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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110453/update-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Bryan Doherty, Vinod E Nambudiri, William C Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare biliary adenocarcinoma associated with poor outcomes. Cholangiocarcinoma is subdivided into extrahepatic and intrahepatic variants. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is then further differentiated into (1) peripheral mass-forming tumors and (2) central periductal infiltrating tumors. We aimed to review the currently known risk factors, diagnostic tools, and treatment options, as well as highlight the need for further clinical trials and research to improve overall survival rates...
January 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110441/human-cryptosporidiosis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Reza Berahmat, Adel Spotin, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azim Rezamand, Nayyereh Aminisani, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Tahereh Mikaeili-Galeh
Cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp. is an important parasitic disease that can be life-threatening for children and immunocompromised patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection and related risk factors among the Iranian general population. We searched electronic databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Proquest for articles in English and SID, Magiran, IranMedex, and IranDoc for articles in Persian...
January 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110418/occurrence-of-atypical-hus-associated-with-influenza-b
#3
Karen van Hoeve, Corinne Vandermeulen, Marc Van Ranst, Elena Levtchenko, Lambert van den Heuvel, Djalila Mekahli
: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy with a triad of non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Approximately 10% of cases of HUS are classified as atypical (aHUS). While today many genetically forms of aHUS pathology are known, only about 50% of carriers precipitate the disease. The reason remains unclear, and triggering events like intercurrent infections have been postulated. In rare cases, influenza A is the known trigger of aHUS; however, no cases of influenza B have been reported...
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110414/expression-of-the-citrus-cstip2-1-gene-improves-tobacco-plant-growth-antioxidant-capacity-and-physiological-adaptation-under-stress-conditions
#4
Cristina P S Martins, Diana M Neves, Luciana C Cidade, Amanda F S Mendes, Delmira C Silva, Alex-Alan F Almeida, Mauricio A Coelho-Filho, Abelmon S Gesteira, Walter S Soares-Filho, Marcio G C Costa
Overexpression of the citrus CsTIP2;1 improves plant growth and tolerance to salt and drought stresses by enhancing cell expansion, H 2 O 2 detoxification and stomatal conductance. Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) are a subfamily of aquaporins, belonging to the major intrinsic protein family. In a previous study, we have shown that a citrus TIP isoform, CsTIP2;1, is highly expressed in leaves and also transcriptionally regulated in leaves and roots by salt and drought stresses and infection by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the causal agent of the Huanglongbing disease, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of the flow of water and nutrients required during both normal growth and stress conditions...
January 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110400/multiplex-pcr-as-a-novel-method-in-the-diagnosis-of-spinal-tuberculosis-a-pilot-study
#5
Kusum Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Meena, Ashish Aggarwal, Rajesh Chhabra
BACKGROUND: Establishment of a reliable and rapid diagnosis is of paramount importance in spinal tuberculosis. The available gadgetry of investigations, such as AFB smear, culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Uniplex PCR, suffers from a lack of adequate sensitivity and/or a lack of rapidity. Therefore, many times a diagnosis is made either very late in the disease process or sometimes empirical therapy has to be started because a definite diagnosis could not be made. All of these are not ideal situations for a clinician...
January 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110247/a-novel-chimeric-newcastle-disease-virus-vectored-vaccine-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#6
Shin-Hee Kim, Anandan Paldurai, Siba K Samal
Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2...
January 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110034/transcriptome-profiles-of-the-clam-meretrix-petechialis-hepatopancreas-in-response-to-vibrio-infection
#7
Fengjuan Jiang, Xin Yue, Hongxia Wang, Baozhong Liu
Microbial diseases have received much attention due to their enormous destruction of aquaculture, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the main pathogens that cause bacterial disease in the clam Meretrix petechialis. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of the immune response to Vibrio in M. petechialis, RNA-Seq was applied to explore global expression changes of hepatopancreas from this clam after Vibrio challenge. There were 199,318,966 clean reads obtained by Illumina sequencing, which were further assembled into 214,577 transcripts, and then 147,255 unigenes with an N50 of 1393 bp were identified...
January 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109928/fdg-uptake-by-prosthetic-arterial-grafts-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-is-not%C3%A2-specific-for-active-disease
#8
Taryn Youngstein, Enrico Tombetti, Jaita Mukherjee, Tara D Barwick, Adil Al-Nahhas, Emyr Humphreys, Julian Nash, Jacqueline Andrews, Elena Incerti, Elisabetta Tombolini, Annalaura Salerno, Silvia Sartorelli, Giuseppe A Ramirez, Maurizio Papa, Maria Grazia Sabbadini, Luigi Gianolli, Francesco De Cobelli, Federico Fallanca, Elena Baldissera, Angelo A Manfredi, Maria Picchio, Justin C Mason
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the incidence and clinical significance of arterial graft-associated uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). BACKGROUND: The role of (18)F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) in the management of LVV remains to be defined. Although [(18)F]FDG uptake at arterial graft sites raises concerns regarding active arteritis or infection, its clinical significance in LVV has never been formally studied...
January 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109904/immune-function-trade-offs-in-response-to-parasite-threats
#9
Lucas J Kirschman, Adam H Quade, Anthony J Zera, Robin W Warne
Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109785/novel-12n-substituted-matrinanes-as-potential-anti-coxsackievirus-agents
#10
Ying-Hong Li, Sheng Tang, Yu-Huan Li, Xin-Yue Cheng, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiang Wang, Feng Su, Dan-Qing Song
A series of novel 12N-substituted matrinane derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their activities against coxsackievirus type B3 (CVB3) taking compound 1 as the lead. SAR analysis indicated that the introduction of a suitable heteroaromatic ring on the 12N-atom might be beneficial for the activity. Among them, compound 8a exhibited the highest potency against all CVB serotypes as well as CVA16 with IC50 values ranging from 2.02μM to 7.41μM, indicating a broad-spectrum anti-coxsackieviruse effect...
January 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109725/6q12-and-11p14-variants-are-associated-with-postnatal-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-respiratory-symptoms
#11
Oliver Fuchs, Olga Gorlanova, Philipp Latzin, Anne Schmidt, Maximilian Schieck, Antoaneta A Toncheva, Sven Michel, Vincent D Gaertner, Michael Kabesch, Urs Frey
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation and seems to precede respiratory symptoms, such as asthma in childhood. Identifying genetic determinants of postnatal eNO may aid in unraveling the role of eNO in epithelial function or airway inflammation and disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic determinants of early postnatal eNO and subsequent respiratory symptoms during the first year of life. METHODS: Within a population-based birth cohort, eNO was measured in healthy term infants aged 5 weeks during quiet tidal breathing in unsedated sleep...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109661/mapping-sites-of-high-tb-transmission-risk-integrating-the-shared-air-and-social-behaviour-of-tb-cases-and-adolescents-in-a-south-african-township
#12
Benjamin Patterson, Carl D Morrow, Daniel Kohls, Caroline Deignan, Samuel Ginsburg, Robin Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in poverty-stricken areas of the world. Communal gathering places account for the majority of TB transmission in high burden settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the social behaviour patterns of individuals who have developed TB disease and adolescents at risk of infection. To develop a cheap and effective method to locate transmission hot spots in high burden communities. DESIGN: Portable, combined CO2/GIS monitors and location diaries were given to individuals from a South African township...
January 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109606/short-communication-glutamine-modulates-inflammatory-responses-to-lipopolysaccharide-in-ex-vivo-bovine-endometrium
#13
Pablo G Noleto, João Paulo E Saut, I Martin Sheldon
Bacteria infect the endometrium lining the uterus of cattle after parturition, and clearance of these microbes depends on a robust innate immune response to bacterial molecules, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endometrial inflammation is characterized by secretion of the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and the chemokine IL-8. However, animals often fail to clear invading bacteria and develop uterine disease if they are in negative energy balance, with reduced abundance of glucose and glutamine, which are substrates for energy in tissues...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109600/supplementation-of-linoleic-acid-c18-2n-6-or-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-c18-3n-3-changes-microbial-agonist-induced-oxylipid-biosynthesis
#14
V E Ryman, N Packiriswamy, B Norby, S E Schmidt, A L Lock, L M Sordillo
Oxylipids are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cellular membranes and the relative abundance or balance may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Previous studies documented unique oxylipid profiles from cows with either coliform or Streptococcus uberis mastitis, suggesting that lipid mediator biosynthesis may be dependent on the type of microbial-derived agonist. Changing the fatty acid content of peripheral blood leukocytes also may be critical to the relative expression of oxylipid profiles and the outcome of bacterial infection...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109589/effects-of-precalving-body-condition-and-prepartum-feeding-level-on-gene-expression-in-circulating-neutrophils
#15
M A Crookenden, C G Walker, A Heiser, A Murray, V S R Dukkipati, J K Kay, S Meier, K M Moyes, M D Mitchell, J J Loor, J R Roche
Extensive metabolic, physiological, and immunological changes are associated with calving and the onset of lactation. As a result, cows transitioning between pregnancy and lactation are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious diseases. The ability of neutrophils to mount an effective immune response to an infection is critical for its resolution, and increasing evidence indicates that precalving nutrition affects postpartum neutrophil function. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of 2 precalving body condition scores (BCS; 4 vs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109568/one-or-two-internal-thoracic-grafts-long-term-follow-up-of-957-off-pump-coronary-bypass-surgeries
#16
Dmitry Pevni, Yanai Ben-Gal, Rephael Mohr, Amir Ganiel, Yosef Paz, Amir Kramer, Nahum Nesher
BACKGROUND: The potential survival benefit of bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (OPCABG) is controversial owing to the technical complexity of these operations. Our objective was to compare the outcome of patients undergoing OPCABG with BITA to the outcome of patients undergoing OPCABG with a single internal thoracic artery (SITA) and saphenous vein grafts or radial artery. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients who underwent OPCABG BITA at our institute between 2000 and 2008 were compared with 422 patients who underwent OPCABG with SITA...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109551/-economic-impact-of-optimising-antiretroviral-treatment-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-with-suppressed-viral-load-in-spain-by-implementing-the-grade-a-1-evidence-recommendations-of-the-2015-gesida-national-aids-plan
#17
Esteban Ribera, José Manuel Martínez-Sesmero, Javier Sánchez-Rubio, Rafael Rubio, Juan Pasquau, José Luis Poveda, Alejandro Pérez-Mitru, Celia Roldán, Beatriz Hernández-Novoa
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact associated with the optimisation of triple antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients with undetectable viral load according to the recommendations from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) Consensus and their applicability in the Spanish clinical practice. METHODS: A pharmacoeconomic model was developed based on data from a National Hospital Prescription Survey on ART (2014) and the A-I evidence recommendations for the optimisation of ART from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) consensus...
January 18, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109479/therapeutic-use-of-the-hpv-vaccine-in-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-a-case-report
#18
Christopher Sullivan, Stuart Curtis, Jason Mouzakes
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) is a condition characterized by recurring squamous papillomas in the aerodigestive tract due to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection. Treatment includes surgical debridement of the lesions often with adjuvant therapy. A newer adjuvant agent being tested is the HPV vaccine. The case report includes a child with RRP who underwent 10 surgeries in a year with an average inter-surgical interval (ISI) of 46 days. The patient then received the scheduled regimen of 3 doses of 9 valent HPV vaccine...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109400/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-controversies-and-future-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Grazia Pusole, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Roberta Mascia, Gilberto Morgan, Riccardo Giampieri, Mario Scartozzi
Chronic inflammation following infections, autoimmune diseases or exposure to environmental irritants plays a crucial role in tumor development and influences the host immune response to neoplastic cells. The presence of an anti-tumor immune infiltrate is often associated with better outcomes in gastro-intestinal primary cancers, particularly in those with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Immunotherapeutic drugs inhibiting the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway showed promising results in the treatment of these patients in the metastatic setting...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109329/what-makes-a-prion-infectious-proteins-from-animals-to-yeast
#20
K S MacLea
While philosophers in ancient times had many ideas for the cause of contagion, the modern study of infective agents began with Fracastoro's 1546 proposal that invisible "spores" spread infectious disease. However, firm categorization of the pathogens of the natural world would need to await a mature germ theory that would not arise for 300 years. In the 19th century, the earliest pathogens described were bacteria and other cellular microbes. By the close of that century, the work of Ivanovsky and Beijerinck introduced the concept of a virus, an infective particle smaller than any known cell...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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