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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344289/limb-bud-and-heart-overexpression-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-pc3m-cells
#1
Qicai Liu, Ermao Li, Long Huang, Minsheng Cheng, Li Li
Background: The limb-bud and heart gene (LBH) was discovered in the early 21st century and is specifically expressed in the mouse embryonic limb and heart development. Increasing evidences have indicated that LBH not only plays an important role in embryo development, it is also closely correlated with the occurance and progression of many tumors. However, its function in prostate cancer (PCa) is still not well understood. Here, we explored the effects of LBH on the proliferation and migration of the PCa cell line PC3M...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342143/regulation-of-embryonic-haematopoietic-multipotency-by-ezh1
#2
Linda T Vo, Melissa A Kinney, Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Jessica Barragan, Patricia M Sousa, Deepak K Jha, Areum Han, Marcella Cesana, Zhen Shao, Trista E North, Stuart H Orkin, Sergei Doulatov, Jian Xu, George Q Daley
All haematopoietic cell lineages that circulate in the blood of adult mammals derive from multipotent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). By contrast, in the blood of mammalian embryos, lineage-restricted progenitors arise first, independently of HSCs, which only emerge later in gestation. As best defined in the mouse, 'primitive' progenitors first appear in the yolk sac at 7.5 days post-coitum. Subsequently, erythroid-myeloid progenitors that express fetal haemoglobin, as well as fetal lymphoid progenitors, develop in the yolk sac and the embryo proper, but these cells lack HSC potential...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339164/nanos2-acts-as-an-intrinsic-regulator-of-gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-in-the-murine-testes
#3
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
In the male mouse embryos, the primordial germ cells colonize the developing testes at E11.5. These resident germ cells termed gonocytes are the predecessors of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and differentiating spermatogonia. Both of which are essential for male fertility where the former maintains the continuity of spermatogenesis and the latter generates pioneering waves of spermatozoa. Therefore the timely initiation of gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST) is an important process during which the cell fates of gonocytes might be segregated...
January 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331495/role-of-bcl2l10-in-regulating-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-oocyte-maturation
#4
Yu-Lin Huang, Huan-Jing Wang, Fu-Mei Chen, Xiu-Ling Zhao, Qiang Fu, Peng-Fei Zhang, Li-Ping Pu, Feng-Ling Huang, Yang-Qing Lu, Ming Zhang
It has been reported that BCL2L10 is abundantly and specifically expressed in adult human and mouse oocytes and played a very important role in oocytes maturation and early embryonic development. This study is to investigate the expression pattern of BCL2L10 in buffalo ovaries and its effect on the in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes, so as to dissect mechanism of oocytes maturation and provide theoretical guidance for improvement of the in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes. The results showed that BCL2L10 gene was enriched in ovary and the expression of BCL2L10 was oocyte specific and up-regulated during oocyte maturation...
December 30, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330350/selection-against-balb-c-strain-cells-in-mouse-chimaeras
#5
Pin-Chi Tang, Gillian E MacKay, Jean H Flockhart, Margaret A Keighren, Anna Kopakaki, John D West
It has been shown previously that BALB/c strain embryos tend to contribute poorly to mouse aggregation chimaeras. In the present study we showed that BALB/c cells were not preferentially allocated to any extraembryonic lineages of mouse aggregation chimaeras, but their contribution decreased during the early postimplantation period and they were significantly depleted by E8.5. The development of BALB/c strain preimplantation embryos lagged behind embryos from some other strains and the contribution that BALB/c and other embryos made to chimaeras correlated with their developmental stage at E2...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325037/mediator-complex-component-med13-regulates-zygotic-genome-activation-and-is-required-for-postimplantation-development-in-the-mouse
#6
Yi-Liang Miao, Andrés Gambini, Yingpei Zhang, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Wendy N Jefferson, Miranda L Bernhardt, Weichun Huang, Leping Li, Carmen J Williams
Understanding factors that regulate zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is critical for determining how cells are reprogrammed to become totipotent or pluripotent. There is limited information regarding how this process occurs physiologically in early mammalian embryos. Here we identify a mediator complex subunit, MED13, as translated during mouse oocyte maturation and transcribed early from the zygotic genome. Knockdown and conditional knockout approaches demonstrate that MED13 is essential for ZGA in the mouse, in part by regulating expression of the embryo-specific chromatin remodeling complex, esBAF...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315687/patterning-of-the-hepato-pancreatobiliary-boundary-by-bmp-reveals-heterogeneity-within-the-murine-liver-bud
#7
Amrita Palaria, Jesse R Angelo, Taylor Guertin, Jesse Mager, Kimberly D Tremblay
During development, the endoderm initiates organ-restricted gene expression patterns in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. This process, termed induction, requires signals from adjacent mesodermal derivatives. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) emanating from the cardiac mesoderm and the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM), respectively, are believed to be simultaneously and uniformly required to directly induce hepatic gene expression from the murine endoderm. Using small molecule inhibitors of BMP signals during liver bud induction in the developing mouse embryo, we find that BMP signaling is not uniformly required to induce hepatic gene expression...
January 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311656/defining-murine-organogenesis-at-single-cell-resolution-reveals-a-role-for-the-leukotriene-pathway-in-regulating-blood-progenitor-formation
#8
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Wajid Jawaid, Blanca Pijuan-Sala, Vasileios Ladopoulos, Antonio Scialdone, David J Jörg, Richard C V Tyser, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Carla Mulas, Jennifer Nichols, Ludovic Vallier, Shankar Srinivas, Benjamin D Simons, Berthold Göttgens, John C Marioni
During gastrulation, cell types from all three germ layers are specified and the basic body plan is established 1 . However, molecular analysis of this key developmental stage has been hampered by limited cell numbers and a paucity of markers. Single-cell RNA sequencing circumvents these problems, but has so far been limited to specific organ systems 2 . Here, we report single-cell transcriptomic characterization of >20,000 cells immediately following gastrulation at E8.25 of mouse development. We identify 20 major cell types, which frequently contain substructure, including three distinct signatures in early foregut cells...
January 8, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311541/yolk-sac-macrophage-progenitors-traffic-to-the-embryo-during-defined-stages-of-development
#9
C Stremmel, R Schuchert, F Wagner, R Thaler, T Weinberger, R Pick, E Mass, H C Ishikawa-Ankerhold, A Margraf, S Hutter, R Vagnozzi, S Klapproth, J Frampton, S Yona, C Scheiermann, J D Molkentin, U Jeschke, M Moser, M Sperandio, S Massberg, F Geissmann, C Schulz
Tissue macrophages in many adult organs originate from yolk sac (YS) progenitors, which invade the developing embryo and persist by means of local self-renewal. However, the route and characteristics of YS macrophage trafficking during embryogenesis are incompletely understood. Here we show the early migration dynamics of YS-derived macrophage progenitors in vivo using fate mapping and intravital microscopy. From embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) CX3CR1+ pre-macrophages are present in the mouse YS where they rapidly proliferate and gain access to the bloodstream to migrate towards the embryo...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310676/functional-role-of-akt-signaling-in-bovine-early-embryonic-development-potential-link-to-embryotrophic-actions-of-follistatin
#10
Mohamed Ashry, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, Jason G Knott, Nabil A Hemeida, Omaima M Kandil, Refaat S Ragab, George W Smith
BACKGROUND: TGF-β signaling pathways regulate several crucial processes in female reproduction. AKT is a non-SMAD signaling pathway regulated by TGF-β ligands essential for oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse, but its regulatory role in bovine early embryonic development is not well established. Previously, we demonstrated a stimulatory role for follistatin (a binding protein for specific members of TGF-β superfamily) in early bovine embryonic development...
January 8, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300901/aromatase-inhibitor-use-during-ovarian-stimulation-suppresses-growth-of-uterine-endometrial-cancer-in-xenograft-mouse-model
#11
Tai Kawahara, Naoki Okamoto, Seido Takae, Megumi Kashiwagi, Mariko Nakajima, Atsushi Uekawa, Junya Ito, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Yodo Sugishita, Nao Suzuki
STUDY QUESTION: Could aromatase inhibitors (AI) be used to reduce risks of uterine endometrial cancer growth or recurrence during ovarian stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a xenograft mouse model of endometrial cancer, concomitant AI administration suppressed the growth of endometrial cancer during ovarian stimulation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recurrence and mortality rates of estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer are reduced by long-term AI administration...
December 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289570/high-efficiency-transduction-of-spinal-cord-motor-neurons-by-intrauterine-delivery-of-integration-deficient-lentiviral-vectors
#12
S G Ahmed, S N Waddington, M G Boza-Morán, R J Yáñez-Muñoz
Integration-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) are promising gene delivery tools that retain the high transduction efficiency of standard lentiviral vectors, yet fail to integrate as proviruses and are instead converted into episomal circles. These episomes are metabolically stable and support long-term expression of transgenes in non-dividing cells, exhibiting a decreased risk of insertional mutagenesis. We have embarked on an extensive study to compare the transduction efficiency of IDLVs pseudotyped with different envelopes (vesicular stomatitis, Rabies, Mokola and Ross River viral envelopes) and self-complementary adeno-associated viral vectors, serotype-9 (scAAV-9) in spinal cord tissues after intraspinal injection of mouse embryos (E16)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285169/mir-30b-regulates-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mouse-embryo-derived-stem-cells-by-targeting-sox9
#13
Qingde Wa, Peiheng He, Shuai Huang, Jianwei Zuo, Xing Li, Jinsong Zhu, Song Hong, Guoqing Lv, Dongfeng Cai, Dongliang Xu, Xuenong Zou, Yi Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of chondrogenic differentiation. Mouse embryo-derived stem cells C3H10T1/2 were cultured and chondrogenic differentiation was induced using transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). In addition, miRNA expression profiles were detected via miRNA array analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify the differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, bioinformatics software was used to predict the putative targets and the prediction was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282804/in-vitro-modeling-of-congenital-heart-defects-associated-with-an-nkx2-5-mutation-revealed-a-dysregulation-in-bmp-notch-mediated-signaling
#14
Abeer F Zakariyah, Rashida F Rajgara, Ellias Horner, Marie-Elodie Cattin, Alexandre Blais, Ilona S Skerjanc, Patrick G Burgon
The Nkx2-5 gene codes for a transcription factor that plays a critical role in heart development. Heterozygous mutations in NKX2-5 in both human and mice result in congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, the molecular mechanisms by which these mutations cause the disease are still unknown. Recently, we have generated the heterozygous mouse model of the human CHDs associated mutation NKX2-5 R142C (Nkx2-5R141C/+ mouse ortholog of human NKX2-5 R142C variant) that developed septal and conduction defects. This study generated a heterozygous Nkx2-5 R141C mouse embryonic stem cell line (Nkx2-5R141C/+ mESCs) to model CHDs in vitro...
December 28, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259448/permeability-of-the-plasma-membrane-to-water-and-cryoprotectants-in-mammalian-oocytes-and-embryos-its-relevance-to-vitrification
#15
REVIEW
Keisuke Edashige
The permeability of the plasma membrane to water and cryoprotectants is one of the important factors for determining the suitable condition for the vitrification of mammalian oocytes and embryos. Water and cryoprotectants move slowly through oocytes and early embryos, principally by simple diffusion, in the mouse, bovine, pig, and human. In contrast, water, glycerol, and ethylene glycerol move rapidly through morulae and blastocysts, principally by facilitated diffusion via aquaporin 3, in the mouse and bovine; whereas, in the pig, the permeability to water and these cryoprotectants increases not at the morula stage but at the blastocyst stage and further increases at the expanded blastocyst stage...
January 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249781/nrf2-inhibition-affects-cell-cycle-progression-during-early-mouse-embryo-development
#16
Ying Lin, Liu-Cai Sui, Rong-Hua Wu, Ru-Jun Ma, Hai-Yan Fu, Juan-Juan Xu, Xu-Hua Qiu, Li Chen
Brusatol, a quassinoid isolated from the fruit of Bruceajavanica, has recently been shown to inhibit nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) via Keap1-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation or protein synthesis. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates the cellular defense response. Most studies have focused on the effects of Nrf2in tumor development. Here, the critical roles of Nrf2 in mouse early embryonic development were investigated. We found that brusatol treatment at the zygotic stage prevented the early embryo development...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244146/ezh2-mutations-found-in-the-weaver-overgrowth-syndrome-cause-a-partial-loss-of-h3k27-histone-methyltransferase-activity
#17
Julian C Lui, Kevin M Barnes, Lijin Dong, Shanna Yue, Evan Graber, Robert Rapaport, Andrew Dauber, Ola Nilsson, Jeffrey Baron
Context: Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, advanced bone age, characteristic facies, and variable intellectual disability. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in EZH2, a histone methyltransferase responsible for H3K27 trimethylation. However, no early truncating mutations have been identified, suggesting that null mutations do not cause Weaver syndrome. Objective: To test alternative hypotheses that EZH2 variants found in Weaver syndrome either cause a gain of function or a partial loss of function...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242593/dual-repression-of-endocytic-players-by-escc-micrornas-and-the-polycomb-complex-regulates-mouse-embryonic-stem-cell-pluripotency
#18
Ridim Dadasaheb Mote, Gaurang Mahajan, Anup Padmanabhan, Ramaraju Ambati, Deepa Subramanyam
Cell fate determination in the early mammalian embryo is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Recently, genes involved in vesicular trafficking have been shown to play an important role in cell fate choice, although the regulation of their expression remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that multiple endocytosis associated genes (EAGs) are repressed through a novel, dual mechanism in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). This involves the action of the Polycomb Repressive Complex, PRC2, as well as post-transcriptional regulation by the ESC-specific cell cycle-regulating (ESCC) family of microRNAs...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#19
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#20
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
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