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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934697/detection-of-bcg-bacteria-using-a-magnetoresistive-biosensor-a-step-towards-a-fully-electronic-platform-for-tuberculosis-point-of-care-detection
#1
Teresa G Barroso, Rui C Martins, Elisabete Fernandes, Susana Cardoso, José Rivas, Paulo P Freitas
Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns. This highly contagious disease affects more than 10.4 million people, being a leading cause of morbidity by infection. Tuberculosis is diagnosed at the point-of-care by the Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy test. Ziehl-Neelsen is laborious, prone to human error and infection risk, with a limit of detection of 10(4) cells/mL. In resource-poor nations, a more practical test, with lower detection limit, is paramount. This work uses a magnetoresistive biosensor to detect BCG bacteria for tuberculosis diagnosis...
September 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934695/type-1-diabetes-and-viral-infections-what-is-the-relationship
#2
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Maria Giulia Berioli, Sonia Bianchini, Susanna Esposito
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder in children. Epigenetic and environmental factors capable of altering the penetrance of major susceptibility genes or capable of increasing the penetrance of low-risk genes are currently thought to play a role in triggering autoimmunity and T1D development. This paper discusses the current knowledge of the role of viruses in T1D. Most studies that have evaluated the potential association between viral infections and T1D have indicated that it is highly likely that some of these infectious agents play a role in T1D development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934665/venous-thromboembolism-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-retrospective-incidence-and-intrapopulation-risk-factors
#3
Jessica Knight-Perry, Brian R Branchford, Dianne Thornhill, Stacey L Martiniano, Scott D Sagel, Michael Wang
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but serious medical condition. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a risk for recurrent pediatric VTE and has potential thrombophilic tendency. However, much remains unknown, including incidence and intrapopulation risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of pediatric CF patients followed at Children's Hospital Colorado from January 1st 2003 through May 20th 2016 was examined. Cases were identified by informatics and validated manually...
September 5, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934511/multi-drug-resistant-surgical-site-infection-due-to-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex
#4
Richa Misra, Vidhi Jain, Nidhi Tejan, Aarti Negi, Jyoti Umrao, Tapan Nirodhechand Dhole
M. abscessus complex is notoriously resistant to most antimicrobial agents. The complex is differentiated into 3 subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. Skin and soft tissue infections due to this organism can be acquired by direct contact with contaminated material through traumatic injury, surgical wound and environmental exposure or by secondary involvement of skin/soft tissue during disseminated disease. We report a case of Mycobacterium abscessus infection recovered from a post-operative mid-line abdominal wound to illustrate the diagnostic and management difficulties encountered in such patients...
August 1, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934462/clusters-of-human-infections-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-china-march-2013-to-june-2015
#5
Bo Liu, Fiona P Havers, Lei Zhou, Haojie Zhong, Xianjun Wang, Shenghua Mao, Hai Li, Ruiqi Ren, Nijuan Xiang, Yuelong Shu, Suizan Zhou, Fuqiang Liu, Enfu Chen, Yanping Zhang, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Qun Li, Zijian Feng
Multiple clusters of human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have occurred since the virus was first identified in spring 2013. However, in many situations it is unclear whether these clusters result from person-to-person transmission or exposure to a common infectious source. We analyzed the possibility of person-to-person transmission in each cluster and developed a framework to assess the likelihood that person-to-person transmission had occurred. We described 21 clusters with 22 infected contact cases that were identified by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from March 2013 through June 2015...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934460/commentary-a-historical-review-of-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-antiviral-treatment-and-postexposure-chemoprophylaxis-guidance-for-human-infections-with-novel-influenza-a-viruses-associated-with-severe-human-disease
#6
Fiona P Havers, Angela P Campbell, Timothy M Uyeki, Alicia M Fry
Human infections with novel influenza A viruses are of global public health concern, and antiviral medications have a potentially important role in treatment and prevention of human illness. Initial guidance was developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after the emergence of human infections with avian influenza A(H5N1) and has evolved over time, with identification of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in humans, as well as detection of avian influenza viruses in birds in the United States...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934458/risk-of-human-infections-with-highly-pathogenic-h5n2-and-low-pathogenic-h7n1-avian-influenza-strains-during-outbreaks-in-ostriches-in-south-africa
#7
Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Rudo Samudzi, Johanna McAnerney, Charlene A Jacobs, Juno Thomas, Lucille Blumberg
Background: Risk factors for human infection with highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H5N2 and H7N1 were investigated during outbreaks in ostriches in the Western Cape province, South Africa. Methods: Serum surveys were conducted for veterinarians, farmworkers, and laboratory and abattoir workers involved in 2 AI outbreaks in the Western Cape province: (1) controlling and culling of 42000 ostriches during (HPAI)H5N2 outbreaks in ostriches (2011) (n = 207); (2) movement control during (LPAI)H7N1 outbreaks in 2012 (n = 66)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934454/assessment-of-molecular-antigenic-and-pathological-features-of-canine-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-that-emerged-in-the-united-states
#8
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Natosha Simpson, Hua Yang, Hannah M Creager, Joyce Jones, Paul Carney, Jessica A Belser, Genyan Yang, Jessie Chang, Hui Zeng, Sharmi Thor, Yunho Jang, Mary Lea Killian, Melinda Jenkins-Moore, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Edward Dubovi, David E Wentworth, James Stevens, Terrence M Tumpey, C Todd Davis, Taronna R Maines
Background: A single subtype of canine influenza virus (CIV), A(H3N8), was circulating in the United States until a new subtype, A(H3N2), was detected in Illinois in spring 2015. Since then, this CIV has caused thousands of infections in dogs in multiple states. Methods: In this study, genetic and antigenic properties of the new CIV were evaluated. In addition, structural and glycan array binding features of the recombinant hemagglutinin were determined. Replication kinetics in human airway cells and pathogenesis and transmissibility in animal models were also assessed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934453/an-adjuvanted-a-h5n1-subvirion-vaccine-elicits-virus-specific-antibody-response-and-improves-protection-against-lethal-influenza-viral-challenge-in-mouse-model-of-protein-energy-malnutrition
#9
Enitra N Jones, Samuel Amoah, Weiping Cao, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Shivaprakash Gangappa
Background: Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including influenza infection, but no studies have addressed the potential influences of PEM on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of avian influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. Methods: We investigated the role of PEM on vaccine-mediated protection after a lethal challenge with recombinant A(H5N1) virus using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18% protein) or very low protein (VLP; 2% protein) in an established murine model of influenza vaccination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934432/intestinal-damage-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-infected-zimbabwean-infants
#10
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
Background: Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. Methods: We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934431/genetic-profiling-and-comorbidities-of-zika-infection
#11
Mohammad Ali Moni, Pietro Lio'
Background: The difficulty in distinguishing infection by Zika virus (ZIKV) from other flaviviruses is a global health concern, particularly given the high risk of neurologic complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome [GBS]) with ZIKV infection. Methods: We developed quantitative frameworks to compare and explore infectome, diseasome, and comorbidity of ZIKV infections. We analyzed gene expression microarray and RNA-Seq data from ZIKV, West Nile fever (WNF), chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, GBS, and control datasets...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934428/hiv-infected-children-have-elevated-levels-of-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-with-low-proliferative-capacity-and-high-inflammatory-cytokine-effector-functions
#12
Julia Foldi, Lina Kozhaya, Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Tiina Ilmet, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. Methods: In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934421/a-zebrafish-model-of-mycobacterium-leprae-granulomatous-infection
#13
Cressida A Madigan, James Cameron, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934420/higher-prevalence-and-faster-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-middle-aged-individuals-compared-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-uninfected-controls
#14
Katherine W Kooij, Liffert Vogt, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Marc van der Valk, Rosan A van Zoest, Abraham Goorhuis, Maria Prins, Frank A Post, Peter Reiss
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute. Methods: We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934415/first-report-of-urease-activity-in-the-novel-systemic-fungal-pathogen-emergomyces-africanus-a-comparison-with-the-neurotrope-cryptococcus-neoformans
#15
Barbra Lerm, Chris Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz, Heinrich Kroukamp, Riaan de Witt, Nelesh P Govender, G Sybren de Hoog, Alfred Botha
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for the AIDS-defining illness, cryptococcal meningitis. During the disease process, entry of cryptococcal cells into the brain is facilitated by virulence factors that include urease enzyme activity. A novel species of an Emmonsia-like fungus, recently named Emergomyces africanus, was identified as a cause of disseminated mycosis in HIV-infected persons in South Africa. However, in contrast to C. neoformans, the enzymes produced by this fungus, some of which may be involved in pathogenesis, have not been described...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#16
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934369/in-vivo-activation-of-latent-hiv-with-a-synthetic-bryostatin-analog-effects-both-latent-cell-kick-and-kill-in-strategy-for-virus-eradication
#17
Matthew D Marsden, Brian A Loy, Xiaomeng Wu, Christina M Ramirez, Adam J Schrier, Danielle Murray, Akira Shimizu, Steven M Ryckbosch, Katherine E Near, Tae-Wook Chun, Paul A Wender, Jerome A Zack
The ability of HIV to establish a long-lived latent infection within resting CD4+ T cells leads to persistence and episodic resupply of the virus in patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), thereby preventing eradication of the disease. Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators such as bryostatin 1 can activate these latently infected cells, potentially leading to their elimination by virus-mediated cytopathic effects, the host's immune response and/or therapeutic strategies targeting cells actively expressing virus...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934361/restriction-modification-mediated-barriers-to-exogenous-dna-uptake-and-incorporation-employed-by-prevotella-intermedia
#18
Christopher D Johnston, Chelsey A Skeete, Alexey Fomenkov, Richard J Roberts, Susan R Rittling
Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontal pathogen, is increasingly implicated in human respiratory tract and cystic fibrosis lung infections. Nevertheless, the specific mechanisms employed by this pathogen remain only partially characterized and poorly understood, largely due to its total lack of genetic accessibility. Here, using Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) genome and methylome sequencing, bisulfite sequencing, in addition to cloning and restriction analysis, we define the specific genetic barriers to exogenous DNA present in two of the most widespread laboratory strains, P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#19
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934311/characteristics-and-risk-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-of-liver-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#20
Chien-Ting Chen, Chun-Yu Liu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Chia-Jen Liu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jing-Hwang Liu, Yao-Chung Liu
Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Among various organ-specific cGvHD, the cGvHD of liver is less well-characterized. In this study, we applied the National Institutes of Health 2014 scoring criteria of cGvHD to analyze a retrospective cohort of 362 allo-HSCT recipients focusing on cGvHD of liver. The overall incidence of liver cGvHD with a score of 3 by 1.5 years post-transplant was 5.8% (21/362). Poor outcome, in terms of overall survival (OS), were observed in patients with scores of 3 liver cGvHD, comparing to those with scores less than 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 2...
2017: PloS One
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