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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911036/properties-of-embryoid-bodies
#1
REVIEW
Joshua M Brickman, Palle Serup
Embryoid bodies (EBs) have been popular in vitro differentiation models for pluripotent stem cells for more than five decades. Initially, defined as aggregates formed by embryonal carcinoma cells, EBs gained more prominence after the derivation of karyotypically normal embryonic stem cells from early mouse blastocysts. In many cases, formation of EBs constitutes an important initial step in directed differentiation protocols aimed at generated specific cell types from undifferentiated stem cells. Indeed state-of-the-art protocols for directed differentiation of cardiomyocytes still rely on this initial EB step...
December 2, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910960/unc-5-homolog-b-unc5b-is-one-of-the-key-downstream-targets-of-n-%C3%AE-acetyltransferase-10-naa10
#2
Huiyu Xu, Yong Han, Bing Liu, Rong Li
N-α-acetyltransferase 10 (Naa10) displays alpha (N-terminal) acetyltransferase activity. It functions as a major modulator of cell growth and differentiation. Until now, a few downstream targets were found, but no studies have concerned about which gene is the early event of Naa10 downstream target. As we know, the earlier events may play more significant role in Naa10 pathway. Through construction of Naa10 stably knocked down H1299 cell line, we discovered cell morphological changes induced by Naa10. Moreover, potential function of Naa10 in cell morphogenesis was also indicated using cDNA microarray analysis of the Naa10 stably knock-down cell line...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908722/unexpected-regulation-of-mirna-abundance-during-adaptation-of-early-somite-mouse-embryos-to-diabetic-pregnancy
#3
J Zhao, T B M Hakvoort, A Jongejan, J M Ruijter, A H C van Kampen, W H Lamers
Maternal diabetes is one of major causes of congenital malformations in offspring, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. MiRNAs play an important role in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, no miRNA expression profiling of hyperglycemic offspring are thus far available. Female mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, treated with slow-release insulin tablets, and mated. MiRNA expression profiling with Next Generation Sequencing on the SOLiD5 platform was performed on 8 control and 5 hyperglycemic embryonic day (ED)8...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901130/huwe1-plays-important-role-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryo-development-and-the-dysregulation-is-associated-with-poor-embryo-development-in-humans
#4
L J Chen, W M Xu, M Yang, K Wang, Y Chen, X J Huang, Q H Ma
HUWE1 is a HECT domain containing ubiquitin ligase implicated in neurogenesis, spermatogenesis and cancer development. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of HUWE1 in early embryo development. Here we demonstrate that Huwe1 is expressed in both nucleus and cytoplasm of preimplantation mouse embryos as well as gametes. Hypoxia (5% O2) treatment could significantly increase Huwe1 expression during mouse embryo development process. HUWE1 knockdown inhibited normal embryonic development and reduced blastocyst formation, and increased apoptotic cell numbers were observed in the embryos of HUWE1 knockdown group...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896299/basement-membrane-ultrastructure-and-component-localization-data-from-uterine-tissues-during-early-mouse-pregnancy
#5
Celestial R Jones-Paris, Sayan Paria, Taloa Berg, Juan Saus, Gautam Bhave, Bibhash C Paria, Billy G Hudson
Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized extracellular scaffolds that provide architecture and modulate cell behaviors in tissues, such as fat, muscle, endothelium, endometrium, and decidua. Properties of BMs are maintained in homeostasis for most adult tissues. However, BM ultrastructure, composition, and localization are rapidly altered in select uterine tissues that are reprogrammed during pregnancy to enable early maternal-embryo interactions. Here, our data exhibit both static and dynamic BMs that were tracked in mouse uterine tissues during pre-, peri-, and postimplantation periods of pregnancy...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879346/the-zebrafish-frozen-mutant-is-a-model-for-human-myopathy-associated-with-mutation-of-the-unconventional-myosin-myo18b
#6
Ritika Gurung, Yosuke Ono, Sarah Baxendale, Samantha Lin Chiou Lee, Steven Moore, Meredith Calvert, Philip W Ingham
MYOSIN 18B is an unconventional myosin that has been implicated in tumour progression in humans. In addition, loss-of-function mutations of the MYO18B gene have recently been identified in several patients exhibiting symptoms of nemaline myopathy. In mouse, mutation of Myo18B results in early developmental arrest associated with cardiomyopathy, precluding analysis of its effects on skeletal muscle development. The zebrafish, frozen (fro) mutant was identified as one of a group of immotile mutants in the 1996 Tübingen genetic screen...
November 22, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875249/an-interview-with-kathryn-anderson
#7
Aidan Maartens
Kathryn Anderson is Professor and Chair of the Developmental Biology Program at the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York. Her lab investigates the genetic networks underlying the patterning and morphogenesis of the early mouse embryo. We caught up with Kathryn at the 2016 Society for Developmental Biology - International Society of Differentiation joint meeting in Boston, where she was awarded the Edwin G. Conklin medal.
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872858/17%C3%AE-estradiol-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-accelerating-early-remyelination-in-a-mouse-peripheral-nerve-injury-model
#8
Yan Chen, Wenjie Guo, Liangzhi Xu, Wenjuan Li, Meng Cheng, Ying Hu, Wenming Xu
Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871845/inter-generational-effects-of-the-in-vitro-maturation-technique-on-pregnancy-outcomes-early-development-and-cognition-of-offspring-in-mouse-model
#9
N Wang, C E Ren, Y Y Lou, F Le, L Y Wang, X Z Liu, Q T Zhan, L N Mao, H Y Lou, F Jin
In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes has been a highly successful method for avoiding the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in some patients during in vitro fertilization. However, the safety of the protocol, especially the long-term effects, is still an issue of debate. The current study is to investigate the long-term effects of IVM on mice through two generations and reveal its inter-generational effects as well. The data indicate that the rates of embryo resorption and fetal death in the F1 generation were significantly increased while the newborn survival rate in the F1 and F2 generations were significantly decreased in the IVM group...
November 18, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869233/towards-functional-annotation-of-the-preimplantation-transcriptome-an-rnai-screen-in-mammalian-embryos
#10
Wei Cui, Xiangpeng Dai, Chelsea Marcho, Zhengbin Han, Kun Zhang, Kimberly D Tremblay, Jesse Mager
With readily available transcriptome-wide data, understanding the role of each expressed gene is an essential next step. Although RNAi technologies allow for genome-wide screens in cell culture, these approaches cannot replace strategies for discovery in the embryo. Here we present, for the first time, a knockdown screen in mouse preimplantation embryos. Early mammalian development encompasses dynamic cellular, molecular and epigenetic events that are largely conserved from mouse to man. We assayed 712 genes for requirements during preimplantation...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869163/wwox-brca1-interaction-role-in-dna-repair-pathway-choice
#11
M S Schrock, B Batar, J Lee, T Druck, B Ferguson, J H Cho, K Akakpo, H Hagrass, N A Heerema, F Xia, J D Parvin, C M Aldaz, K Huebner
In this study, loss of expression of the fragile site-encoded Wwox protein was found to contribute to radiation and cisplatin resistance of cells, responses that could be associated with cancer recurrence and poor outcome. WWOX gene deletions occur in a variety of human cancer types, and reduced Wwox protein expression can be detected early during cancer development. We found that Wwox loss is followed by mild chromosome instability in genomes of mouse embryo fibroblast cells from Wwox-knockout mice. Human and mouse cells deficient for Wwox also exhibit significantly enhanced survival of ionizing radiation and bleomycin treatment, agents that induce double-strand breaks (DSBs)...
November 21, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863708/nuclear-distribution-of-the-chromatin-remodeling-protein-atrx-in-mouse-early-embryogenesis
#12
Zhuldyz K Sailau, Dmitry S Bogolyubov, Irina O Bogolyubova
The nucleus of mammalian embryos differs by transcriptional activity at different stages of early development. Here, we studied nuclear distribution of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX in pre-implantation mouse embryos. Immunofluorescent staining revealed the changes of ATRX nuclear distribution at the initial stages of early mouse development. At the stage of early zygote, a diffuse ATRX distribution pattern was prevalent. During the course of zygotic genome activation (ZGA), zones of increased ATRX concentration are observed, and they are most expressed in the nuclei of late 2-cell embryos...
November 15, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859869/signaling-pathways-in-mammalian-preimplantation-development-linking-cellular-phenotypes-to-lineage-decisions
#13
REVIEW
Sergio Menchero, Teresa Rayon, Maria Jose Andreu, Miguel Manzanares
The first stages of mammalian development, before implantation of the embryo in the maternal uterus, result in the establishment of three cell populations in the blastocyst: trophectoderm, epiblast, and primitive endoderm. These events involve only a small number of cells, and are initiated by morphological differences among them related to cell adhesion and polarity. Much attention has been paid to the master transcription factors that are critical for establishing and maintaining early lineage choices. Nevertheless, a large body of work also reveals that additional molecular mechanisms are involved...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853269/unraveling-the-association-between-genetic-integrity-and-metabolic-activity-in-pre-implantation-stage-embryos
#14
Fiona D'Souza, Shivanand M Pudakalakatti, Shubhashree Uppangala, Sachin Honguntikar, Sujith Raj Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Renu Pasricha, Divya Appajigowda, Hanudatta S Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
Early development of certain mammalian embryos is protected by complex checkpoint systems to maintain the genomic integrity. Several metabolic pathways are modulated in response to genetic insults in mammalian cells. The present study investigated the relationship between the genetic integrity, embryo metabolites and developmental competence in preimplantation stage mouse embryos with the aim to identify early biomarkers which can predict embryonic genetic integrity using spent medium profiling by NMR spectroscopy...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852436/elimination-of-paternal-mitochondria-in-mouse-embryos-occurs-through-autophagic-degradation-dependent-on-parkin-and-mul1
#15
Rebecca Rojansky, Moon-Yong Cha, David C Chan
A defining feature of mitochondria is their maternal mode of inheritance. However, little is understood about the cellular mechanism through which paternal mitochondria, delivered from sperm, are eliminated from early mammalian embryos. Autophagy has been implicated in nematodes, but whether this mechanism is conserved in mammals has been disputed. Here, we show that cultured mouse fibroblasts and pre-implantation embryos use a common pathway for elimination of mitochondria. Both situations utilize mitophagy, in which mitochondria are sequestered by autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836961/insights-from-imaging-the-implanting-embryo-and-the-uterine-environment-in-three-dimensions
#16
Ripla Arora, Adam Fries, Karina Oelerich, Kyle Marchuk, Khalida Sabeur, Linda C Giudice, Diana J Laird
Although much is known about the embryo during implantation, the architecture of the uterine environment in which the early embryo develops is not well understood. We employed confocal imaging in combination with 3D analysis to identify and quantify dynamic changes to the luminal structure of murine uterus in preparation for implantation. When applied to mouse mutants with known implantation defects, this method detected striking peri-implantation abnormalities in uterine morphology that cannot be visualized by histology...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#17
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832381/assembly-and-maintenance-of-myofibrils-in-striated-muscle
#18
Joseph W Sanger, Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Jennifer White, Lei Mi-Mi, Dipak K Dube, Jean M Sanger, David Pruyne
In this chapter, we present the current knowledge on de novo assembly, growth, and dynamics of striated myofibrils, the functional architectural elements developed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. The data were obtained in studies of myofibrils formed in cultures of mouse skeletal and quail myotubes, in the somites of living zebrafish embryos, and in mouse neonatal and quail embryonic cardiac cells. The comparative view obtained revealed that the assembly of striated myofibrils is a three-step process progressing from premyofibrils to nascent myofibrils to mature myofibrils...
November 11, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827961/positive-regulation-of-decidualization-by-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-lat1-in-pregnant-mice
#19
Xiaojie Wang, Dongmei Tan, Jing Ma, Hao Liang, Qian Zhang, Yi Tan, Jiang Wang, Wenping Luo
Amino acids have an important role in the pre and post implantation of placenta and embryo development. l-type amino-acid transporter 1 (lat1) is responsible for the transportation of large neutral amino acids and is mainly expressed in human fetal liver, placenta, brain, etc. This study is the first to investigate the expression of lat1 in the early pregnancy of mouse uteri and its role in the process of decidualization. Endometrial stromal cells of a mouse model were used to evaluate decidualization from Day 4-8 of pregnancy in vitro followed by lat1 knock down by small interfering RNA and by a competitive inhibitor of Leucine transport 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH)...
November 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821757/nicotinamide-benefits-both-mothers-and-pups-in-two-contrasting-mouse-models-of-preeclampsia
#20
Feng Li, Tomofumi Fushima, Gen Oyanagi, H W Davin Townley-Tilson, Emiko Sato, Hironobu Nakada, Yuji Oe, John R Hagaman, Jennifer Wilder, Manyu Li, Akiyo Sekimoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Hiroshi Sato, Sadayoshi Ito, J Charles Jennette, Nobuyo Maeda, S Ananth Karumanchi, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyuki Takahashi
Preeclampsia (PE) complicates ∼5% of human pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths. The only definitive treatment, induced delivery, invariably results in prematurity, and in severe early-onset cases may lead to fetal death. Many currently available antihypertensive drugs are teratogenic and therefore precluded from use. Nonteratogenic antihypertensives help control maternal blood pressure in PE, but results in preventing preterm delivery and correcting fetal growth restriction (FGR) that also occurs in PE have been disappointing...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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