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Mouse early embryo

Hai-Qiang Dai, Bang-An Wang, Lu Yang, Jia-Jia Chen, Guo-Chun Zhu, Mei-Ling Sun, Hao Ge, Rui Wang, Deborah L Chapman, Fuchou Tang, Xin Sun, Guo-Liang Xu
Mammalian genomes undergo epigenetic modifications, including cytosine methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases can lead to demethylation. Although cytosine methylation has key roles in several processes such as genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation, the functional significance of cytosine methylation and demethylation in mouse embryogenesis remains to be fully determined. Here we show that inactivation of all three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes, including primitive streak patterning defects in association with impaired maturation of axial mesoderm and failed specification of paraxial mesoderm, mimicking phenotypes in embryos with gain-of-function Nodal signalling...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Igor Arregi, Maria Climent, Dobromir Iliev, Jürgen Strasser, Nadège Gouignard, Jenny K Johansson, Tania Singh, Magdalena Mazur, Henrik Semb, Isabella Artner, Liliana Minichiello, Edgar M Pera
Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Diting Qian, Zhiling Li, Yuting Zhang, Yue Huang, Que Wu, Gaizhen Ru, Man Chen, Bin Wang
Our study aimed to develop embryo models to evaluate the impact of oxidative stress on embryo development. Mouse zygotes, which stayed at G1 phase, were treated with prepared culture medium (containing 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, or 0.1 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) for 30 min in experiment 1. The dose-effects of H2O2 on embryo development were investigated via comparisons of the formation rate at each stage (2- and 4-cell embryos and blastocysts). Experiment 2 was carried out to compare behaviors of embryos in a mild oxidative-stressed status (0...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
E Dietzel, J Floehr, E Van de Leur, R Weiskirchen, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does fetuin-B inhibit premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening in mouse oocytes in vitro and thus increase IVF rate? SUMMARY ANSWER: Supplementation of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) media with recombinant mouse fetuin-B (rmFetuB) increased fertilization rate without affecting mouse embryo development into blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mice deficient in fetuin-B are infertile owing to premature ZP hardening. Premature ZP hardening also occurs during oocyte IVM leading to decreased fertilization rate...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Richard Cv Tyser, Antonio Ma Miranda, Chiann-Mun Chen, Sean M Davidson, Shankar Srinivas, Paul R Riley
The mammalian heartbeat is thought to begin just prior to the linear heart tube stage of development. How the initial contractions are established and the downstream consequences of the earliest contractile function on cardiac differentiation and morphogenesis have not been described. Using high-resolution live imaging of mouse embryos, we observed randomly distributed spontaneous asynchronous Ca(2+)-oscillations (SACOs) in the forming cardiac crescent (stage E7.75) prior to overt beating. Nascent contraction initiated at around E8...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Yifan Zhou, Daman Kumari, Nicholas Sciascia, Karen Usdin
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common cause of intellectual disability and autism, results from the expansion of a CGG-repeat tract in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene to >200 repeats. Such expanded alleles, known as full mutation (FM) alleles, are epigenetically silenced in differentiated cells thus resulting in the loss of FMRP, a protein important for learning and memory. The timing of repeat expansion and FMR1 gene silencing is controversial. METHODS: We monitored the repeat size and methylation status of FMR1 alleles with expanded CGG repeats in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that were grown for extended period of time either as stem cells or differentiated into neurons...
2016: Molecular Autism
Sylvia J Bedford-Guaus, François Chauvigné, Eva Mejía-Ramírez, Mercè Martí, Antoni Ventura-Rubio, Ángel Raya, Joan Cerdà, Anna Veiga
While vitrification has become the method of choice for preservation of human oocytes and embryos, cryopreservation of complex tissues and of large yolk-containing cells, remains largely unsuccessful. One critical step in such instances is appropriate permeation while avoiding potentially toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants. Permeation of water and small non-charged solutes, such as those used as cryoprotectants, occurs largely through membrane channel proteins termed aquaporins (AQPs). Substitution of a Thr by an Ala residue in the pore-forming motif of the zebrafish (Dario rerio) Aqp3b paralog resulted in a mutant (DrAqp3b-T85A) that when expressed in Xenopus or porcine oocytes increased their permeability to ethylene glycol at pH 7...
October 5, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Pouria HosseinNia, Mehdi Hajian, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Sayyed Morteza Hosseini, Somayyeh Ostadhosseini, Mohammad Reza Nasiri, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Si Qiu, Wenhui Li, Heng Xiong, Dongbing Liu, Yali Bai, Kui Wu, Xiuqing Zhang, Huanming Yang, Kun Ma, Yong Hou, Bo Li
BACKGROUND: A-to-I RNA-editing mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes that converts adenosine to inosine in RNA sequence can generate mutations and alter gene regulation in metazoans. Previous studies have shown that A-to-I RNA-editing plays vital roles in mouse embryogenesis. However, the RNA-editing activities in early human embryonic development have not been investigated. RESULTS: Here, we characterized genome-wide A-to-I RNA-editing activities during human early embryogenesis by profiling 68 single cells from 29 human embryos spanning from oocyte to morula stages...
September 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
Ingrid Carvacho, Goli Ardestani, Hoi Chang Lee, Kaitlyn McGarvey, Rafael A Fissore, Karin Lykke-Hartmann
The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a family of cationic ion channels widely distributed in mammalian tissues. In general, the global genetic disruption of individual TRP channels result in phenotypes associated with impairment of a particular tissue and/or organ function. An exception is the genetic ablation of the TRP channel TRPM7, which results in early embryonic lethality. Nevertheless, the function of TRPM7 in oocytes, eggs and pre-implantation embryos remains unknown. Here, we described an outward rectifying non-selective current mediated by a TRP ion channel in immature oocytes (germinal vesicle stage), matured oocytes (metaphase II eggs) and 2-cell stage embryos...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Pinar Tulay, Alpesh Doshi, Paul Serhal, Sioban B SenGupta
Gene expression from both parental genomes is required for completion of embryogenesis. Differential methylation of each parental genome has been observed in mouse and human preimplantation embryos. It is possible that these differences in methylation affect the level of gene transcripts from each parental genome in early developing embryos. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a parent-specific pattern of BRCA1 expression in human embryos and to examine if this affects embryo development when the embryo carries a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic mutation...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Chih-Wei Hsu, Leeyean Wong, Tara L Rasmussen, Sowmya Kalaga, Melissa L McElwee, Lance C Keith, Ritu Bohat, John R Seavitt, Arthur L Beaudet, Mary E Dickinson
In this work, we report the use of iodine-contrast microCT to perform high-throughput 3D morphological analysis of mouse embryos and neonates between embryonic day 8.5 to postnatal day 3, with high spatial resolution up to 3µm/voxel. We show that mouse embryos at early stages can be imaged either within extra embryonic tissues such as the yolk sac or the decidua without physically disturbing the embryos. This method enables a full, undisturbed analysis of embryo turning, allantois development, vitelline vessels remodeling, yolk sac and early placenta development, which provides increased insights into early embryonic lethality in mutant lines...
September 23, 2016: Developmental Biology
Didi Wu, Dahai Yu, Xiuxia Wang, Bingzhi Yu
: In mouse fertilized eggs, correct assembly and distribution of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately related to cleavage in early-stage embryos. However, in mouse fertilized eggs, mechanisms and involved factors responsible for regulating the actin cytoskeleton are poorly defined. In this study, mTORC2, PKB/Akt and Girdin were found to modulate division of mouse fertilized eggs by regulating distribution of the actin cytoskeleton. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of mTORC2, Akt1 or Girdin disrupted F-actin rearrangement and strongly inhibited egg development...
September 25, 2016: Cell Proliferation
Lauren C Fogarty, Beibei Song, Yegappan Suppiah, S M Mahmud Hasan, Hiliary C Martin, Sarah E Hogan, Jieying Xiong, Jacqueline L Vanderluit
The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse...
September 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Feng Wang, JongDae Shin, Jeremy M Shea, Jun Yu, Ana Bošković, Meg Byron, Xiaochun Zhu, Alex K Shalek, Aviv Regev, Jeanne B Lawrence, Eduardo M Torres, Lihua J Zhu, Oliver J Rando, Ingolf Bach
Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined mouse genetics with RNA-seq on single mouse embryos to investigate functions of Rlim on the temporal regulation of iXCI and Xist...
September 19, 2016: ELife
Bugi Ratno Budiarto, Wen-Hsiung Chan
Ginsenoside Rb1, the major saponin component of ginseng root, has a wide range of therapeutic application. Previous studies have established that ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits the cell cycle and induces apoptosis. However, its side-effects, particularly those on embryonic development, have not been well characterized to date. In the current study, we examined whether ginsenoside Rb1 exerts a cytotoxic effect on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, and affects subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Hui Zheng, Bo Huang, Bingjie Zhang, Yunlong Xiang, Zhenhai Du, Qianhua Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Qiujun Wang, Jing Ma, Xu Peng, Feng Xu, Wei Xie
Polycomb group proteins and the related histone modification H3K27me3 can maintain the silencing of key developmental regulators and provide cellular memory. However, how such an epigenetic state is reprogrammed and inherited between generations is poorly understood. Using an ultra-sensitive approach, STAR ChIP-seq, we investigated H3K27me3 across 14 developmental stages along mouse gametogenesis and early development. Interestingly, highly pervasive H3K27me3 is found in regions depleted of transcription and DNA methylation in oocytes...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Cell
Xiaoyu Liu, Chenfei Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Jingyi Li, Chong Li, Xiaochen Kou, Jiayu Chen, Yanhong Zhao, Haibo Gao, Hong Wang, Yong Zhang, Yawei Gao, Shaorong Gao
Histone modifications have critical roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during embryo development in mammals. However, genome-wide analyses of histone modifications in pre-implantation embryos have been impeded by the scarcity of the required materials. Here, by using a small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) method, we map the genome-wide profiles of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), which are associated with gene activation and repression, respectively, in mouse pre-implantation embryos...
September 14, 2016: Nature
John Arne Dahl, Inkyung Jung, Håvard Aanes, Gareth D Greggains, Adeel Manaf, Mads Lerdrup, Guoqiang Li, Samantha Kuan, Bin Li, Ah Young Lee, Sebastian Preissl, Ingunn Jermstad, Mads Haugland Haugen, Rajikala Suganthan, Magnar Bjørås, Klaus Hansen, Knut Tomas Dalen, Peter Fedorcsak, Bing Ren, Arne Klungland
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct measurements of chromatin states have been hindered by technical difficulties in profiling histone modifications from small quantities of cells. Recent improvements allow for 500 cell-equivalents of chromatin per reaction, but require 10,000 cells for initial steps or require a highly specialized microfluidics device that is not readily available...
September 14, 2016: Nature
Ingela Lanekoff, Jeeyeon Cha, Jennifer E Kyle, Sudhansu K Dey, Julia Laskin, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson
Here we demonstrate that conditional deletion of mouse uterine Trp53 (p53(d/d)), molecularly linked to mTORC1 activation and causally linked to premature uterine senescence and preterm birth, results in aberrant lipid signatures within the heterogeneous cell types of embryo implantation sites on day 8 of pregnancy. In situ nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI) was used to characterize the molecular speciation of free fatty acids, monoacylglycerol species, unmodified and oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC/Ox-PC), and diacylglycerol (DG) species within implantation sites of p53(d/d) mice and floxed littermates...
2016: Scientific Reports
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