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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164502/superovulation-alters-dna-methyltransferase-protein-expression-in-mouse-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#1
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk, Gokhan Akkoyunlu
PURPOSE: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that plays critical roles during mammalian oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. It is achieved by adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes for de novo and maintenance methylation processes. DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B play important roles in establishing methylation of developmentally related genes in oocytes and early embryos...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158447/krox20-defines-a-subpopulation-of-cardiac-neural-crest-cells-contributing-to-arterial-valves-and-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#2
Gaëlle Odelin, Emilie Faure, Fanny Coulpier, Maria Di Bonito, Fanny Bajolle, Michèle Studer, Jean-François Avierinos, Patrick Charnay, Piotr Topilko, Stéphane Zaffran
Although cardiac neural crest cells are required at early stages of arterial valve development, their contribution during valvular leaflet maturation remains poorly understood. Here we show in mouse that neural crest cells from pre-otic and post-otic regions make distinct contributions to the arterial valve leaflets. Genetic fate-mapping analysis of neural crest Krox20-expressing cells reveals a large contribution to the borders and the interleaflet triangles of the arterial valves. Loss of Krox20 function results in hyperplastic aortic valve and partially penetrant bicuspid aortic valve formation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155779/a-novel-use-of-three-dimensional-high-frequency-ultrasonography-for-early-pregnancy-characterization-in-the-mouse
#3
Mary C Peavey, Corey L Reynolds, Maria M Szwarc, William E Gibbons, Cecilia T Valdes, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
High-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) is a common method to non-invasively monitor the real-time development of the human fetus in utero. The mouse is routinely used as an in vivo model to study embryo implantation and pregnancy progression. Unfortunately, such murine studies require pregnancy interruption to enable follow-up phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of HFUS imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their individual developmental progression in utero...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155075/asymmetric-distribution-of-crumbs-polarity-complex-proteins-from-compacted-8-cell-to-blastocyst-stage-during-mouse-preimplantation-development
#4
Xinlong Jiang, Wenzhong An, Xiao Yang, Jieye Lin, Shiliang Ma, Dajia Wang, Shuang Tang
During mouse preimplantation development, blastomeres are equipotent until polarity establishment at compacted 8-cell stage. The intrinsic nature of polarity is the asymmetric distribution of polarity proteins between inside and outside blastomeres along the direction of apical-basal axis. This study investigated the early developmental temporal and spatial expression of the main CRUMBS polarity complex proteins in the mouse preimplantation embryo. We observed that Crb3, Pals1, Patj and Mpdz are transcribed in the mouse preimplantation embryo...
November 15, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127326/proteolytic-cleavage-of-transmembrane-cell-adhesion-molecule-l1-by-extracellular-matrix-molecule-reelin-is-important-for-mouse-brain-development
#5
David Lutz, Ahmed Sharaf, Dagmar Drexler, Hardeep Kataria, Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Bianka Brunne, Ralf Kleene, Gabriele Loers, Michael Frotscher, Melitta Schachner
The cell adhesion molecule L1 and the extracellular matrix protein Reelin play crucial roles in the developing nervous system. Reelin is known to activate signalling cascades regulating neuronal migration by binding to lipoprotein receptors. However, the interaction of Reelin with adhesion molecules, such as L1, has remained poorly explored. Here, we report that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragments N-R2 and N-R6 bind to L1 and that full-length Reelin and its N-terminal fragment N-R6 proteolytically cleave L1 to generate an L1 fragment with a molecular mass of 80 kDa (L1-80)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126187/med12-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-uterine-development-and-maternal-effects-in-the-mammalian-egg
#6
Xinye Wang, Priya Mittal, Carlos A Castro, Gabriel Rajkovic, Aleksandar Rajkovic
The transcriptional factor MED12 is part of the essential mediator transcriptional complex that acts as a transcriptional coactivator in all eukaryotes. Missense gain of function mutations in human MED12 are associated with uterine leiomyomas, yet the role of MED12 deficiency in tumorigenesis and reproductive biology has not been fully explored. We generated a Med12 reproductive conditional knockout mouse model to evaluate its role in uterine mesenchyme, granulosa cells, and oocytes. Mice heterozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/+ Amhr2-Cre) were subfertile, while mice homozygous for Med12 deficiency in granulosa cells and uterus (Med12fl/fl Amhr2-Cre) were infertile...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123210/plasticity-of-the-inner-cell-mass-in-mouse-blastocyst-is-restricted-by-the-activity-of-fgf-mapk-pathway
#7
M Wigger, K Kisielewska, K Filimonow, B Plusa, M Maleszewski, A Suwińska
In order to ensure successful development, cells of the early mammalian embryo must differentiate to either trophectoderm (TE) or inner cell mass (ICM), followed by epiblast (EPI) or primitive endoderm (PE) specification within the ICM. Here, we deciphered the mechanism that assures the correct order of these sequential cell fate decisions. We revealed that TE-deprived ICMs derived from 32-cell blastocysts are still able to reconstruct TE during in vitro culture, confirming totipotency of ICM cells at this stage...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119119/an-exploration-of-the-impact-of-anticentromere-antibody-on-early-stage-embryo
#8
Ying Ying, Xi Guo, Yiping Zhong, Canquan Zhou
Background: Previously, we found women with positive anticentromere antibody showed impaired potential of oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage; the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon was still unknown. Objective: Thus, the present study aimed to preliminarily explore whether ACA could penetrate into the living embryos and impair their developmental potential via in vitro coculture with mouse embryos. Methods: Mouse embryos were collected and used for in vitro culture with polyclonal anticentromere protein A (CENP-A) antibody; then, immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the penetration of antibody into embryos, and embryo development potential was observed...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109007/roles-of-dek-in-the-endometrium-of-mice-in-early-pregnancy
#9
Yang Yang, Mengyun Wu, Yanqing Geng, Xueqing Liu, Yuan Yang, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Junlin He, Yingxiong Wang, Liling Xie
Embryo implantation is a complex process requiring reciprocal interactions between implantation-competent blastocysts and receptive uteri. Accumulating evidence from Digital Protein Expression Profiling indicates that DEK protein expression at implantation sites (ISs) was much higher than that at inter-implantation sites (IISs). In this study, we investigated the expression of DEK in mouse uterus by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting. We explored its function during decidualization of uterine stromal cells by inhibiting the expression of DEK...
November 3, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105396/effects-of-re-vitrification-of-mouse-morula-and-early-blastocyst-stages-on-apoptotic-gene-expression-and-developmental-potential
#10
Nasrin Majidi Gharenaz, Mansoureh Movahedin, Zohreh Mazaheri
OBJECTIVES: Re-vitrification of embryos immediately after thawing or after a culture period could be used to preserve the extra embryos after embryo transfer. This study aims to clarify the effect of re-vitrification on Bax and Bcl-2 gene expressions of compact and early blastocyst stage embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This experimental study was performed on mouse embryos. We collected 8-cell stage embryos (n=400) from female mature mice, 60-62 hoursafter injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105384/hypoxic-stress-forces-adaptive-and-maladaptive-placental-stress-responses-in-early-pregnancy
#11
Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Awoniyi Awonuga, Alan Bolnick, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Daniel A Rappolee
This review focuses on hypoxic stress and its effects on the placental lineage and the earliest differentiation events in mouse and human placental trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). Although the placenta is a decidual organ at the end of pregnancy, its earliest rapid growth and function at the start of pregnancy precedes and supports growth and function of the embryo. Earliest function requires that TSCs differentiate, however, "hypoxia" supports rapid growth, but not differentiation of TSCs. Most of the literature on earliest placental "hypoxia" studies used 2% oxygen which is normoxic for TSCs...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100091/mutations-in-greb1l-cause-bilateral-kidney-agenesis-in-humans-and-mice
#12
Lara De Tomasi, Pierre David, Camille Humbert, Flora Silbermann, Christelle Arrondel, Frédéric Tores, Stéphane Fouquet, Audrey Desgrange, Olivier Niel, Christine Bole-Feysot, Patrick Nitschké, Joëlle Roume, Marie-Pierre Cordier, Christine Pietrement, Bertrand Isidor, Philippe Khau Van Kien, Marie Gonzales, Marie-Hélène Saint-Frison, Jelena Martinovic, Robert Novo, Juliette Piard, Christelle Cabrol, Ishwar C Verma, Ratna Puri, Hubert Journel, Jacqueline Aziza, Laurent Gavard, Marie-Hélène Said-Menthon, Laurence Heidet, Sophie Saunier, Cécile Jeanpierre
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children and 20% of prenatally detected anomalies. CAKUT encompass a spectrum of developmental kidney defects, including renal agenesis, hypoplasia, and cystic and non-cystic dysplasia. More than 50 genes have been reported as mutated in CAKUT-affected case subjects. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to bilateral kidney agenesis (BKA) remain largely elusive. Whole-exome or targeted exome sequencing of 183 unrelated familial and/or severe CAKUT-affected case subjects, including 54 fetuses with BKA, led to the identification of 16 heterozygous variants in GREB1L (growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1-like), a gene reported as a target of retinoic acid signaling...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095856/reproductive-effects-of-cadmium-on-sperm-function-and-early-embryonic-development-in-vitro
#13
Li-Lin Zhao, Yan-Fei Ru, Miao Liu, Jia-Nan Tang, Ju-Fen Zheng, Bin Wu, Yi-Hua Gu, Hui-Juan Shi
Cadmium is a major environmental toxicant that is released into the atmosphere, water and soil in the form of cadmium oxide, cadmium chloride, or cadmium sulfide via industrial activities, such as the manufacturing of batteries and pigments, metal smelting and refining and municipal waste incineration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cadmium exposure on sperm quality parameters, fertilization capacity and early embryonic development. Our study showed that in vitro incubation of human or mouse sperms with cadmium for a long time (up to 24 hours) could significantly decreased sperm motility in a concentration- and time-dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074707/cyclin-b1-is-essential-for-mitosis-in-mouse-embryos-and-its-nuclear-export-sets-the-time-for-mitosis
#14
Bernhard Strauss, Andrew Harrison, Paula Almeida Coelho, Keiko Yata, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Jonathon Pines
There is remarkable redundancy between the Cyclin-Cdk complexes that comprise the cell cycle machinery. None of the mammalian A-, D-, or E-type cyclins are required in development until implantation, and only Cdk1 is essential for early cell divisions. Cyclin B1 is essential for development, but whether it is required for cell division is contentious. Here, we used a novel imaging approach to analyze Cyclin B1-null embryos from fertilization onward. We show that Cyclin B1(-/-) embryos arrest in G2 phase after just two divisions...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056490/nucleus-positioning-within-drosophila-egg-chamber
#15
REVIEW
Fred Bernard, Jean-Antoine Lepesant, Antoine Guichet
Both types of Drosophila egg chamber germ cells, i.e. oocyte and nurse cells, have to control their nucleus positions in order to produce a viable gamete. Interestingly, while actin microfilaments are crucial to position the nuclei in nurse cells, these are the microtubules that are important for oocyte nucleus to migrate and adopt the correct position. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying these positioning processes in the two cell types with respect to the organization and dynamics of the actin and microtubule skeleton...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#16
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050247/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-parp1-does-not-improve-the-development-of-female-cloned-mouse-embryos
#17
Guang-Yu Bai, Si-Hang Song, Rui-Zhen Sun, Zi-Hui Zhang, Jingyu Li, Zhen-Dong Wang, Zhong-Hua Liu, Lei Lei
Somatic cell nuclear transfer is an important technique for life science research, but its efficiency is still extremely low, and most genes that are important during early development, such as X chromosome-linked genes, are not appropriately expressed during this process. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an enzyme that transfers ADP ribose clusters to target proteins. PARP family members such as PARP1 participate in cellular signalling pathways through poly (ADP-ribosylation) (PARylation), which ultimately promotes changes in chromatin structure, gene expression, and the localization and activity of proteins that mediate signalling responses...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033306/oocyte-specific-homeobox-1-obox1-facilitates-reprogramming-by-promoting-mesenchymal-to-epithelial-transition-and-mitigating-cell-hyperproliferation
#18
Li Wu, You Wu, Bing Peng, Zhenzhen Hou, Yu Dong, Kang Chen, Mingyue Guo, Han Li, Xia Chen, Xiaochen Kou, Yanhong Zhao, Yan Bi, Yixuan Wang, Hong Wang, Rongrong Le, Lan Kang, Shaorong Gao
Mammalian oocytes possess fascinating unknown factors, which can reprogram terminally differentiated germ cells or somatic cells into totipotent embryos. Here, we demonstrate that oocyte-specific homeobox 1 (Obox1), an oocyte-specific factor, can markedly enhance the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts in a proliferation-independent manner and can replace Sox2 to achieve pluripotency. Overexpression of Obox1 can greatly promote mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) at early stage of OSKM-induced reprogramming, and meanwhile, the hyperproliferation of THY1-positive cells can be significantly mitigated...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027601/dnmt1-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-proteins-are-differently-expressed-in-mouse-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#19
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk, Gokhan Akkoyunlu
DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms and plays important roles during oogenesis and early embryo development in mammals. DNA methylation is basically known as adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. This mechanism is composed of two main processes: de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, both of which are catalyzed by specific DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. To date, six different DNMTs have been characterized in mammals defined as DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3C, and DNMT3L...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027123/pluripotent-stem-cells-secrete-activin-a-to-improve-their%C3%A2-epiblast-competency-after-injection-into-recipient-embryos
#20
Jinzhu Xiang, Suying Cao, Liang Zhong, Hanning Wang, Yangli Pei, Qingqing Wei, Bingqiang Wen, Haiyuan Mu, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Yue, Genhua Yue, Bing Lim, Jianyong Han
It is not fully clear why there is a higher contribution of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to the chimera produced by injection of PSCs into 4-cell or 8-cell stage embryos compared with blastocyst injection. Here, we show that not only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can generate F0 nearly 100% donor cell-derived mice by 4-cell stage embryo injection, and the approach has a "dose effect". Through an analysis of the PSC-secreted proteins, Activin A was found to impede epiblast (EPI) lineage development while promoting trophectoderm (TE) differentiation, resulting in replacement of the EPI lineage of host embryos with PSCs...
October 12, 2017: Protein & Cell
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