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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773831/dnajc17-is-localized-in-nuclear-speckles-and-interacts-with-splicing-machinery-components
#1
A Pascarella, G Ferrandino, S C Credendino, C Moccia, F D'Angelo, B Miranda, C D'Ambrosio, P Bielli, O Spadaro, M Ceccarelli, A Scaloni, C Sette, M De Felice, G De Vita, E Amendola
DNAJC17 is a heat shock protein (HSP40) family member, identified in mouse as susceptibility gene for congenital hypothyroidism. DNAJC17 knockout mouse embryos die prior to implantation. In humans, germline homozygous mutations in DNAJC17 have been found in syndromic retinal dystrophy patients, while heterozygous mutations represent candidate pathogenic events for myeloproliferative disorders. Despite widespread expression and involvement in human diseases, DNAJC17 function is still poorly understood. Herein, we have investigated its function through high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773790/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting-in-arabidopsis-using-sequential-transformation
#2
Daisuke Miki, Wenxin Zhang, Wenjie Zeng, Zhengyan Feng, Jian-Kang Zhu
Homologous recombination-based gene targeting is a powerful tool for precise genome modification and has been widely used in organisms ranging from yeast to higher organisms such as Drosophila and mouse. However, gene targeting in higher plants, including the most widely used model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, remains challenging. Here we report a sequential transformation method for gene targeting in Arabidopsis. We find that parental lines expressing the bacterial endonuclease Cas9 from the egg cell- and early embryo-specific DD45 gene promoter can improve the frequency of single-guide RNA-targeted gene knock-ins and sequence replacements via homologous recombination at several endogenous sites in the Arabidopsis genome...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763474/early-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-alters-imprinted-gene-expression-in-placenta-and-embryo-in-a-mouse-model
#3
Heidi Marjonen, Mia Toivonen, Laura Lahti, Nina Kaminen-Ahola
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can harm the embryonic development and cause life-long consequences in offspring's health. To clarify the molecular mechanisms of PAE we have used a mouse model of early alcohol exposure, which is based on maternal ad libitum ingestion of 10% (v/v) ethanol for the first eight days of gestation (GD 0.5-8.5). Owing to the detected postnatal growth-restricted phenotype in the offspring of this mouse model and both prenatal and postnatal growth restriction in alcohol-exposed humans, we focused on imprinted genes Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2), H19, Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Polypeptide N (Snrpn) and Paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), which all are known to be involved in embryonic and placental growth and development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746690/retrospective-analysis-reproducibility-of-interblastomere-differences-of-mrna-expression-in-2-cell-stage-mouse-embryos-is-remarkably-poor-due-to-combinatorial-mechanisms-of-blastomere-diversification
#4
E Casser, S Israel, S Schlatt, V Nordhoff, M Boiani
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence, reproducibility and biological significance of transcriptomic differences between sister blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sister 2-cell stage blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis, attesting to the fact that differentiation starts mostly early in the mouse embryo; however, the interblastomere differences are poorly reproducible and invoke the combinatorial effects of known and new mechanisms of blastomere diversification...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733394/sin3a-tet1-interaction-activates-gene-transcription-and-is-required-for-embryonic-stem-cell-pluripotency
#5
Fugui Zhu, Qianshu Zhu, Dan Ye, Qingquan Zhang, Yiwei Yang, Xudong Guo, Zhenping Liu, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Xiaoping Wan, Guiying Wang, Wen Chen, Songcheng Zhu, Cizhong Jiang, Weiyang Shi, Jiuhong Kang
Sin3a is a core component of histone-deacetylation-activity-associated transcriptional repressor complex, playing important roles in early embryo development. Here, we reported that down-regulation of Sin3a led to the loss of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and skewed differentiation into mesendoderm lineage. We found that Sin3a functioned as a transcriptional coactivator of the critical Nodal antagonist Lefty1 through interacting with Tet1 to de-methylate the Lefty1 promoter. Further studies showed that two amino acid residues (Phe147, Phe182) in the PAH1 domain of Sin3a are essential for Sin3a-Tet1 interaction and its activity in regulating pluripotency...
May 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731491/oocyte-specific-gene-oog1-suppresses-the-expression-of-spermatogenesis-specific-genes-in-oocytes
#6
Shinnosuke Honda, Yuka Miki, Yuya Miyamoto, Yu Kawahara, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Hiroshi Imai, Naojiro Minami
Oog1, an oocyte-specific gene that encodes a protein of 425 amino acids, is present in five copies on mouse chromosomes 4 and 12. In mouse oocytes, Oog1 mRNA expression begins at embryonic day 15.5 and almost disappears by the late two-cell stage. Meanwhile, OOG1 protein is detectable in oocytes in ovarian cysts and disappears by the four-cell stage; the protein is transported to the nucleus in late one-cell to early two-cell stage embryos. In this study, we examined the role of Oog1 during oogenesis in mice...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730294/live-imaging-reveals-a-conserved-role-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-early-lymphatic-development-in-zebrafish
#7
Annalisa Zecchin, Brian Wong, Bieke Tembuyser, Joris Souffreau, An Van Nuffelen, Sabine Wyns, Stefan Vinckier, Peter Carmeliet, Mieke Dewerchin
During embryonic development, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) differentiate from venous endothelial cells (VECs), a process that is tightly regulated by several genetic signals. While the aquatic zebrafish model is regularly used for studying lymphangiogenesis and offers the unique advantage of time-lapse video-imaging of lymphatic development, some aspects of lymphatic development in this model differ from those in the mouse. It therefore remained to be determined whether fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO), which we showed to regulate lymphatic formation in the mouse, also co-determines lymphatic development in this aquatic model...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729430/functional-genetics-of-early-human-development
#8
REVIEW
Nicolás M Ortega, Nerges Winblad, Alvaro Plaza Reyes, Fredrik Lanner
Understanding the genetic underpinning of early human development is of great interest not only for basic developmental and stem cell biology but also for regenerative medicine, infertility treatments, and better understanding the causes of congenital disease. Our current knowledge has mainly been generated with the use of laboratory animals, especially the mouse. While human and mouse early development present morphological resemblance, we know that the timing of the events as well as the cellular and genetic mechanisms that control fundamental processes are distinct between the species...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721022/reprogramming-of-mouse-calvarial-osteoblasts-into-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Yinxiang Wang, Jessica Aijia Liu, Keith K H Leung, Mai Har Sham, Danny Chan, Kathryn S E Cheah, Martin Cheung
Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of reprogramming endochondral bone into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, but whether similar phenomenon occurs in intramembranous bone remains to be determined. Here we adopted fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based strategy to isolate homogenous population of intramembranous calvarial osteoblasts from newborn transgenic mice carrying both Osx1-GFP::Cre and Oct4-EGFP transgenes. Following retroviral transduction of Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc), enriched population of osteoblasts underwent silencing of Osx1-GFP::Cre expression at early stage of reprogramming followed by late activation of Oct4-EGFP expression in the resulting iPS cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720666/p53-and-mtor-signalling-determine-fitness-selection-through-cell-competition-during-early-mouse-embryonic-development
#10
Sarah Bowling, Aida Di Gregorio, Margarida Sancho, Sara Pozzi, Marieke Aarts, Massimo Signore, Michael D Schneider, Juan Pedro Martinez Barbera, Jesús Gil, Tristan A Rodríguez
Ensuring the fitness of the pluripotent cells that will contribute to future development is important both for the integrity of the germline and for proper embryogenesis. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly apparent that pluripotent cells can compare their fitness levels and signal the elimination of those cells that are less fit than their neighbours. In mammals the nature of the pathways that communicate fitness remain largely unknown. Here we identify that in the early mouse embryo and upon exit from naive pluripotency, the confrontation of cells with different fitness levels leads to an inhibition of mTOR signalling in the less fit cell type, causing its elimination...
May 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720659/chromatin-analysis-in-human-early-development-reveals-epigenetic-transition-during-zga
#11
Jingyi Wu, Jiawei Xu, Bofeng Liu, Guidong Yao, Peizhe Wang, Zili Lin, Bo Huang, Xuepeng Wang, Tong Li, Senlin Shi, Nan Zhang, Fuyu Duan, Jia Ming, Xiangyang Zhang, Wenbin Niu, Wenyan Song, Haixia Jin, Yihong Guo, Shanjun Dai, Linli Hu, Lanlan Fang, Qiujun Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Li, Jie Na, Wei Xie, Yingpu Sun
Upon fertilization, drastic chromatin reorganization occurs during preimplantation development 1 . However, the global chromatin landscape and its molecular dynamics in this period remain largely unexplored in humans. Here we investigate chromatin states in human preimplantation development using an improved assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) 2 . We find widespread accessible chromatin regions in early human embryos that overlap extensively with putative cis-regulatory sequences and transposable elements...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720634/blastocyst-like-structures-generated-solely-from-stem-cells
#12
Nicolas C Rivron, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Erik J Vrij, Jean-Charles Boisset, Jeroen Korving, Judith Vivié, Roman K Truckenmüller, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Niels Geijsen
The blastocyst (the early mammalian embryo) forms all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, including the placenta. It consists of a spherical thin-walled layer, known as the trophectoderm, that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity sheltering the embryonic cells 1 . From mouse blastocysts, it is possible to derive both trophoblast 2 and embryonic stem-cell lines 3 , which are in vitro analogues of the trophectoderm and embryonic compartments, respectively. Here we report that trophoblast and embryonic stem cells cooperate in vitro to form structures that morphologically and transcriptionally resemble embryonic day 3...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719081/asynchronous-cdx2-expression-and-polarization-of-porcine-trophoblast-cells-reflects-a-species-specific-trophoderm-lineage-determination-progress-model
#13
Shichao Liu, Gerelchimeg Bou, Jianchao Zhao, Shimeng Guo, Jia Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Zhi Yin, Zhonghua Liu
Upregulation of Cdx2 expression in outer cells is a key event responsible for cell lineage segregation between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoderm (TE) in mouse morula stage embryos. In TE cells, polarization can regulate Hippo and ROCK signaling to induce the nuclear location of YAP, which has been demonstrated to further induce the expression of Cdx2. However, we found that CDX2 expression could not be detected in the outer cells of porcine morula stage embryos and could be found in only some TE cells at the early blastocyst stage...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716624/reconstruction-of-a-replication-competent-ancestral-murine-endogenous-retrovirus-l
#14
Daniel Blanco-Melo, Robert J Gifford, Paul D Bieniasz
BACKGROUND: About 10% of the mouse genome is composed of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that represent a molecular fossil record of past retroviral infections. One such retrovirus, murine ERV-L (MuERV-L) is an env-deficient ERV that has undergone episodic proliferation, with the most recent amplification occurring ~ 2 million years ago. MuERV-L related sequences have been co-opted by mice for antiretroviral defense, and possibly as promoters for some genes that regulate totipotency in early mouse embryos...
May 2, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709110/making-lineage-decisions-with-biological-noise-lessons-from-the-early-mouse-embryo
#15
REVIEW
Claire S Simon, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Christian Schröter
Understanding how individual cells make fate decisions that lead to the faithful formation and homeostatic maintenance of tissues is a fundamental goal of contemporary developmental and stem cell biology. Seemingly uniform populations of stem cells and multipotent progenitors display a surprising degree of heterogeneity, primarily originating from the inherent stochastic nature of molecular processes underlying gene expression. Despite this heterogeneity, lineage decisions result in tissues of a defined size and with consistent proportions of differentiated cell types...
April 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709066/heritable-l1-retrotransposition-events-during-development-understanding-their-origins-examination-of-heritable-endogenous-l1-retrotransposition-in-mice-opens-up-exciting-new-questions-and-research-directions
#16
REVIEW
Sandra R Richardson, Geoffrey J Faulkner
The retrotransposon Long Interspersed Element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) has played a major role in shaping the sequence composition of the mammalian genome. In our recent publication, "Heritable L1 retrotransposition in the mouse primordial germline and early embryo," we systematically assessed the rate and developmental timing of de novo, heritable endogenous L1 insertions in mice. Such heritable retrotransposition events allow L1 to exert an ongoing influence upon genome evolution. Here, we place our findings in the context of earlier studies, and highlight how our results corroborate, and depart from, previous research based on human patient samples and transgenic mouse models harboring engineered L1 reporter genes...
April 30, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703263/zika-virus-induced-hyper-excitation-precedes-death-of-mouse-primary-neuron
#17
Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N Paradkar, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
BACKGROUND: Zika virus infection in new born is linked to congenital syndromes, especially microcephaly. Studies have shown that these neuropathies are the result of significant death of neuronal progenitor cells in the central nervous system of the embryo, targeted by the virus. Although cell death via apoptosis is well acknowledged, little is known about possible pathogenic cellular mechanisms triggering cell death in neurons. METHODS: We used in vitro embryonic mouse primary neuron cultures to study possible upstream cellular mechanisms of cell death...
April 27, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686265/reprogramming-of-h3k9me3-dependent-heterochromatin-during-mammalian-embryo-development
#18
Chenfei Wang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yawei Gao, Lei Yang, Chong Li, Wenqiang Liu, Chuan Chen, Xiaochen Kou, Yanhong Zhao, Jiayu Chen, Yixuan Wang, Rongrong Le, Hong Wang, Tao Duan, Yong Zhang, Shaorong Gao
H3K9me3-dependent heterochromatin is a major barrier of cell fate changes that must be reprogrammed after fertilization. However, the molecular details of these events are lacking in early embryos. Here, we map the genome-wide distribution of H3K9me3 modifications in mouse early embryos. We find that H3K9me3 exhibits distinct dynamic features in promoters and long terminal repeats (LTRs). Both parental genomes undergo large-scale H3K9me3 reestablishment after fertilization, and the imbalance in parental H3K9me3 signals lasts until blastocyst...
May 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679560/developmental-origin-and-morphogenesis-of-the-diaphragm-an-essential-mammalian-muscle
#19
Elizabeth M Sefton, Mirialys Gallardo, Gabrielle Kardon
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle essential for respiration and for separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Development of the diaphragm requires the coordinated development of muscle, muscle connective tissue, tendon, nerves, and vasculature that derive from different embryonic sources. However, defects in diaphragm development are common and the cause of an often deadly birth defect, Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH). Here we comprehensively describe the normal developmental origin and complex spatial-temporal relationship between the different developing tissues to form a functional diaphragm using a developmental series of mouse embryos genetically and immunofluorescently labeled and analyzed in whole mount...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678882/mesenchyme-homeobox-1-mediates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-from-mouse-mesenchymal-progenitors
#20
Kun Dong, Xia Guo, Weiping Chen, Amanda C Hsu, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
Differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for proper vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling SMC differentiation are not completely understood. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) is expressed in the early developing somite, which is one of the origins of SMCs. In the present study, we identified Meox1 as a positive regulator of SMC differentiation. We found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces Meox1 expression in the initial phase of SMC differentiation of pluripotent murine C3H10T1/2 cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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