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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627127/the-action-of-estrogens-and-progestogens-in-the-young-female-breast
#1
Irene Zolfaroli, Juan J Tarín, Antonio Cano
Evidence from different sources sustains a pro-oncogenic role of hormones, estrogens and progestogens, on the breast. The issue is of interest for young women, who are exposed to the hormonal changes imposed by the ovarian cycle and, often, take hormones with contraceptive purposes. Experimental and clinical studies show that both estrogens and progesterone are involved in mammary development during puberty and lactation, the changes being observed across mammalian species, including humans. Estrogen receptors, and more particularly the alpha isoform, participate in molecular processes of stem cells differentiation and epithelial proliferation through paracrine actions implicating growth factors...
March 28, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619068/-astragalus-membranaceus-and-salvia-miltiorrhiza-ameliorate-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-by-regulating-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-signaling-pathway
#2
Li Qin, Hong-Ling Tan, Yu-Guo Wang, Cheng-Yong Xu, Jian Feng, Min Li, Yong-Qi Dou
Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza (AM/SM) are well used in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) for nourishing Qi and activating blood circulation method. From TCM theory, the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) was determined as Qi deficiency and blood stagnation. In this study, we are aiming to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of AM/SM on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI in rats and to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610666/revisiting-the-putative-role-of-heme-as-a-trigger-of-inflammation
#3
Florence Vallelian, Christian A Schaer, Jeremy W Deuel, Giada Ingoglia, Rok Humar, Paul W Buehler, Dominik J Schaer
Activation of the innate immune system by free heme has been proposed as one of the principal consequences of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) exposure. Nonetheless, in the absence of infection, heme exposures within a hematoma, during hemolysis, or upon systemic administration of Hb (eg, as a Hb-based oxygen carrier) are typically not accompanied by uncontrolled inflammation, challenging the assumption that heme is a major proinflammatory mediator in vivo. Because of its hydrophobic nature, heme liberated from oxidized hemoglobin is rapidly transferred to alternative protein-binding sites (eg, albumin) or to hydrophobic lipid compartments minimizing protein-free heme under in vivo equilibrium conditions...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604586/inhibitory-effect-of-sinigrin-on-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-involvement-of-ampk-and-mapk-pathways
#4
Hee-Weon Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Byung-Oh Kim, Suhkneung Pyo
Adipocyte differentiation is a critical adaptive response to nutritional overload and affects the metabolic outcome of obesity. Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is a glucosinolate belong to the glucoside contained in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. We investigated the effects of sinigrin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Sinigrin remarkably inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin and aP2...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604137/immunomodulatory-effect-of-artemisia-argyi-polysaccharide-on-peripheral-blood-leucocyte-of-broiler-chickens
#5
P Zhang, B Shi, T Li, Y Xu, X Jin, X Guo, S Yan
This study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of a water-soluble polysaccharide extracted from Artemisia argyi (AAP) in vitro. The effect was assessed in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of broilers, which were incubated with different AAP concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) for 24 hr at 37°C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The results showed that, compared with the control group, immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration was increased in the supernatant of the 100 μg/ml AAP-treated group (p < ...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595453/-differential-expression-and-correlation-to-cytokine-expressions-of-ffar4-in-peritoneal-and-alveolar-macrophages
#6
Yingguang Liu, Yanyan Zhao, Lanlan Wei, Jin Yang, Xiangyan Liang, Di Chen, Rong Xie, Bojiang Zhou, Yufeng Zhao
Objective To investigate the expression level of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) and its correlation with cytokine expressions in peritoneal macrophages and alveolar macrophages. Methods Peritoneal macrophages and alveolar macrophages were purified and collected using flow cytometry from adult BALB/c mice. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA expression levels. The correlation between FFAR4 expression level and cytokine expression levels was analyzed using linear regression. Results The expression levels of FFAR4, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the alveolar macrophages than in the peritoneal macrophages...
January 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589625/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-extensively-hydrolyzed-casein-induced-browning-in-a-ucp-1-reporter-mouse-model-of-obesity
#7
Liufeng Mao, Jiwen Lei, Marieke H Schoemaker, Bingxiu Ma, Yan Zhong, Tim T Lambers, Eric A F Van Tol, Yulai Zhou, Tao Nie, Donghai Wu
Browning in adipose tissues, which can be affected by diet, may mitigate the detrimental effects of adiposity and improve longer-term metabolic health. Here, browning-inducing effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g., arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC) were investigated in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) reporter mice. To address the overall functionality, their potential role in supporting a healthy metabolic profile under obesogenic dietary challenges later in life was evaluated...
March 28, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589550/the-effect-of-denatured-flagellin-on-toll-like-receptor-5-tlr-5-in-mice
#8
Alexander Michael Abdelnoor, Soha Mcheik, Nayla S Al AKl
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that flagellin, a component of bacterial flagella, engages Toll- Like receptor 5 (TLR-5) causing the activation of the Myeloid Differentiation Factor-88 (MYD-88) pathway that leads to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-12 (IL-12). In physiological levels cytokines can aid in protection against infectious agents. However, excessive production of cytokines can lead to septic shock during sepsis...
March 26, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588174/serglycin-is-involved-in-inflammatory-response-in-articular-mouse-chondrocytes
#9
Angela D'Ascola, Michele Scuruchi, Angela Avenoso, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Salvatore Campo, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Giuseppe M Campo
Serglycin is expressed by a variety of cell types and mediates different functions in both normal and pathological conditions by interacting with different biological molecules, such as the CD44 receptor. Many studies suggest that serglycin has a crucial role in inflammatory response, but there are limited data on the functions of this proteoglycan in chondrocytes. In this study we investigated the effect of serglycin knockdown induced by specific serglycin small interfering RNA (SRGN siRNA) in normal mouse chondrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
March 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576600/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-diabetic-mice-independent-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2
#10
Shanshan Wu, Kai Dong, Jiajia Wang, Yaxin Bi
Type 2 diabetes is a serious threat to human health all over the world. It is particularly important to look for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Researchers have found that obesity was associated with a broad chronic inflammatory response and type 2 diabetes. And tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is one of the most important cytokines related with obesity. To explore the functional role of TNF-α in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, TNF-α receptor 1 and TNF-α receptor 2 double knockout (TNFR1/R2 DKO) mouse model were used in our study...
March 23, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572553/galantamine-anti-colitic-effect-role-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-modulating-jak-stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-hmgb1-rage-and-p-akt-bcl-2-pathways
#11
Shakeeb A Wazea, Walaa Wadie, Ashraf K Bahgat, Hanan S El-Abhar
Vagal stimulation controls systemic inflammation and modulates the immune response in different inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The released acetylcholine binds to alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines. This provides a new range of potential therapeutic approaches for controlling inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to assess whether galantamine (Galan) anti-inflammatory action involves α7 nAChR in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis and to estimate its possible molecular pathways...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558662/orientin-and-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-with-spinal-nerve-ligation
#12
Dongdong Guo, Xinyi Hu, Haojie Zhang, Chenghua Lu, Guangwei Cui, Xingjing Luo
Neuropathic pain affects patients worldwide. The therapeutic effects of current methods are still poor. This study was performed to investigate the neuro-protective effect of orientin in rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). In this study, the paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the paw thermal withdrawal latency (PWL) behavioral assays indicated that orientin alleviated the warm and mechanical allodynia in rats with SNL. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that orientin suppressed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
March 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557374/dabrafenib-an-inhibitor-of-rip3-kinase-dependent-necroptosis-reduces-ischemic-brain-injury
#13
Shelly A Cruz, Zhaohong Qin, Alexandre F R Stewart, Hsiao-Huei Chen
Ischemic brain injury triggers neuronal cell death by apoptosis via caspase activation and by necroptosis through activation of the receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPK) associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/death receptor. Recent evidence shows RIPK inhibitors are neuroprotective and alleviate ischemic brain injury in a number of animal models, however, most have not yet undergone clinical trials and safety in humans remains in question. Dabrafenib, originally identified as a B-raf inhibitor that is currently used to treat melanoma, was later revealed to be a potent RIPK3 inhibitor at micromolar concentrations...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551980/integrative-computational-network-analysis-reveals-site-specific-mediators-of-inflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Srikanth Ravichandran, Alessandro Michelucci, Antonio Del Sol
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and is one of the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Among several factors, neuroinflammation is known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, studies of brains affected by AD show a clear involvement of several inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, depending on the brain regions affected by the disease, the nature and the effect of inflammation can vary. Here, in order to shed more light on distinct and common features of inflammation in different brain regions affected by AD, we employed a computational approach to analyze gene expression data of six site-specific neuronal populations from AD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532213/treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-via-green-tea-polyphenols-possible-application-and-protective-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Sajid Ur Rahman, Yu Li, Yingying Huang, Lei Zhu, Shibin Feng, Jinjie Wu, Xichun Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a collection of inflammatory conditions of colon and small intestine which affect millions of individuals worldwide and the prevalence amount is on the rise. The organ failure as well as loss of tissue function is because of the inflammatory reaction which is the major contributor of tissue healing leading to lifelong debilitation. To stop the tough consequences of inflammation every patient pursues alternative therapy to relieve symptoms. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) play significant roles in down regulating signaling pathways because GTPs exert effective antioxidant properties and regulate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression via certain receptor, inhibited endotoxin-mediated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production by blocking transcription nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation and upstream of mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathway activities, as well as intrusion with the flow of cytokines and synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
March 12, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527412/effects-of-xylo-oligosaccharide-and-flavomycin-on-the-immune-function-of-broiler-chickens
#16
Lin Yuan, Wanli Li, Qianqian Huo, Chenhong Du, Zhixiang Wang, Baodi Yi, Mingfa Wang
This study investigated the effects of xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) and flavomycin (FLA) on the performance and immune function of broiler chickens. A total of 150 ArborAcres broilers were randomly divided into three groups and fed for six weeks from one day of age in cascade cages. The diets of each test group were (1) a basal diet, (2) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg FLA, and (3) the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg/kg XOS. At 21 and 42 days, the growth performance index values and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the cecum were quantified...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518608/rip3-deficience-attenuates-potassium-oxonate-induced-hyperuricemia-and-kidney-injury
#17
Kang Wang, Lei Hu, Jian-Kang Chen
Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that hyperuricemia (HU) is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) is an important contributor in inducing programmed necrosis, representing a newly identified mechanism of cell death combining features of both apoptosis and necrosis. In our study, RIP3 was strongly expressed in mice with hyperuricemia. RIP3 deficiency attenuated hyperuricemia in mice, evidenced by reduced serum uric acid and creatinine and enhanced urinary uric acid and creatinine, as well as the improved histological alterations in renal sections...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515106/a-dual-function-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-pathway-substrate-8-eps8-derived-peptide-exhibits-a-potent-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-activating-effect-and-a-specific-inhibitory-activity
#18
Xiaoling Xie, Weijun Zhou, Yuxing Hu, Yiran Chen, Honghao Zhang, Yuhua Li
The identification and characterization of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital to the development of cancer immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway substrate 8 gene (Eps8) is involved in regulating cancer progression and might be an ideal antigen. In this study, we searched for novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402-restricted epitopes derived from the Eps8 protein via the HLA-binding prediction algorithm. Among four candidates, peptides 327 (EFLDCFQKF), 534 (KYAKSKYDF) and 755 (LFSLNKDEL) induced peptide-specific CTLs to secrete higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and showed enhanced cytotoxic activity against malignant cancer cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512766/tnf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-and-rankl-promote-osteoclastogenesis-by-upregulating-rank-via-the-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Gang Luo, Fangfei Li, Xiaoming Li, Zheng-Guo Wang, Bo Zhang
Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‑α) is known to serve a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory osteolysis, the exact mechanisms underlying the effects of TNF‑α on osteoclast recruitment and differentiation remain unclear. To investigate the mechanisms by which TNF‑α influences osteoclast differentiation, mouse bone marrow‑derived macrophages (BMMs) were used as osteoclast precursors, and osteoclastogenesis was induced by macrophage colony‑stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB ligand (RANKL) with or without TNF‑α for 4 days...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510084/dexmedetomidine-reduces-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-nuclear-factor-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#20
Hongli Chen, Xiaotong Sun, Xiaomei Yang, Yonghao Hou, Xiaoqian Yu, Yang Wang, Jianbo Wu, Dejie Liu, Huanliang Wang, Jingui Yu, Wenbo Yi
Mechanical ventilation (MV) may lead to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Previous research has shown that dexmedetomidine attenuates pulmonary inflammation caused by MV, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aims to test whether dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against VILI and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms using the rat model. Thirty adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 6): control, low tidal volume MV (LMV), high tidal volume (HVT) MV (HMV), HVT MV + dexmedetomidine (DEX), HVT MV + dexmedetomidine + yohimbine (DEX+Y)...
February 20, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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