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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534463/gene-expression-analysis-of-bovine-embryonic-disc-trophoblast-and-parietal-hypoblast-at-the-start-of-gastrulation
#1
Peter L Pfeffer, Craig S Smith, Paul Maclean, Debra K Berg
In cattle early gastrulation-stage embryos (Stage 5), four tissues can be discerned: (i) the top layer of the embryonic disc consisting of embryonic ectoderm (EmE); (ii) the bottom layer of the disc consisting of mesoderm, endoderm and visceral hypoblast (MEH); (iii) the trophoblast (TB); and (iv) the parietal hypoblast. We performed microsurgery followed by RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome of these four tissues as well as a developmentally earlier pre-gastrulation embryonic disc. The cattle EmE transcriptome was similar at Stages 4 and 5, characterised by the OCT4/SOX2/NANOG pluripotency network...
May 23, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533980/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-leads-to-the-retardation-of-early-embryonic-development-in-ndufs4-knockout-mice
#2
Mei Wang, Ya-Ping Huang, Han Wu, Ke Song, Cong Wan, A-Ni Chi, Ya-Mei Xiao, Xiao-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The NDUFS4 gene encodes an 18-kD subunit of mitochondria complex I, and mutations in this gene lead to the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease called Leigh syndrome (LS) in humans. To investigate the disease phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of Leigh syndrome, the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse has been widely used as a novel animal model. Because the homozygotes cannot survive beyond child-bearing age, whether Ndufs4 and mitochondrial complex I influence early embryonic development remains unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518115/analysis-of-retinoic-acid-induced-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-two-and-three-dimensional-embryoid-bodies
#3
Junning Yang, Chuanshen Wu, Ioana Stefanescu, Arie Horowitz
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from the inner mass of the blastocyst (typically at day E3.5), can be used as in vitro model system for studying early embryonic development. In the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ESCs differentiate by default into neural precursor cells. They can be amassed into a three dimensional (3D) spherical aggregate termed embryoid body (EB) due to its similarity to the early stage embryo. EBs can be seeded on fibronectin-coated coverslips, where they expand by growing two dimensional (2D) extensions, or implanted in 3D collagen matrices where they continue growing as spheroids, and differentiate into the three germ layers: endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511995/live-full-term-mouse-pups-from-oocytes-grown-and-matured-in-vitro-with-serum-substitutes
#4
Hideyuki H Motohashi, Ryoma Taniguchi, Junpei Sakamoto, Tadashi Sankai, Hidemi Kada
For in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocytes (IVG-IVM), serum is added to media up to and including the stage of oocyte maturation; this subsequently supports oocytes through fertilization and early embryo development. However, problems may occur with sera, such as batch differences and issues of biosafety. The purpose of the present study was to determine the capacity for fertilization and pre- and post-implantation development of oocytes that underwent IVG-IVM with a serum substitute. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes from preantral follicles were cultured in medium with either fetal bovine serum (FBS), Serum Substitute Supplement™ (SSS), or Knockout™ Serum Replacement (KSR) for 10days, and were then allowed to mature for 17 h...
May 13, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510621/mir-290-contributes-to-the-low-abundance-of-cyclin-d1-protein-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Zizhen Gong, Detao Wang, Shaoliang Zhu, Yuqing Xia, Chunsun Fan, Botao Zhao, Youxin Jin
Mouse miR-290 cluster miRNAs are expressed specifically in early embryos and embryonic germ cells. These miRNAs play critical roles in the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal. Here, we showed that Cyclin D1 is a direct target gene of miR-290 cluster miRNAs. Negative relationships between the expression of Cyclin D1 protein and miR-290 cluster miRNAs in pluripotent and non-pluripotent cells, as well as in differentiating CGR8 cells were observed. Inhibition of miR-290 cluster miRNAs could arrest cells at the G1 phase and slow down the cell proliferation in CGR8 mouse stem cells...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510270/mouse-fgf8-cre-lacz-lineage-analysis-defines-the-territory-of-the-postnatal-mammalian-isthmus
#6
Charles Watson, Tomomi Shimogori, Luis Puelles
The isthmus is recognized as the most rostral segment of the hindbrain in non-mammalian vertebrates . In mammalian embryos, transient Fgf8 expression defines the developing isthmic region, lying between the midbrain and the first rhombomere, but there has been uncertainty about the existence of a distinct isthmic segment in postnatal mammals. We attempted to find if the region of early embryonic Fgf8 expression (which is considered to involve the entire extent of the prospective isthmus initially) might help to identify the boundaries of the isthmus in postnatal animals...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507510/enhanced-axonal-extension-of-subcortical-projection-neurons-isolated-from-murine-embryonic-cortex-using-neuropilin-1
#7
Noritaka Sano, Takafumi Shimogawa, Hideya Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko Ioroi, Yoshifumi Miyawaki, Asuka Morizane, Susumu Miyamoto, Jun Takahashi
The cerebral cortical tissue of murine embryo and pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons can survive in the brain and extend axons to the spinal cord. For efficient cell integration to the corticospinal tract (CST) after transplantation, the induction or selection of cortical motor neurons is important. However, precise information about the appropriate cell population remains unclear. To address this issue, we isolated cells expressing Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a major axon guidance molecule receptor during the early developmental stage, from E14...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504700/lineage-specific-functions-of-tet1-in-the-postimplantation-mouse-embryo
#8
Rita Khoueiry, Abhishek Sohni, Bernard Thienpont, Xinlong Luo, Joris Vande Velde, Michela Bartoccetti, Bram Boeckx, An Zwijsen, Anjana Rao, Diether Lambrechts, Kian Peng Koh
The mammalian TET enzymes catalyze DNA demethylation. While they have been intensely studied as major epigenetic regulators, little is known about their physiological roles and the extent of functional redundancy following embryo implantation. Here we define non-redundant roles for TET1 at an early postimplantation stage of the mouse embryo, when its paralogs Tet2 and Tet3 are not detectably expressed. TET1 regulates numerous genes defining differentiation programs in the epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm...
May 15, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501476/endothelial-cells-are-not-required-for-specification-of-respiratory-progenitors
#9
Jamie A Havrilak, Kristin R Melton, John M Shannon
Crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cells influences organogenesis in multiple tissues, such as lung, pancreas, liver, and the nervous system. Lung mesenchyme comprises multiple cell types, however, and precise identification of the mesenchymal cell type(s) that drives early events in lung development remains unknown. Endothelial cells have been shown to be required for some aspects of lung epithelial patterning, lung stem cell differentiation, and regeneration after injury. Furthermore, endothelial cells are involved in early liver and pancreas development...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500339/a-role-for-core-planar-polarity-proteins-in-cell-contact-mediated-orientation-of-planar-cell-division-across-the-mammalian-embryonic-skin
#10
Fazal Oozeer, Laura L Yates, Charlotte Dean, Caroline J Formstone
The question of how cell division orientation is determined is fundamentally important for understanding tissue and organ shape in both healthy or disease conditions. Here we provide evidence for cell contact-dependent orientation of planar cell division in the mammalian embryonic skin. We propose a model where the core planar polarity proteins Celsr1 and Frizzled-6 (Fz6) communicate the long axis orientation of interphase basal cells to neighbouring basal mitoses so that they align their horizontal division plane along the same axis...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483779/heritable-l1-retrotransposition-in-the-mouse-primordial-germline-and-early-embryo
#11
Sandra R Richardson, Patricia Gerdes, Daniel J Gerhardt, Francisco J Sanchez-Luque, Gabriela-Oana Bodea, Martin Munoz-Lopez, J Samuel Jesuadian, Marie-Jeanne H C Kempen, Patricia E Carreira, Jeffrey A Jeddeloh, Jose L Garcia-Perez, Haig H Kazazian, Adam D Ewing, Geoffrey J Faulkner
LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a noted source of genetic diversity and disease in mammals. To expand its genomic footprint, L1 must mobilize in cells that will contribute their genetic material to subsequent generations. Heritable L1 insertions may therefore arise in germ cells and in pluripotent embryonic cells, prior to germline specification, yet the frequency and predominant developmental timing of such events remain unclear. Here, we applied mouse retrotransposon capture sequencing (mRC-seq) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to pedigrees of C57BL/6J animals, and uncovered an L1 insertion rate of ≥1 event per 8 births...
May 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#12
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475880/synthetic-embryos-windows-into-mammalian-development
#13
Aryeh Warmflash
Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can self-organize in vitro, but whether they can recreate early embryonic morphogenesis is unclear. Harrison et al. recently demonstrate in Science that 3D co-cultures of mouse ESCs and trophoblast stem cells self-organize into embryo-like structures that recreate many features of early mouse development.
May 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468752/usp4-inhibits-smad4-monoubiquitination-and-promotes-activin-and-bmp-signaling
#14
Fangfang Zhou, Feng Xie, Ke Jin, Zhengkui Zhang, Marcello Clerici, Rui Gao, Maarten van Dinther, Titia K Sixma, Huizhe Huang, Long Zhang, Peter Ten Dijke
SMAD4 is a common intracellular effector for TGF-β family cytokines, but the mechanism by which its activity is dynamically regulated is unclear. We demonstrated that ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 4 strongly induces activin/BMP signaling by removing the inhibitory monoubiquitination from SMAD4. This modification was triggered by the recruitment of the E3 ligase, SMURF2, to SMAD4 following ligand-induced regulatory (R)-SMAD-SMAD4 complex formation. Whereas the interaction of the negative regulator c-SKI inhibits SMAD4 monoubiquitination, the ligand stimulates the recruitment of SMURF2 to the c-SKI-SMAD2 complex and triggers c-SKI ubiquitination and degradation...
May 3, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464412/heart-specific-expression-of-laminopathic-mutations-in-transgenic-zebrafish
#15
Ajay D Verma, Veena K Parnaik
Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans...
May 2, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#16
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Christopher Payne, Shannon Gallagher, Terence Martin, Ursula Storb
Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b (Ssm1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, Rearrangement by Deletion). Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461656/shipment-of-live-preimplantation-stage-mouse-embryos
#17
Richard Behringer, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
Sharing genetically modified mouse models is a very important part of collaboration between researchers. Shipping live animals around the world is inconvenient, expensive, and cumbersome because of the variety of international regulations and paperwork. The issue of health status differences between animal facilities is of great importance; traditionally, imported animals are quarantined to determine their health status and avoid the introduction of undesirable pathogens. The shipment of preimplantation-stage embryos for immediate transfer into pseudopregnant recipients upon arrival is a commonly used method for transportation...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459456/dux-family-transcription-factors-regulate-zygotic-genome-activation-in-placental-mammals
#18
Alberto De Iaco, Evarist Planet, Andrea Coluccio, Sonia Verp, Julien Duc, Didier Trono
In animal embryos, transcription is mostly silent for several cell divisions, until the release of the first major wave of embryonic transcripts through so-called zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Maternally provided ZGA-triggering factors have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio, but their mammalian homologs are still undefined. Here, we provide evidence that the DUX family of transcription factors is essential to this process in mice and potentially in humans. First, human DUX4 and mouse Dux are both expressed before ZGA in their respective species...
May 1, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456971/use-of-histone-k-m-mutants-for-the-analysis-of-transcriptional-regulation-in-mouse-zygotes
#19
Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Yuki Okada
Histone modifications are dramatically altered during the pronuclear (PN) stage of zygotes, and more markedly in paternal than maternal pronuclei. Among various types of histone modifications, lysine methylation exhibits the most dynamic changes in the PN stage . To analyze the physiological functions of histone methylations, it is therefore important to elucidate the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming. However, loss-of-function approaches using mutant histones whose lysine residues have been substituted with arginine residues are unable to erase histone modifications at all levels, since they are incapable of entirely replacing endogenous histones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456962/rna-fish-to-study-zygotic-genome-activation-in-early-mouse-embryos
#20
Noémie Ranisavljevic, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Edith Heard, Katia Ancelin
Characterizing the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a central question in embryogenesis, and is critical for our understanding of early post-fertilization events in mammals. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) of mouse oocytes and early embryos has recently revealed that elaborate transcription patterns of genes and repeats are established post-fertilization. This occurs in the context of the gradually depleted maternal pool of RNA provided by the oocyte, which can confound the accurate analysis of the zygotic genome activation when the mRNA population is sequenced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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