions of these tumors...
September 23, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931858/loss-of-p73-in-ependymal-cells-during-the-perinatal-period-leads-to-aqueductal-stenosis
#12
Masashi Fujitani, Ryohei Sato, Toshihide Yamashita
The p53 family member p73 plays a critical role in brain development. p73 knockout mice exhibit a number of deficits in the nervous system, such as neuronal death, hydrocephalus, hippocampal dysgenesis, and pheromonal defects. Among these phenotypes, the mechanisms of hydrocephalus remain unknown. In this study, we generated a p73 knock-in (KI) mutant mouse and a conditional p73 knockout mouse. The homozygous KI mutants showed aqueductal stenosis. p73 was expressed in the ependymal cell layer and several brain areas...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Jing-Yi Sun, Lei-Lei Mao, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882119/aggregation-prone-gfap-mutation-in-alexander-disease-validated-using-a-zebrafish-model
#14
So-Hyun Lee, Tai-Seung Nam, Kun-Hee Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Woong Yoon, Suk-Hee Heo, Min Jung Kim, Boo Ahn Shin, Ming-Der Perng, Hyon E Choy, Jihoon Jo, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Seok-Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is an astrogliopathy that predominantly affects the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS), and is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament primarily expressed in astrocytes and ependymal cells. The main pathologic feature of AxD is the presence of Rosenthal fibers (RFs), homogeneous eosinophilic inclusions found in astrocytes. Because of difficulties in procuring patient' CNS tissues and the presence of RFs in other pathologic conditions, there is a need to develop an in vivo assay that can determine whether a mutation in the GFAP results in aggregation and is thus disease-causing...
September 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870825/prolonged-but-non-permanent-expression-of-a-transgene-in-ependymal-cells-of-adult-rats-using-an-adenovirus-mediated-transposon-gene-transfer-system
#15
Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Mari Dezawa, Masaaki Kitada
Ependymal cells have been considered one of prime targets for gene therapy in the central nervous system as they can secrete proteins directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. In this study, we have explored the probability of permanent exogenous gene expression using a combined adenovirus/transposon system. To this end, we created three adenoviruses; adenovirus #1 containing a CAG promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein tagged with a palmitoylation site (palEGFP), whose DNA sequence was flanked by two different Tol2 ends, #2 containing a human FoxJ1 promoter-driven T2TP transposase, and #3 containing an EF-1 alpha promoter-driven T2TP transposase...
November 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870626/immunoreactivity-of-urate-transporters-glut9-and-urat1-is-located-in-epithelial-cells-of-the-choroid-plexus-of-human-brains
#16
Naoya Uemura, Ryuta Murakami, Yoichi Chiba, Ken Yanase, Ryuji Fujihara, Masato Mashima, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Gotaro Shirakami, Masaki Ueno
It has been suggested that urate plays a protective role in neurons, while hyperuricemia is correlated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, whether there is a system that directly transports urate into the brain remains to be clarified. In this study, the localization of glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) and urate transporter 1 (URAT1), which are known to be representative reabsorptive urate transporters, was immunohistochemically examined in autopsied human brains. Immunoreactivity of GLUT9 was observed on the apical side of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and in the cilia of ependymal cells of the human brain...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869691/bone-morphogenetic-protein-promotes-lewis-x-stage-specific-embryonic-antigen-1-expression-thereby-interfering-with-neural-precursor-and-stem-cell-proliferation
#17
Inma Luque-Molina, Priti Khatri, Udo Schmidt-Edelkraut, Ina K Simeonova, Gabriele Hölzl-Wenig, Claudi Mandl, Francesca Ciccolini
The glycoprotein Prominin-1 and the carbohydrate Lewis X stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (LeX-SSEA1) both have been extensively used as cell surface markers to purify neural stem cells (NSCs). While Prominin-1 labels a specialized membrane region in NSCs and ependymal cells, the specificity of LeX-SSEA1 expression and its biological significance are still unknown. To address these issues, we have here monitored the expression of the carbohydrate in neonatal and adult NSCs and in their progeny. Our results show that the percentage of immunopositive cells and the levels of LeX-SSEA1 immunoreactivity both increase with postnatal age across all stages of the neural lineage...
September 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863455/characterization-of-2-novel-ependymoma-cell-lines-with-chromosome-1q-gain-derived-from-posterior-fossa-tumors-of-childhood
#18
Vladimir Amani, Andrew M Donson, Seth C Lummus, Eric W Prince, Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Todd C Hankinson, Michael H Handler, Kathleen Dorris, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, Lindsey M Hoffman
Ependymoma (EPN) is a common brain tumor of childhood that, despite standard surgery and radiation therapy, has a relapse rate of 50%. Clinical trials have been unsuccessful in improving outcome by addition of chemotherapy, and identification of novel therapeutics has been hampered by a lack of in vitro and in vivo models. We describe 2 unique EPN cell lines (811 and 928) derived from recurrent intracranial metastases. Both cell lines harbor the high-risk chromosome 1q gain (1q+) and a derivative chromosome 6, and both are classified as molecular group A according to transcriptomic analysis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835663/choroid-plexitis-and-ependymitis-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-biomarkers-of-neuronal-damage-and-inflammation-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis
#19
Dima A Hammoud, Eman Mahdi, Anil A Panackal, Paul Wakim, Virginia Sheikh, Irini Sereti, Bibi Bielakova, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. We then correlated the imaging findings in a subset of HIV- subjects (n = 17) to CSF levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL), reflective of axonal damage and sCD27, known to best predict the presence of intrathecal T-cell mediated inflammation...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833469/clinicopathologic-features-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-24-cats-with-histopathologically-confirmed-neurologic-feline-infectious-peritonitis
#20
A H Crawford, A L Stoll, D Sanchez-Masian, A Shea, J Michaels, A R Fraser, E Beltran
BACKGROUND: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most common infectious central nervous system (CNS) disease in the cat and is invariably fatal. Improved means of antemortem diagnosis is required to facilitate clinical decision making. Information regarding the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of neurologic FIP currently is limited, resulting in the need for better descriptions to optimize its use as a diagnostic tool. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathologic features and MRI findings in cases of confirmed neurologic FIP...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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