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Nicotine ingestion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742227/symptomatic-bradycardia-due-to-nicotine-intoxication
#1
Jin Hui Paik, Soo Kang, Areum Durey, Ji Hye Kim, Ah Jin Kim
Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686144/e-cigarette-and-liquid-nicotine-exposures-among-young-children
#2
Preethi Govindarajan, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
OBJECTIVES: To investigate exposures to liquid nicotine (including electronic cigarette devices and liquids) among children <6 years old in the United States and evaluate the impact of legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for liquid nicotine containers. METHODS: Liquid nicotine exposure data from the National Poison Data System for January 2012 through April 2017 were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 8269 liquid nicotine exposures among children <6 years old reported to US poison control centers during the study period...
April 23, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495133/the-emerging-method-of-suicide-by-electronic-cigarette-liquid-a-case-report
#3
Eun Jung Park, Young Gi Min
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are a device that aerosolize liquid nicotine by heating a solution of nicotine, glycerol and flavoring agents. The awareness and the usage of ECs has increased in many countries. Due to the online sales and the absence of EC regulations, the prevalence of EC usage is especially high in adolescents and young adults. Due to the large amount and the high nicotine concentration of EC liquid, the ingestion for suicide can lead to cardiac death. We had two patients, a 27-year-old male who ingested about 23 mg/kg of nicotine and a 17-year-old female who ingested about 30 mg/kg of nicotine...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481849/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-biomarkers-of-flavoring-and-flavor-enhancing-chemicals-in-emerging-tobacco-and-non-tobacco-products
#4
REVIEW
Gurjot Kaur, Thivanka Muthumalage, Irfan Rahman
Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468817/urinary-excretion-of-niacin-metabolites-in-humans-after-coffee-consumption
#5
Jonathan Isaak Kremer, Katharina Gömpel, Tamara Bakuradze, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Elke Richling
SCOPE: Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34...
April 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453755/effect-of-nicotine-on-repeated-bouts-of-anaerobic-exercise-in-nicotine-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#6
Robert Johnston, Melissa Crowe, Kenji Doma
PURPOSE: Nicotine is a psychostimulant that is reported to be commonly supplemented by athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a rapidly absorbed form of nicotine on repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise, perception of exertion and a range of cardiovascular variables while monitoring side effect profiles. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, nicotine naïve male athletes (24.1 ± 5.3 years, 179.0 ± 8.8 cm, 81.7 ± 13.5 kg, BMI 25...
April 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384774/what-the-advanced-practice-nurse-in-the-emergency-department-needs-to-know-about-the-health-risks-and-hazards-of-electronic-cigarette-use-by-youth
#7
Darlie Simerson
Despite the decline in traditional tobacco use among teens and young adults, the rapid increase in electronic cigarette (EC) use has filled the gap, raising concern that this will usher in a new generation of tobacco users. Although long-term effects have not been clearly established, EC use is not without risks or hazards that may be encountered by the advanced practice nurse in the emergency department (ED). The ED presents an opportune moment for health promotion and risk reduction education for patients and families, but there are also dangers to EC use that the practitioner should be aware of and prepared to manage...
January 2018: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318484/the-exposure-to-water-with-cigarette-residue-changes-the-anti-predator-response-in-female-swiss-albino-mice
#8
Letícia Silva Cardoso, Fernanda Neves Estrela, Thales Quintão Chagas, Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Denys Ribeiro de Oliveira Costa, Igor Pereira, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Recent studies have shown that cigarette consumption affects much more than human health. Smoked cigarette butt (SCB) disposal into the environment can bring little-known negative biological consequences to mammals, since it contains many organic and inorganic toxic chemical constituents. Thus, we aim at assessing whether the ingestion of water with leached SCB for 60 days by female Swiss mice changes their defensive behavioral response to potential predators (cats and snakes). We worked with the following groups of animals: control (pollutant-free water), water with environmental concentration of SCB (1...
March 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132300/plant-mediated-rnai-silences-midgut-expressed-genes-in-congeneric-lepidopteran-insects-in-nature
#10
Spoorthi Poreddy, Jiancai Li, Ian T Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Plant-mediated RNAi (PMRi) silencing of insect genes has enormous potential for crop protection, but whether it works robustly under field conditions, particularly with lepidopteran pests, remains controversial. Wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and cultivated tobacco (N. tabacum) (Solanaceae) is attacked by two closely related specialist herbivores Manduca sexta and M. quinquemaculata (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). When M. sexta larvae attack transgenic N. attenuata plants expressing double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) targeting M...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112285/alcohol-induced-impairment-of-balance-is-antagonized-by-energy-drinks
#11
Cecile A Marczinski, Mark T Fillmore, Amy L Stamates, Sarah F Maloney
BACKGROUND: The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. METHODS: Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination...
November 7, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056353/the-ghr-r-antagonist-jmv-2959-neither-induces-malaise-nor-alters-the-malaise-property-of-licl-in-the-adult-male-rat
#12
Juan A Rodriguez, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Paul J Wellman
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin (GHR) interacts with ghrelin receptors (GHR-Rs) to modulate brain reinforcement and feeding circuits. Pharmacological inactivation of GHR-Rs via administration of the drug JMV 2959 attenuates the rewarding/reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, morphine, amphetamine and nicotine. One view of these results is that inactivation of GHR-Rs taps into brain reinforcement/feeding circuits acted upon by drugs of abuse. An alternate explanation is that JMV 2959 may induce malaise, which in turn may limit reinforcement as well as food ingestion...
January 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054611/maternal-undernutrition-during-lactation-alters-nicotine-reward-and-dopac-dopamine-ratio-in-cerebral-cortex-in-adolescent-mice-but-does-not-affect-nicotine-induced-nachrs-upregulation
#13
Ana C Dutra-Tavares, Juliana O Silva, André L Nunes-Freitas, Vinícius M S Guimarães, Ulisses C Araújo, Ellen P S Conceição, Egberto G Moura, Patrícia C Lisboa, Cláudio C Filgueiras, Alex C Manhães, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
Early undernutrition causes long lasting alterations that affect the response to psychoactive drugs. Particularly, undernutrition during lactation affects the acute locomotor response to nicotine during adolescence, but the reward effect of continued exposure to nicotine remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of undernutrition during lactation on the nicotine susceptibility indexed via conditioned place preference (CPP), on dopamine content and turnover and on nicotine-induced nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAChR) upregulation in the cerebral cortex, midbrain and hippocampus of adolescent mice...
April 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992874/poisoning-after-ingestion-of-spartium-junceum-seeds-dose-dependent-effects-in-three-boys
#14
Nuria Giménez, Noemí Magro, Nuria Cortés, Raimon Guitart
BACKGROUND: Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) is an ornamental, medicinal, and potentially poisonous plant. CASE REPORT: Three children, aged 5-6 years, were accidentally poisoned from ingesting a variable number of seeds of Spanish broom. This plant contains several quinolizidine alkaloids as cytisine, which act as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The potential danger varies, depending on the dose. After having ingested one to two seeds, one of the boys was asymptomatic...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991400/resistance-to-cycloxaprid-in-laodelphax-striatellus-is-associated-with-altered-expression-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits
#15
Yueliang Zhang, Yangchun Han, Qiong Yang, Lihua Wang, Peng He, Zewen Liu, Huifang Guo, Jichao Fang
BACKGROUND: Cycloxaprid is a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, the resistance development potential and underlying resistance mechanism of which were investigated in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), an important agricultural pest of rice. RESULTS: A cycloxaprid-resistant strain (YN-CPD) only achieved 10-fold resistance, in contrast to 106-fold resistance to buprofezin and 332-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos achieved after exposure to similar selection pressure, and the cycloxaprid selected line showed no cross-resistance to the buprofezin and chlorpyrifos-selected resistance strains...
October 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987304/death-from-ingestion-of-e-liquid
#16
Stephen Morley, John Slaughter, Paul R Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of e-liquids is becoming more prevalent. There is a risk that such liquids may be ingested by mouth rather than being vaped/ inhaled. Due to the high concentration of drugs such as nicotine in these liquids, there may be toxic, and possibly fatal consequences. CASE REPORT: We report the death of a 32-year-old male who ingested nicotine-containing e-liquid while under the influence of alcohol. A serum sample taken 24 h after collapse contained nicotine at a concentration of 1600 ng/mL of nicotine...
December 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984212/-fatal-intoxication-with-nicotine-for-e-cigarette
#17
D H van der Meer, A D Pranger, I Jansen, E B Wilms, H Kieft, J G Maring
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of the electronic e-cigarette a few years ago, its use has greatly increased. The liquid formulations used in these e-cigarettes contain nicotine in high concentrations; ingestion of these liquids can be fatal. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 42-year-old male was admitted to the Intensive Care ward due to cardiac arrest. The patient had ingested highly concentrated liquid nicotine, originating from a vial with liquid for e-cigarettes. When the ambulance personnel found the patient he did not have a pulse; following CPR and administration of adrenaline his pulse returned...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859890/comprehensive-determination-of-flavouring-additives-and-nicotine-in-e-cigarette-refill-solutions-part-ii-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#18
Justyna Aszyk, Mateusz Kacper Woźniak, Paweł Kubica, Agata Kot-Wasik, Jacek Namieśnik, Andrzej Wasik
Flavouring compounds are an essential part of e-liquid products for cigarettes. In general, they are regarded as safe for ingestion, but they may have unrecognized risks when they are inhaled. In some cases, manufactures do not currently abide by the Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) and do not declare the detailed contents of e-liquids on their labels. To help evaluate the health impact of flavouring substances, there is a need for comprehensive approaches to determine their concentrations in e-liquids...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775316/efficient-functional-neutralization-of-lethal-peptide-toxins-in-vivo-by-oligonucleotides
#19
Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, Corinne Ravelet, Jordi Molgo, Emmanuelle Fiore, Simon Pale, Muriel Amar, Sawsan Al-Khoury, Jérôme Dejeu, Mahmoud Fadl, Michel Ronjat, Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Denis Servent, Eric Peyrin, Michel De Waard
Medical means to save the life of human patients affected by drug abuse, envenomation or critical poisoning are currently limited. While the compounds at risks are most often well identified, particularly for bioterrorism, chemical intervention to counteract the toxic effects of the ingested/injected compound(s) is restricted to the use of antibodies. Herein, we illustrate that DNA aptamers, targeted to block the pharmacophore of a poisonous compound, represent a fast-acting and reliable method of neutralization in vivo that possesses efficient and long-lasting life-saving properties...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622813/evaluation-of-drug-use-and-medication-compliance-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-psychiatric-facility-from-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#20
George Sam Wang, Genie Roosevelt, Amy Becker, Lina Brou, Jeffrey L Galinkin
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of drug use and medication compliance during mental health evaluation can help guide evaluation and treatment. The objective was to evaluate drug use and medication compliance in a pediatric emergency department (PED) psychiatric population by comparing medical history, standard urine drug screen (EIA), and expanded urine drug screen (HPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of admitted psychiatric patients ≥13years and ≤18years in a tertiary-care children's hospital psychiatric ED from January 31, 2013 through April 16, 2014...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
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