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Coronary computed tomography angiography

K L Yew, Z Kang, A Anum
Coronary artery anomalies are often discovered incidentally during cardiac catheterization or computed tomography coronary angiography and may involve the affected coronary artery origin and its course. Coronary artery anomalies are associated with congenital heart disease. The affected coronary arteries may have an unusual high take off origin, origin from contralateral or non-coronary sinus, origin from the pulmonary artery, single coronary system or coronary artery fistula.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Helle Precht, Pieter H Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Jouke Dijkstra, Oke Gerke, Jesper Thygesen, Kenneth Egstrup, Jess Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Daniel Verdini, Daniel Vargas, Anderson Kuo, Brian Ghoshhajra, Phillip Kim, Horacio Murillo, Jacobo Kirsch, Michael Lane, Carlos Restrepo
PURPOSE: Coronary-pulmonary arterial fistulas (CPAFs) are rare coronary artery anomalies that have been described only in limited case reports. This study aims to evaluate the clinical presentation and imaging findings of CPAFs collected from 6 participating medical centers along with CPAFs reported in the literature, to discern any general trends present in CPAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 cases of CPAF diagnosed by coronary computed tomography angiography were collected across 6 participating institutions...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Siroon Bekkering, Inge van den Munckhof, Tim Nielen, Evert Lamfers, Charles Dinarello, Joost Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Marc E R Gomes, Niels P Riksen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have recently reported that monocytes can undergo functional and transcriptional reprogramming towards a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype after brief in vitro exposure to atherogenic stimuli such as oxidized LDL. This process is termed 'trained immunity', and is mediated by epigenetic remodeling and a metabolic switch towards increased aerobic glycolysis. We hypothesize that trained immunity contributes to atherogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the inflammatory phenotype and epigenetic remodeling of monocytes from patients with and without established atherosclerosis...
October 12, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Yoriaki Matsumoto, Takanori Masuda, Yukari Yamashita, Takayuki Oku, Hirofumi Uyama, Tomoyasu Sato, Naoyuki Imada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of vessel visibility and radiation dose using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) method with low tube voltage in coronary computed tomography angiography (c-CTA). METHODS: We performed electrocardiogram-gated scan of 2.0-mm diameter simulated vessel in the center of the cardiac phantom by the use of a 64-detector CT scanner. Reference CNR was calculated from the target coronary CT number (CTnumberA; 350 Hounsfield units [HU]), epicardial fat CT number (CTnumberB; -100 HU), and target epicardial fat standard deviation (SD) number (SDB; 25 HU) at the 120 kV...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Vladimir Dedovic, Goran Stankovic
Despite permanent improvement in success rate and technical developments, chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains undertreated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Dedicated CTO operators from Japan, Europe and USA perform these procedures with success rate beyond 90%, but there is still huge gap between this group of specialists and broader population of PCI operators. Recently proposed CTO scores can be used for patients' selection according to the CTO operators' experience. Patients with low CTO score values may be suitable for less experienced operators at the beginning of the CTO PCI learning curve, while more complex CTOs (higher CTO score values) should be differed to CTO experts...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Toshihiro Shoji, Sho Okada, Yuji Ohno, Atsushi Nakagomi, Yoshihide Fujimoto, Yosihio Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: Pulse wave velocity is a non-invasive method that is useful not only for estimating arterial stiffness but also screening cardiovascular events in the general population. Upstroke time (UT) and % mean artery pressure (% MAP) are novel, adjunctive indices for arterial stiffness that are derived from morphology analysis of the pulse wave during brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurement. Several studies have shown the association between UT and coronary artery calcification score as assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Girish Dwivedi, Yingwei Liu, Shrankhala Tewari, Joao Inacio, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) has the ability to detect, characterize, and quantify atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA-quantified plaque subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with adverse events and 36 Morise score-matched patients who remained event free on follow-up were identified. Using CCTA images, plaque subtype volumes in the major epicardial arteries were analyzed using predetermined attenuation ranges in Hounsfield units (HU): 1 to 30 HU (low attenuating), 31 to 70 HU (intermediate attenuating), 71 to 150 HU (high attenuating), and mean coronary lumen+2 SD to 1000 HU (calcified)...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Jin Gu, He-Shui Shi, Ping Han, Jie Yu, Gui-Na Ma, Sheng Wu
This study sought to compare the image quality and radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) from prospectively triggered 128-slice CT (128-MSCT) versus dual-source 64-slice CT (DSCT). The study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee at Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Eighty consecutive patients with stable heart rates lower than 70 bpm were enrolled. Forty patients were scanned with 128-MSCT, and the other 40 patients were scanned with DSCT...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jack H Boyd, Vedant S Pargaonkar, David H Scoville, Ian S Rogers, Takumi Kimura, Shigemitsu Tanaka, Ryotaro Yamada, Michael P Fischbein, Jennifer A Tremmel, Robert Scott Mitchell, Ingela Schnittger
BACKGROUND: Left anterior descending artery myocardial bridges (MBs) range from clinically insignificant incidental angiographic findings to a potential cause of sudden cardiac death. Within this spectrum, a group of patients with isolated, symptomatic, and hemodynamically significant MBs despite maximally tolerated medical therapy exist for whom the optimal treatment is controversial. We evaluated supraarterial myotomy, or surgical unroofing, of the left anterior descending MBs as an isolated procedure in these patients...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Sara Gaur, Charles A Taylor, Jesper M Jensen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Evald H Christiansen, Anne K Kaltoft, Niels R Holm, Jonathon Leipsic, Christopher K Zarins, Stephan Achenbach, Sophie Khem, Alan Wilk, Hiram G Bezerra, Jens F Lassen, Bjarne L Nørgaard
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the diagnostic performance of noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) (FFRCT) for the diagnosis of lesion-specific ischemia in nonculprit vessels of patients with recent in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: In patients with stable angina, FFRCT has high diagnostic performance in identification of ischemia-causing lesions. The potential value of FFRCT for assessment of multivessel disease in patients with recent STEMI has not been evaluated...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Gianluca Pontone, Laura Fusini, Maria De Luca, Francesco Pio Cafarelli, Marco Guglielmo, Andrea Baggiano, Virginia Beltrama, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Daniele Andreini, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Matteo Di Biase, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between an incremental model including cardiovascular risk factors, carotid disease, and inflammatory biomarkers to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 134 consecutive and asymptomatic intermediate-risk patients (mean age 61 ± 9 years, 52% men) were enrolled. Each subject underwent circulating levels assessment of interleukin (IL)-2r, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and carotid and coronary artery evaluation using carotid ultrasound and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), respectively...
October 14, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Michinobu Nagao, Yuzo Yamasaki, Takeshi Kamitani, Satoshi Kawanami, Masatoshi Kondo, Hiromichi Sonoda, Taisuke Fujioka, Hiroshi Honda
The purpose of this study is to analyze the geometrical characteristics of aortic root and left ventricular (LV) function in aortic stenosis (AS) using 256-slice coronary-computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Retrospective ECG-gated 256-slice CCTA data from 32 patients with tricuspid AS scheduled for aortic valve replacement, and 11 controls were analyzed. Aortic root geometry was measured using multiplanar reconstruction CT images. CCTA data set was transformed into 100 phases/cycle using motion coherence image processing...
October 13, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Dong Jia, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Gang Hou
To evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in differentiating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients with or without right ventricular dysfunction and to evaluate the severity of right ventricular dysfunction in acute PE patients with CPTA. We retrospectively collected and measured the following parameters: right ventricular diameter by short axis in the axial plane (RVDaxial), left ventricular diameter by short axis in the axial plane (LVDaxial), right ventricular diameter by level on the reconstructed four-chamber views (RVD4-CH), left ventricular diameter by level on the reconstructed four-chamber views (LVD4-CH), main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD), ascending aorta diameter (AOD), coronary sinus diameter (CSD), superior vena cava diameter (SVCD), inferior vena cava (IVC) reflux and interventricular septum deviation by CTPA, and we calculated the RVDaxial/LVDaxial, RVD4-CH/LVD4-CH and MPAD/AOD ratios in acute PE patients...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Michal Chmielecki, Milosz Jaguszewski, Aneta Strozyk, Jerzy Gorny, Adam Kern, Marcin Gruchala, Dariusz Ciecwierz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cardiology Journal
Tetsuma Kawaji, Hiroki Shiomi, Hiroshi Morishita, Takeshi Morimoto, Charles A Taylor, Shotaro Kanao, Koji Koizumi, Satoshi Kozawa, Kazuhisa Morihiro, Hirotoshi Watanabe, Junichi Tazaki, Masao Imai, Naritatsu Saito, Satoshi Shizuta, Koh Ono, Kaori Togashi, Takeshi Kimura
Non-invasive fractional flow reserve measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT) has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in selected patients in prior clinical trials. However, feasibility of FFRCT in unselected population have not been fully evaluated. Among 60 consecutive patients who had suspected significant CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and were planned to undergo invasive coronary angiography, 48 patients were enrolled in this study comparing FFRCT with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) without any exclusion criteria for the quality of CCTA image...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Cai-Ying Li, Bu-Lang Gao, Tong Pan, Cheng Xiang, Xue-Jing Zhang, Xiao-Wei Liu, Qiong-Ying Fan
PURPOSE: To quantitatively measure the morphology parameters of the right auricle with 256-slice multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) in healthy people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 200 patients who had undergone coronary MDCTA with negative findings was performed. The raw imaging data were reconstructed and the right auricular volume, right atrial volume, right auricle height, base long and short axes, base perimeter and area, normal angle, and distance were quantitatively measured...
October 7, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
J Tobias Kühl, Thomas S Kristensen, Anna F Thomsen, Louise Hindsø, Kristoffer L Hansen, Olav W Nielsen, Henning Kelbæk, Klaus F Kofoed
BACKGROUND: Signs of pulmonary congestion obtained from cardiac computed tomography angiographic (coronary CTA) images have not previously been related to clinical congestion or outcome and the clinical value is, therefore, unknown. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that signs of pulmonary congestion predict clinical heart failure and adverse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. METHODS: Coronary CTA was performed before invasive treatment in 400 prospectively included patients with non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in an observational study...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Pelbreton C Balfour, Jorge A Gonzalez, Christopher M Kramer
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a significant global public health burden despite advancements in prevention and therapeutic strategies. Common non-invasive imaging modalities, anatomic and functional, are available for the assessment of patients with stable chest pain. Exercise electrocardiography is a long-standing method for evaluation for CAD and remains the initial test for the majority of patients who can exercise adequately with a baseline interpretable electrocardiogram. The addition of cardiac imaging to exercise testing provides incremental benefit for accurate diagnosis for CAD and is particularly useful in patients who are unable to exercise adequately and/or have uninterpretable electrocardiograms...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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