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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103468/poly-a-binding-proteins-are-required-for-translational-regulation-in-vertebrate-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#1
Saffet Ozturk, Fatma Uysal
Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) function in the timely regulation of gene expression during oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development in vertebrates. To this end, PABPs bind to poly(A) tails or specific sequences of maternally stored mRNAs to protect them from degradation and to promote their translational activities. To date, two structurally different PABP groups have been identified: (1) cytoplasmic PABPs, including poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB), induced PABP and poly(A)-binding protein, cytoplasmic 3; and (2) nuclear PABPs, namely embryonic poly(A)-binding protein 2 and nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1...
January 20, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101448/acetylsalicylic-acid-interferes-with-embryonic-kidney-growth-and-development-by-a-prostaglandin-independent-mechanism
#2
Simon J M Welham, Alexander J Sparrow, David S Gardner, Matthew J Elmes
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on ex vivo embryonic kidney growth and development. METHODS: Pairs of fetal mouse kidneys at embryonic day 12.5 were cultured ex vivo in increasing concentrations of ASA (0.04-0.4 mg/mL) for up to 7 d. One organ from each pair was grown in control media and was used as the internal control for the experimental contralateral organ. In some experiments, organs were treated with ASA for 48 h and then transferred either to control media alone or control media containing 10 μmol/L prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for a further 5 d...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087626/snail2-and-zeb2-repress-p-cadherin-to-define-embryonic-territories-in-the-chick-embryo
#3
Hervé Acloque, Oscar H Ocaña, Diana Abad, Claudio D Stern, M Angela Nieto
Snail and Zeb transcription factors induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in embryonic and adult tissues by direct repression of E-Cadherin transcription. The repression of E-Cadherin transcription by the EMT inducers Snail1 and Zeb2 plays a fundamental role in defining embryonic territories in the mouse, as E-Cadherin needs to be downregulated in the primitive streak and in the epiblast concomitant with the formation of mesendodermal precursors and the neural plate, respectively. Here we show that in the chick embryo, E-Cadherin is weakly expressed in the epiblast at pre-primitive streak stages where it is substituted by P-Cadherin We also show that Snail2 and Zeb2 repress P-Cadherin transcription in the primitive streak and the neural plate, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073917/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf114-and-tab1-degradation-are-required-for-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#4
Ye Yang, Cheng Zhou, Ying Wang, Weixiao Liu, Chao Liu, Liying Wang, Yujiao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Mingrui Li, Shuai Zhou, Yuanting Wang, Wentao Zeng, Jianli Zhou, Ran Huo, Wei Li
The functional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rnf114, is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and that knockdown of Rnf114 inhibits development beyond the two-cell stage. To study the underlying mechanism, we identify its candidate substrates using a 9,000-protein microarray and validate them using an in vitro ubiquitination system. We show that five substrates could be degraded by RNF114-mediated ubiquitination, including TAB1...
January 10, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069738/fbxl5-inactivation-in-mouse-brain-induces-aberrant-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#5
Takayoshi Yamauchi, Masaaki Nishiyama, Toshiro Moroishi, Atsuki Kawamura, Keiichi I Nakayama
FBXL5 is the substrate recognition subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase that serves as a master regulator of iron metabolism in mammalian cells. We previously showed that mice with systemic deficiency of FBXL5 fail to sense intracellular iron levels and die in utero at embryonic day (E) 8.5 as a result of iron overload and subsequent oxidative stress. This early embryonic mortality has thus impeded study of the role of FBXL5 in brain development. We have now generated mice lacking FBXL5 specifically in Nestin-expressing neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the brain...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061351/new-insights-into-early-human-development-lessons-for-stem-cell-derivation-and-differentiation
#6
REVIEW
Janet Rossant, Patrick P L Tam
Pathways underlying mouse embryonic development have always informed efforts to derive, maintain, and drive differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. However, direct application of mouse embryology to the human system has not always been successful because of fundamental developmental differences between species. The naive pluripotent state of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), in particular, has been difficult to capture in human ESCs, and appears to be transitory in the human embryo itself. Further studies of human and non-human primate embryo development are needed to untangle the complexities of pluripotency networks across mammalian species...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057273/eomesodermin-at-dawn-of-cell-fate-decisions-during-early-embryogenesis
#7
S Probst, S J Arnold
Proteins of the large family of T-box transcription factors are implicated in a broad spectrum of developmental processes. Loss-of-function mutations of T-box(Tbx) factors frequently cause severe embryonic phenotypes, often resulting from defects in cell fate specification and lineage differentiation. This review summarizes current knowledge on the functions of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (Eomes) from postfertilization development until gastrulation stages of vertebrate embryos. Eomes exhibits evolutionary conserved functions in cell lineage specification and morphogenesis during gastrulation in all studied vertebrate model systems...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049832/forkhead-box-a2-foxa2-is-essential-for-uterine-function-and-fertility
#8
Andrew M Kelleher, Wang Peng, James K Pru, Cindy A Pru, Francesco J DeMayo, Thomas E Spencer
Establishment of pregnancy is a critical event, and failure of embryo implantation and stromal decidualization in the uterus contribute to significant numbers of pregnancy losses in women. Glands of the uterus are essential for establishment of pregnancy in mice and likely in humans. Forkhead box a2 (FOXA2) is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the glands of the uterus and is a critical regulator of postnatal uterine gland differentiation in mice. In this study, we conditionally deleted FOXA2 in the adult mouse uterus using the lactotransferrin Cre (Ltf-Cre) model and in the neonatal mouse uterus using the progesterone receptor Cre (Pgr-Cre) model...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049782/derivation-and-culture-of-extra-embryonic-endoderm-stem-cell-lines
#9
Peter Rugg-Gunn
Whereas embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the embryonic lineage of the blastocyst, other stable stem cell lines can be derived from the extraembryonic tissues of the early mouse embryo. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are derived from trophectoderm and early postimplantation trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm stem (XEN) cells are derived from primitive endoderm. The derivation of XEN cell lines from 3.5-dpc mouse blastocysts, described here, is similar to the derivation of TS cell lines. TS and XEN cells can self-renew in vitro and differentiate in vitro and in chimeras (in vivo) in a lineage-appropriate manner, showing the developmental potential of their origin, thus providing important models to study the mouse extraembryonic lineages...
January 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049687/towards-a-crispr-view-of-early-human-development-applications-limitations-and-ethical-concerns-of-genome-editing-in-human-embryos
#10
Alvaro Plaza Reyes, Fredrik Lanner
Developmental biologists have become increasingly aware that the wealth of knowledge generated through genetic studies of pre-implantation mouse development might not easily be translated to the human embryo. Comparative studies have been fueled by recent technological advances in single-cell analysis, allowing in-depth analysis of the human embryo. This field could shortly gain more momentum as novel genome editing technologies might, for the first time, also allow functional genetic studies in the human embryo...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046063/three-dimensional-high-frequency-ultrasonography-for-early-detection-and-characterization-of-embryo-implantation-site-development-in-the-mouse
#11
Mary C Peavey, Corey L Reynolds, Maria M Szwarc, William E Gibbons, Cecilia T Valdes, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043375/comparative-dynamics-of-5-methylcytosine-reprogramming-and-tet-family-expression-during-preimplantation-mammalian-development-in-mouse-and-sheep
#12
F Jafarpour, S M Hosseini, S Ostadhosseini, H Abbasi, A Dalman, M H Nasr-Esfahani
Despite previous assumption that paternal active DNA demethylation is an evolutionary conserved phenomenon in mammals, emerging studies in other species, particularly sheep, do not support this issue. Recently, ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes have been suggested as intermediates in genome-wide DNA demethylation through the iterative conversion of five methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)/5-formylcytosine/5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) derivatives. This study investigated whether TET enzymes and 5mC derivatives are also involved in dynamic reprogramming of early sheep embryos derived by fertilization...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042535/effects-of-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-administrations-on-oocyte-meiotic-maturation-apoptosis-and-gene-quantification-in-mouse-model
#13
Forouzan Absalan, Sadegh Saremy, Esrafil Mansori, Mahin Taheri Moghadam, Ali Reza Eftekhari Moghadam, Razie Ghanavati
OBJECTIVE: Phthalates, which are commonly used to render plastics into soft and flexible materials, have also been determined as developmental and reproductive toxicants in human and animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mono-(2- ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) oral administrations on maturation of mouse oocytes, apoptosis and gene transcription levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, immature oocytes recovered from Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mouse strain (6-8 weeks), were divided into seven different experimental and control groups...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035666/roles-and-regulations-of-hippo-signaling-during-preimplantation-mouse-development
#14
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sasaki
During preimplantation development, mouse embryos form two types of cells, the trophoectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), by the early blastocyst stage. This process does not require maternal factors localized in the zygotes, and embryos self-organize at the blastocyst stage through intercellular communications. In terms of the mechanisms of cell fate specification, three historical models have been proposed: the positional model, and the original and newer versions of the polarity model. Recent studies have revealed that the intercellular Hippo signaling pathway plays a central role in the specification of the first cell fates...
December 30, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031467/maternal-sall4-is-indispensable-for-epigenetic-maturation-of-mouse-oocytes
#15
Kai Xu, Xia Chen, Hui Yang, Yiwen Xu, Yuanlin He, Chenfei Wang, Hua Huang, Baodong Liu, Wenqiang Liu, Jingyi Li, Xiaochen Kou, Yanhong Zhao, Kun Zhao, Linfeng Zhang, Zhenzhen Hou, Hong Wang, Hailin Wang, Jing Li, Hengyu Fan, Fengchao Wang, Yawei Gao, Yong Zhang, Jiayu Chen, Shaorong Gao
Splat-like 4 (Sall4) plays important roles in maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and in various developmental processes. Here, we find that Sall4 is highly expressed in oocytes and early embryos. To investigate the roles of SALL4 in oogenesis, we generated Sall4 maternal specific knockout mice by using CRISPR/Cas9 system. And we find that the maternal deletion of Sall4 causes developmental arrest of oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with non-surrounded nucleus and the subsequent meiosis resumption is prohibited...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013042/production-of-stable-gfp-expressing-neural-cells-from-p19-embryonal-carcinoma-stem-cells
#16
Hedayatollah Shirzad, Fariba Esmaeili, Shabnam Bakhshalizadeh, Marzieh Ebrahimie, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
Murine P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are convenient to differentiate into all germ layer derivatives. One of the advantages of P19 cells is that the exogenous DNA can be easily inserted into them. Here, at the first part of this study, we generated stable GFP-expressing P19 cells (P19-GFP(+)). FACS and western-blot analysis confirmed stable expression of GFP in the cells. We previously demonstrated the efficient induction of neuronal differentiation from mouse ES and EC cells by application of a neuroprotective drug, selegiline In the second part of this study selegiline was used to induce differentiation of P19-GFP(+) into stable GFP-expressing neuron-like cells...
December 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007692/micrornas-are-stored-in-human-mii-oocyte-and-their-expression-profile-changes-in-reproductive-aging
#17
Rosalia Battaglia, Maria Elena Vento, Marco Ragusa, Davide Barbagallo, Alessandro La Ferlita, Giovanna Di Emidio, Placido Borzí, Paolo Giovanni Artini, Paolo Scollo, Carla Tatone, Michele Purrello, Cinzia Di Pietro
Maternal RNAs are synthesized by the oocyte during its growth; some of them are utilized for oocyte-specific processes and metabolism, others are stored and used during early development before embryonic genome activation. The appropriate expression of complex sets of genes is needed for oocyte maturation and early embryo development. In spite of the basic role of noncoding RNAs in the regulation of gene expression, few studies have analyzed their role in human oocytes. In this study, we identified the microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in human metaphase II stage oocytes, and found that some of them are able to control pluripotency, chromatin remodeling, and early embryo development...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004066/-effect-of-secretin-on-the-expression-of-cpla2-and-mpges-1-in-mouse-endometrial-stromal-cell-during-early-pregnancy
#18
Zhu Huang, Yi-Feng Ge, Jun Jing, Lin Wu, Zheng-Yu Zhou, Qing-Feng Zhu, Ting-Zhe Sun
Secretin, a gastrointestinal peptide, has been found to be expressed in mouse endometrial stromal cells (mESCs) during early pregnancy. In order to further investigate the function of secretin during embryo implantation, the expression levels of secretin, secretin receptor, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and membrane prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGEs-1) were detected in the mice uterus from day 4 to 8 of pregnancy by real-time PCR, ELISA and in situ hybridization. mESCs isolated and cultured from day 4 of pregnancy were transfected with secretin expression vectors or treated with H89, a PKA inhibitor...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993980/genetic-mosaics-and-time-lapse-imaging-identify-functions-of-h3-3-residues-in-mouse-oocytes-and-embryos
#19
Liquan Zhou, Boris Baibakov, Bertram Canagarajah, Bo Xiong, Jurrien Dean
During development from oocyte to embryo, genetic programs in mouse germ cells are reshaped by chromatin remodeling to orchestrate the onset of development. Epigenetic modifications of specific amino-acid residues of core histones and their isoforms can dramatically alter activation and suppression of gene expression. H3.3 is a histone H3 variant that plays essential roles in mouse oocytes and early embryos, but the functional role of individual amino acid residues has been unclear because of technical hurdles...
December 19, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989768/xact-noncoding-rna-competes-with-xist-in-the-control-of-x-chromosome-activity-during-human-early-development
#20
Céline Vallot, Catherine Patrat, Amanda J Collier, Christophe Huret, Miguel Casanova, Tharvesh M Liyakat Ali, Matteo Tosolini, Nelly Frydman, Edith Heard, Peter J Rugg-Gunn, Claire Rougeulle
Sex chromosome dosage compensation is essential in most metazoans, but the developmental timing and underlying mechanisms vary significantly, even among placental mammals. Here we identify human-specific mechanisms regulating X chromosome activity in early embryonic development. Single-cell RNA sequencing and imaging revealed co-activation and accumulation of the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) XACT and XIST on active X chromosomes in both early human pre-implantation embryos and naive human embryonic stem cells...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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