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Nicotine ingestion

Zhu Zhang, Xiaolong Zheng, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Scott J Leischow
BACKGROUND: Dabbing is an emerging method of marijuana ingestion. However, little is known about dabbing owing to limited surveillance data on dabbing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze Google search data to assess the scope and breadth of information seeking on dabbing. METHODS: Google Trends data about dabbing and related topics (eg, electronic nicotine delivery system [ENDS], also known as e-cigarettes) in the United States between January 2004 and December 2015 were collected by using relevant search terms such as "dab rig...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Joseph G Lisko, Grace E Lee, J Brett Kimbrell, Michael E Rybak, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
INTRODUCTION: Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive...
July 25, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Philip J F Leute, Isabel Hoffmann, Ahmed Hammad, Stefan Lakemeier, Hans-Michael Klinger, Mike H Baums
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty is likely related to nicotine ingestion. However, aseptic loosening as a direct consequence of smoking habits has not been described with regard to proximal mega-prosthetic femoral replacement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between nicotine consumption and aseptic loosening rates after proximal mega-prosthetic femoral replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of patients who received mega-prosthetic replacement of the proximal femur at our hospital between 2005 and 2015 were included...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
My Hua, Prue Talbot
The health risks associated with electronic cigarettes (ECs) are largely unknown. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate published case reports that deal with health effects attributed to EC use. An Internet search was conducted to identify case reports dealing with the effects of EC use on health. Twenty-six case reports representing 27 individuals (one study contained reports for two individuals) were published between April 2012 and January 2016, and these were grouped into categories of effect according to their health outcomes...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Gundong You, Jongsook Rhee, Yuran Park, Sunhye Park
Nicotine is a potent neurotoxin alkaloid and is used in e-cigarette liquid. The LC/MS/MS method was linear over 0.01-1.0 mg/L (r(2) = 0.992-0.995). Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.001 mg/L (S/N = 3) and 0.003 (S/N = 10). The inaccuracy and imprecision were <13.2%. The recoveries were >99.3%. A 39-year-old dentist was found dead lying on the floor under the couch in his dental clinic. The concentration of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (heart blood/peripheral blood) was analyzed as follows: 87...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Kinning Poon, Sarah F Leibowitz
Correlative human observational studies on substances of abuse have been highly dependent on the use of rodent models to determine the neuronal and molecular mechanisms that control behavioral outcomes. This is particularly true for gestational exposure to non-illicit substances of abuse, such as excessive dietary fat, ethanol, and nicotine, which are commonly consumed in our society. Exposure to these substances during the prenatal period has been shown in offspring to increase their intake of these substances, induce other behavioral changes, and affect neurochemical systems in several brain areas that are known to control behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Nóris Scaglia, José Chatkin, Kenneth R Chapman, Ivone Ferreira, Mario Wagner, Peter Selby, Johane Allard, Noe Zamel
BACKGROUND: Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Samuel L Torrens, José L Areta, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley
PURPOSE: We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of Nicotinic acid (NA) and pre-exercise feeding on rates of whole-body substrate utilisation and cycling time trial (TT) performance. METHODS: In a randomised, single-blind, crossover design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes completed two series of TTs in which they performed a predetermined amount of work calculated to last ~60, 90 and 120 min. TTs were undertaken after a standardised breakfast (2 g kg(-1) BM of carbohydrate (CHO)) and ingestion of capsules containing either NA or placebo (PL)...
April 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yang Qu, Jinhua Chen, Chenge Li, Qiang Wang, Wenchao Guo, Zhaojun Han, Weihua Jiang
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ACh-gated ion channels. It is believed that nAChRs composed of different subunits may vary in their function and toxicological characteristics. Neonicotinoids are activators of nAChRs and important insecticides that are extensively used for crop protection and resistance has been developed by some pests. They are also major insecticides for the control of Leptinotarsa decemlineata, which is a destructive defoliator pest that invaded the Xinjiang region of China in the 1990s...
February 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Erik Nesson
This paper uses unconditional quantile regression to estimate whether smokers' responses to tobacco control policies change across the distribution of smoking levels. I measure smoking behavior with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and also with serum cotinine levels, a continuous biomarker of nicotine exposure, using individual-level repeated cross-section data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. I find that the cigarette taxes lead to reductions in both the number of cigarettes smoked per day and in smokers' cotinine levels...
December 1, 2015: Health Economics
Giovanni Maina, Carlotta Castagnoli, Valter Passini, Matteo Crosera, Gianpiero Adami, Marcella Mauro, Francesca Larese Filon
The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0...
February 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jill J Leckey, Louise M Burke, James P Morton, John A Hawley
We determined the effect of suppressing lipolysis via administration of nicotinic acid (NA) on fuel substrate selection and half-marathon running capacity. In a single-blinded, Latin square design, 12 competitive runners completed four trials involving treadmill running until volitional fatigue at a pace based on 95% of personal best half-marathon time. Trials were completed in a fed or overnight fasted state: 1) carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion before (2 g CHO·kg(-1)·body mass(-1)) and during (44 g/h) [CFED]; 2) CFED plus NA ingestion [CFED-NA]; 3) fasted with placebo ingestion during [FAST]; and 4) FAST plus NA ingestion [FAST-NA]...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Ana C Dutra-Tavares, Alex C Manhães, Juliana O Silva, André L Nunes-Freitas, Ellen P S Conceição, Egberto G Moura, Patrícia C Lisboa, Cláudio C Filgueiras, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
Undernutrition during brain development causes long lasting alterations in different neurotransmitter systems that may alter responses to psychoactive drugs. Despite the recognized effects of early undernutrition on the cholinergic system, no evidence that demonstrates the influence of this insult on nicotine susceptibility has been reported. We investigated the effects of protein/calorie restriction during lactation on the susceptibility to nicotine in adolescent mice. Dams were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Control (C, 20 litters)--free access to standard laboratory diet (23% protein); Protein Restricted (PR, 12 litters)--free access to a isoenergetic, 8% protein diet; Calorie Restricted (CR, 12 litters)--access to standard laboratory diet in restricted quantities (mean ingestion of PR: pair-fed group)...
December 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Betty C Chen, Steven B Bright, Amit Raj Trivedi, Matthew Valento
CONTEXT: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is growing within the United States, resulting in both intentional and unintentional exposures to concentrated liquid nicotine or "e-liquid." Nicotine has been culpable for severe poisoning and deaths in the past. However, sources of nicotine have traditionally been from cigarettes, cigars, or pesticides. Fatalities due to liquid nicotine are rare, and fatalities following ingestion of e-liquid are even scarcer. CASE: We present a case of a 24-year-old woman who intentionally ingested up to 3000 mg of liquid nicotine intended for e-cigarette use...
November 2015: Clinical Toxicology
Konstantinos E Farsalinos, Jacques Le Houezec
Tobacco smoking is the largest single preventable cause of many chronic diseases and death. Effective treatments exist; however, few smokers use them and most try to quit by themselves. Most of the tobacco cigarette's toxicity is related to the combustion process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that switching from inhalation of combustible products to a noncombustible nicotine delivery product would likely result in a vast reduction in tobacco-related death and illness. Currently available evidence raises no doubt that electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are by far less harmful than smoking (although probably not absolutely safe) and have the potential to be the most effective tobacco harm reduction products due to their unique property of resembling smoking and providing satisfaction to the user...
2015: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Sheela R Geraghty, Kelly McNamara, Jesse J Kwiek, Lynette Rogers, Mark A Klebanoff, Molly Augustine, Sarah A Keim
BACKGROUND: Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols...
November 2015: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Eugenia H Theophilus, Johnnie R Hayes, Paul H Ayres, Walter T Morgan, Ryan J Potts, Charles D Garner, Dawn M Fallacara, Milton R Hejtmancik, Allen W Singer
UNLABELLED: A comprehensive 2-year oral chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study was conducted with smokeless tobacco using modern toxicological test methods and well-accepted standards. The study included a 1-year interim subgroup to assess toxicity at that intermediate time point. Test groups consisted of a tobacco blend (B) used in snus, and an aqueous tobacco extract of that tobacco blend (E) administered at 0.2, 2, or 5 mg nicotine/kg body weight/day via dosed feed to male and female Wistar Han rats...
October 2015: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
S Lerch-Henning, S W Nicolson
The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites...
December 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Angela N Duke, Matthew W Johnson, Chad J Reissig, Roland R Griffiths
RATIONALE: Global tobacco-related mortality dwarfs that of all other drugs. Nicotine is believed to be the primary agent responsible for tobacco use and addiction. However, nicotine is a relatively weak and inconsistent reinforcer in nonhumans and nicotine reinforcement has not been demonstrated in never-smokers. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the discriminative, subjective, and reinforcing effects of nicotine in never-smokers. METHODS: Eighteen never-smokers (< 50 lifetime nicotine exposures) participated in a double-blind study...
December 2015: Psychopharmacology
P Nisse, R Majchrzak, J Ph Kahn, P A Mielcarek, M Mathieu-Nolf
Chlormequat chloride is a plant growth regulator. Chlormequat poisoning clinically resembles anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning. The cholinergic symptoms result from direct action on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors and not from inhibition of the cholinesterase activity. This case series confirms the extreme gravity of chlomequat poisoning with a risk of death in the hour following ingestion.
November 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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