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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918121/conserved-rules-in-embryonic-development-of-cortical-interneurons
#1
REVIEW
Christine Laclef, Christine Métin
This review will focus on early aspects of cortical interneurons (cIN) development from specification to migration and final positioning in the human cerebral cortex. These mechanisms have been largely studied in the mouse model, which provides unique possibilities of genetic analysis, essential to dissect the molecular and cellular events involved in cortical development. An important goal here is to discuss the conservation and the potential divergence of these mechanisms, with a particular interest for the situation in the human embryo...
September 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916763/maternal-diabetes-causes-developmental-delay-and-death-in-early-somite-mouse-embryos
#2
Jing Zhao, Theodorus B M Hakvoort, Jan M Ruijter, Aldo Jongejan, Jan Koster, Sigrid M A Swagemakers, Aleksandar Sokolovic, Wouter H Lamers
Maternal diabetes causes congenital malformations and delays embryonic growth in the offspring. We investigated effects of maternal diabetes on mouse embryos during gastrulation and early organogenesis (ED7.5-11.5). Female mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, treated with controlled-release insulin implants, and mated. Maternal blood glucose concentrations increased up to embryonic day (ED) 8.5. Maternal hyperglycemia induced severe growth retardation (approx.1 day) in 53% of the embryos on ED8.5, death in most of these embryos on ED9...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914881/microrna-200c-impairs-uterine-receptivity-formation-by-targeting-fut4-and-%C3%AE-1-3-fucosylation
#3
Qin Zheng, Dandan Zhang, Y U Yang, Xinyuan Cui, Jiaqi Sun, Caixia Liang, Huamin Qin, Xuesong Yang, Shuai Liu, Qiu Yan
Successful embryo implantation requires the establishment of a receptive endometrium. Poor endometrial receptivity has generally been considered as a major cause of infertility. Protein glycosylation is associated with many physiological and pathological processes. The fucosylation is catalyzed by the specific fucosyltransferases. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of α1,3-fucosylated glycans carried by glycoproteins, and the previous studies showed FUT4 expression changed dynamically during perimplantation...
September 15, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911212/apposition-to-endometrial-epithelial-cells-activates-mouse-blastocysts-for-implantation
#4
Peter T Ruane, Stéphane C Berneau, Rebekka Koeck, Jessica Watts, Susan J Kimber, Daniel R Brison, Melissa Westwood, John D Aplin
STUDY QUESTION: How do interactions between blastocyst-stage embryos and endometrial epithelial cells regulate the early stages of implantation in an in vitro model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mouse blastocyst apposition with human endometrial epithelial cells initiates trophectoderm differentiation to trophoblast, which goes on to breach the endometrial epithelium. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro models using mouse blastocysts and human endometrial cell lines have proven invaluable in the molecular characterisation of embryo attachment to endometrial epithelium at the onset of implantation...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911199/age-dependent-effects-of-armc5-haploinsufficiency-on-adrenocortical-function
#5
A Berthon, F R Faucz, S Espiard, L Drougat, J Bertherat, C A Stratakis
Inactivating mutations in the Armadillo repeat-containing 5 (ARMC5) gene have recently been discovered in primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), a cause of Cushing syndrome. Biallelic ARMC5 inactivation in PMAH suggested that ARMC5 may have tumor suppressor functions in the adrenal cortex. We generated and characterized a new mouse model of Armc5 deficiency. Almost all Armc5 knockout mice died during early embryonic development, around 6.5 and 8.5 days. Knockout embryos did not undergo gastrulation, as demonstrated by the absence of mesoderm development at E7...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893950/the-taf10-containing-tfiid-and-saga-transcriptional-complexes-are-dispensable-for-early-somitogenesis-in-the-mouse-embryo
#6
Paul Bardot, Stéphane D Vincent, Marjorie Fournier, Alexis Hubaud, Mathilde Joint, László Tora, Olivier Pourquié
During development, tightly regulated gene expression programs control cell fate and patterning. A key regulatory step in eukaryotic transcription is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) at promoters. The PIC assembly has mainly been studied in vitro, and little is known about its composition during development. In vitro data suggests that TFIID is the general transcription factor that nucleates PIC formation at promoters. Here we show that TAF10, a subunit of TFIID and of the transcriptional co-activator SAGA, is required for the assembly of these complexes in the mouse embryo...
September 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892929/connective-tissue-growth-factor-transgenic-mouse-develops-cardiac-hypertrophy-lean-body-mass-and-alopecia
#7
Edem Nuglozeh
INTRODUCTION: Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887218/the-histone-lysine-methyltransferase-ezh2-is-required-for-maintenance-of-the-intestine-integrity-and-for-caudal-fin-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#8
Barbara Dupret, Pamela Völkel, Constance Vennin, Robert-Alain Toillon, Xuefen Le Bourhis, Pierre-Olivier Angrand
The histone lysine methyltransferase EZH2, as part of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), mediates H3K27me3 methylation which is involved in gene expression program repression. Through its action, EZH2 controls cell-fate decisions during the development and the differentiation processes. Here, we report the generation and the characterization of an ezh2-deficient zebrafish line. In contrast to its essential role in mouse early development, loss of ezh2 function does not affect zebrafish gastrulation. Ezh2 zebrafish mutants present a normal body plan but die at around 12 dpf with defects in the intestine wall, due to enhanced cell death...
September 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868121/melatonin-upregulates-erbb1-and-erbb4-two-primary-implantation-receptors-in-pre-implantation-mouse-embryos
#9
Ghazaleh Moshkdanian, Fatemeh Moghani-Ghoroghi, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Atefeh Najafi, sIraj Ragerdi Kashani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluated the effects of melatonin on early embryo competence and the expression rate of the primary implantation receptors (ErbB1 and ErbB4). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-cell mouse embryos were cultured in 3 groups: simple media, melatonin-treated (10(-9) M melatonin) and Luzindole-treated (10(-9) M luzindole). Then, the rate of ErbB1 and ErbB4 gene and protein expression, the level of intracellular ROS, antioxidant capacity, and also the number of cells were evaluated and compared with the fourth group in vivo developed blastocysts (control group)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864986/the-role-of-maternal-nutrition-during-the-periconceptional-period-and-its-effect-on-offspring-phenotype
#10
Tom P Fleming, Judith J Eckert, Oleg Denisenko
The early preimplantation embryo has been rigorously studied for decades to understand inherent reproductive and developmental mechanisms driving its morphogenesis from before fertilisation through to and beyond implantation. Recent research has demonstrated that this short developmental window is also critical for the embryo's interaction with external, maternal factors, particularly nutritional status. Here, maternal dietary quality has been shown to alter the pattern of development in an enduring way that can influence health throughout the lifetime...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860385/a-microtubule-organizing-center-directing-intracellular-transport-in-the-early-mouse-embryo
#11
J Zenker, M D White, R M Templin, R G Parton, O Thorn-Seshold, S Bissiere, N Plachta
The centrosome is the primary microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) of most animal cells; however, this organelle is absent during early mammalian development. Therefore, the mechanism by which the mammalian embryo organizes its microtubules (MTs) is unclear. We visualize MT bridges connecting pairs of cells and show that the cytokinetic bridge does not undergo stereotypical abscission after cell division. Instead, it serves as scaffold for the accumulation of the MT minus-end-stabilizing protein CAMSAP3 throughout interphase, thereby transforming this structure into a noncentrosomal MTOC...
September 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859285/bovine-lineage-specification-revealed-by-single-cell-gene-expression-analysis-from-zygote-to-blastocyst
#12
Qingqing Wei, Liang Zhong, Shaopeng Zhang, Haiyuan Mu, Jinzhu Xiang, Liang Yue, Yunping Dai, Jianyong Han
Preimplantation embryos undergo zygotic genome activation and lineage specification resulting in three distinct cell types in the late blastocyst. The molecular mechanisms underlying this progress are largely unknown in bovines. Here, we sought to analyze an extensive set of regulators at the single-cell level to define the events involved in the development of the bovine blastocyst. Using a quantitative microfluidics approach in single cells, we analyzed mRNA levels of 96 genes known to function in early embryonic development and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency in parallel in 384 individual cells from bovine preimplantation embryos...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859280/subfertility-in-bulls-carrying-a-nonsense-mutation-in-transmembrane-protein-95-is-due-to-failure-to-interact-with-the-oocyte-vestments
#13
Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Ricardo Laguna-Barraza, Raul Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso Blanco-Fernandez, Alan M O'Doherty, Mauro Di Fenza, Alan K Kelly, Sabine Kölle, Patrick Lonergan
In a recent genome-wide association study, 40 Fleckvieh bulls with exceptionally poor fertility were found to be homozygous for a nonsense mutation in the transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95) encoding gene. Ejaculates from these individuals exhibited normal sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and motility. However, only 1.7% of inseminations resulted in pregnancies. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this mutation in TMEM95 on bovine sperm function in vitro. Sperm from homozygous (mt/mt) males had lower in vitro fertility than sperm from wild-type (wt/wt) or heterozygous (wt/mt) bulls (P < 0...
July 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859152/elevated-aminopeptidase-n-affects-sperm-motility-and-early-embryo-development
#14
Amena Khatun, Md Saidur Rahman, Do-Yeal Ryu, Woo-Sung Kwon, Myung-Geol Pang
Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a naturally occurring ectopeptidase present in mammalian semen. Previous studies have demonstrated that APN adversely affects male fertility through the alteration of sperm motility. This enzyme constitutes 0.5 to 1% of the seminal plasma proteins, which can be transferred from the prostasomes to sperms by a fusion process. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of action of APN and its role in regulating sperm functions and male fertility. In this in vitro study, epididymal mouse spermatozoa were incubated in a capacitating media (pH 7) containing 20 ng/mL of recombinant mouse APN for 90 min...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854362/loss-of-apela-peptide-in-mice-causes-low-penetrance-embryonic-lethality-and-defects-in-early-mesodermal-derivatives
#15
Laina Freyer, Chih-Wei Hsu, Sonja Nowotschin, Andrea Pauli, Junji Ishida, Keiji Kuba, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Alexander F Schier, Pamela A Hoodless, Mary E Dickinson, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
Apela (also known as Elabela, Ende, and Toddler) is a small signaling peptide that activates the G-protein-coupled receptor Aplnr to stimulate cell migration during zebrafish gastrulation. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a null, reporter-expressing allele, we study the role of Apela in the developing mouse embryo. We found that loss of Apela results in low-penetrance cardiovascular defects that manifest after the onset of circulation. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography revealed a higher penetrance of vascular remodeling defects, from which some mutants recover, and identified extraembryonic anomalies as the earliest morphological distinction in Apela mutant embryos...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851825/embryo-biopsy-and-development-the-known-and-unknown
#16
Federica Zacchini, Roberta Arena, Adam Abramik, Grazyna Ewa Ptak
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has been introduced in clinical practice as a tool for selecting "healthy" embryos before their transfer in utero. PGD protocols include biopsy of cleaving embryos (Blastomere Biopsy - BB) or blastocysts (trophectoderm biopsy - TB), followed by genetic analysis to select "healthy" embryos for transfer in utero. Currently, TB is replacing the use of BB in the clinical practice. However, based on the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Consortium reports, BB has been used in >87% of PGD cycles for more than 10 years...
August 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846101/line-1-activation-after-fertilization-regulates-global-chromatin-accessibility-in-the-early-mouse-embryo
#17
Joanna W Jachowicz, Xinyang Bing, Julien Pontabry, Ana Bošković, Oliver J Rando, Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla
After fertilization, to initiate development, gametes are reprogramed to become totipotent. Approximately half of the mammalian genome consists of repetitive elements, including retrotransposons, some of which are transcribed after fertilization. Retrotransposon activation is generally assumed to be a side effect of the extensive chromatin remodeling underlying the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes. Here, we used a targeted epigenomic approach to address whether specific retrotransposon families play a direct role in chromatin organization and developmental progression...
August 28, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834535/esrrb-an-estrogen-related-receptor-involved-in-early-development-pluripotency-and-reprogramming
#18
REVIEW
Nicola Festuccia, Nick Owens, Pablo Navarro
Estrogen-related receptor b (Esrrb) is part of a family of three orphan nuclear receptors with broad expression profiles and a generic function in regulating energy metabolism in mammals. However, Esrrb performs specific functions during early mouse development, in pluripotent and multipotent populations of the embryo as well as in primordial germ cells. Moreover, Esrrb also impinges upon the control of self-renewal in embryo-derived stem cells and enhances reprogramming. Here, we review the function of Esrrb with special emphasis on its role in pluripotency...
August 23, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827407/arl8b-is-required-for-lysosomal-degradation-of-maternal-proteins-in-the-visceral-yolk-sac-endoderm-of-mouse-embryos
#19
Miho Oka, Keisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Yamaguchi, Shin-Ichiro Saitoh, Yuki Sugiura, Yuji Motoi, Kurara Honda, Yorifumi Kikko, Shinya Ohata, Makoto Suematsu, Masayuki Miura, Kensuke Miyake, Toshiaki Katada, Kenji Kontani
The small GTPase Arl8b localizes primarily to lysosomes and is involved in lysosomal motility and fusion. Here, we show that Arl8b is required for lysosomal degradation of maternal proteins in the visceral yolk sac endoderm (VYSE), an apical cell layer of the visceral yolk sac, of mouse embryos. The VYSE actively takes up maternal materials from uterine fluid and degrades them in lysosomes to provide breakdown products to the embryo as energy sources. Arl8b gene-trap mice (Arl8b(-/-) ) displayed decreased early embryo body size...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826842/retinoid-roles-and-action-in-skeletal-development-and-growth-provide-the-rationale-for-an-ongoing-heterotopic-ossification-prevention-trial
#20
Maurizio Pacifici
The majority of skeletal elements develop via endochondral ossification. This process starts with formation of mesenchymal cell condensations at prescribed sites and times in the early embryo and is followed by chondrogenesis, growth plate cartilage maturation and hypertrophy, and replacement of cartilage with bone and marrow. This complex stepwise process is reactivated and recapitulated in physiologic conditions such as fracture repair, but can occur extraskeletally in pathologies including heterotopic ossification (HO), Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME)...
August 18, 2017: Bone
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