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Mouse early embryo

Xuezhou Yang, Junning Yao, Qipeng Wei, Jinhai Ye, Xiaofang Yin, Xiaozhen Quan, Yanli Lan, Hui Xing
Chemerin is a cytokine that attracts much attention in the reproductive process. This study aimed to explore the effects of chemerin and its receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) on the maintenance of early pregnancy. The expression levels of chemerin and CMKLR1 in the decidua tissues of 20 early normal pregnant women and 20 early spontaneous abortion women were examined byWestern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. CMKLR1 receptor antagonist (α-NETA) was then intrauterinely injected into normal pregnant mice model to assess its effect on the outcome of pregnancy and the phosphorylation rate of ERK1/2 in decidua tissues...
March 17, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Jérome Chal, Ziad Al Tanoury, Masayuki Oginuma, Philippe Moncuquet, Bénédicte Gobert, Ayako Miyanari, Olivier Tassy, Getzabel Guevara, Alexis Hubaud, Agata Bera, Olga Sumara, Jean-Marie Garnier, Leif Kennedy, Marie Knockaert, Barbara Gayraud-Morel, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Olivier Pourquié
Body skeletal muscles derive from the paraxial mesoderm, which forms in the posterior region of the embryo. Using microarrays, we characterize novel mouse presomitic mesoderm (PSM) markers and show that, unlike the abrupt transcriptome reorganization of the PSM, neural tube differentiation is accompanied by progressive transcriptome changes. The early paraxial mesoderm differentiation stages can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. While Wnt activation alone can induce posterior PSM markers, acquisition of a committed PSM fate and efficient differentiation into anterior PSM Pax3+ identity further requires BMP inhibition to prevent progenitors from drifting to a lateral plate mesoderm fate...
March 19, 2018: Development
M Musy, K Flaherty, J Raspopovic, A Robert-Moreno, J Richtsmeier, J Sharpe
To determine the developmental stage of embryonic mice we apply a geometric morphometric approach to the changing shape of the mouse limb bud as it grows from embryonic day 10 to embryonic day 15 post conception. As the ontogenetic sequence results in the de novo emergence of shape features not present in the early stages, we have created a standard ontogenetic trajectory for limb bud development - a quantitative characterization of shape change during limb morphogenesis. This trajectory of form as a function of time also gives us the reverse function: the ability to infer developmental stage from form, with a typical uncertainty of 2 hours...
March 14, 2018: Development
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J Ryder, Diane Gleeson, Emma Siragher, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Nicole Staudt, Neha Wali, John Collins, Stefan Geyer, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Antonella Galli, James C Smith, Elizabeth Robertson, David J Adams, Wolfgang J Weninger, Timothy Mohun, Myriam Hemberger
Large-scale phenotyping efforts have demonstrated that approximately 25-30% of mouse gene knockouts cause intrauterine lethality. Analysis of these mutants has largely focused on the embryo and not the placenta, despite the crucial role of this extraembryonic organ for developmental progression. Here we screened 103 embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines from the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders program for placental phenotypes. We found that 68% of knockout lines that are lethal at or after mid-gestation exhibited placental dysmorphologies...
March 14, 2018: Nature
Buqing Ye, Benyu Liu, Liuliu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Dongdong Zhang, Wei Wu, Pingping Zhu, Yanying Wang, Shuo Wang, Pengyan Xia, Ying Du, Shu Meng, Guanling Huang, Jiayi Wu, Runsheng Chen, Yong Tian, Zusen Fan
Divergent long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a major lncRNA biotype in mouse and human genomes. The biological and molecular functions of the divergent lncRNAs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that lncKdm2b , a divergent lncRNA for Kdm2b gene, is conserved among five mammalian species and highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and early embryos. LncKdm2b knockout impairs ESC self-renewal and causes early embryonic lethality. LncKdm2b can activate Zbtb3 by promoting the assembly and ATPase activity of Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein (SRCAP) complex in trans Zbtb3 potentiates the ESC self-renewal in a Nanog-dependent manner...
March 13, 2018: EMBO Journal
Denisa Jansova, Anna Tetkova, Marketa Koncicka, Michal Kubelka, Andrej Susor
The tight correlation between mRNA distribution and subsequent protein localization and function indicate a major role for mRNA localization within the cell. RNA localization, followed by local translation, presents a mechanism for spatial and temporal gene expression regulation utilized by various cell types. However, little is known about mRNA localization and translation in the mammalian oocyte and early embryo. Importantly, fully-grown oocyte becomes transcriptionally inactive and only utilizes transcripts previously synthesized and stored during earlier development...
2018: PloS One
Maria Gomes Fernandes, Monika Bialecka, Daniela C F Salvatori, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
STUDY QUESTION: Which set of antibodies can be used to identify migratory and early post-migratory human primordial germ cells (hPGCs)? STUDY FINDING: We validated the specificity of 33 antibodies for 31 markers, including POU5F1, NANOG, PRDM1 and TFAP2C as specific markers of hPGCs at 4.5 weeks of development of Carnegie stage (CS12-13), whereas KIT and SOX17 also marked the intra-aortic hematopoietic stem cell cluster in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The dynamics of gene expression during germ cell development in mice is well characterized and this knowledge has proved crucial to allow the development of protocols for the in-vitro derivation of functional gametes...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Tapan Kumar Mistri, Wibowo Arindrarto, Wei Ping Ng, Choayang Wang, Leng Hiong Lim, Lili Sun, Ian Chambers, Thorsten Wohland, Paul Robson
Oct4 and Sox2 regulate the expression of target genes such as Nanog, Fgf4 and Utf1 , by binding to their respective regulatory motifs. Their functional cooperation is reflected in their ability to heterodimerise on adjacent cis regulatory motifs, the composite Sox/Oct motif. Given that Oct4 and Sox2 regulate many developmental genes, a quantitative analysis of their synergistic action on different Sox/Oct motifs would yield valuable insights into the mechanisms of early embryonic development. In this study, we measured binding affinities of Oct4 and Sox2 to different Sox/Oct motifs using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS)...
February 27, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Kilian Simmet, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Julia Philippou-Massier, Helmut Blum, Nikolai Klymiuk, Eckhard Wolf
Mammalian preimplantation development involves two lineage specifications: first, the CDX2-expressing trophectoderm (TE) and a pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) are separated during blastocyst formation. Second, the pluripotent epiblast (EPI; expressing NANOG) and the differentiated primitive endoderm (PrE; expressing GATA6) diverge within the ICM. Studies in mice revealed that OCT4/POU5F1 is at the center of a pluripotency regulatory network. To study the role of OCT4 in bovine preimplantation development, we generated OCT4 knockout (KO) fibroblasts by CRISPR-Cas9 and produced embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephanie Bissiere, Maxime Gasnier, Yanina D Alvarez, Nicolas Plachta
The early mouse embryo offers a phenomenal system to dissect how changes in the mechanisms controlling cell fate are integrated with morphogenetic events at the single-cell level. New technologies based on live imaging have enabled the discovery of dynamic changes in the regulation of single genes, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms directing early cell fate decision in the early embryo. Here, we review recent progress in linking molecular dynamic events occurring at the level of the single cell in vivo, to some of the key morphogenetic changes regulating early mouse development...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Matthew J Stower, Shankar Srinivas
The establishment of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is a fundamental event during early development and marks the start of the process by which the basic body plan is laid down. This axial information determines where gastrulation, that generates and positions cells of the three-germ layers, occurs. A-P patterning requires coordinated interactions between multiple tissues, tight spatiotemporal control of signaling pathways, and the coordination of tissue growth with morphogenetic movements. In the mouse, a specialized population of cells, the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) undergoes a migration event critical for correct A-P pattern...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Sissy E Wamaitha, Kathy K Niakan
Understanding the progression of early human embryonic development prior to implantation is of fundamental biological importance. Greater insights into early developmental events may lead to clinical improvements, not only via the establishment of novel stem cell models with increased potential or more physiological relevance, but also by uncovering some underlying causes of infertility, miscarriages, and developmental disorders. The majority of human embryos available for study are those donated to research once they are surplus to family building following in vitro fertilization, though in some countries it is also possible to create embryos using donated gametes...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Anna Piliszek, Zofia E Madeja
During the first days following fertilization, cells of mammalian embryo gradually lose totipotency, acquiring distinct identity. The first three lineages specified in the mammalian embryo are pluripotent epiblast, which later gives rise to the embryo proper, and two extraembryonic lineages, hypoblast (also known as primitive endoderm) and trophectoderm, which form tissues supporting development of the fetus in utero. Most of our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of early lineage specification in mammals comes from studies in the mouse...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Michelle K Y Seah, Daniel M Messerschmidt
When reflecting about cell fate commitment we think of differentiation. Be it during embryonic development or in an adult stem cell niche, where cells of a higher potency specialize and cell fate decisions are taken. Under normal circumstances this process is definitive and irreversible. Cell fate commitment is achieved by the establishment of cell-type-specific transcriptional programmes, which in turn are guided, reinforced, and ultimately locked-in by epigenetic mechanisms. Yet, this plunging drift in cellular potency linked to epigenetically restricted access to genomic information is problematic for reproduction...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Jennifer Nichols, Ramiro Alberio
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), derived from preimplantation embryos in 1981, defined mammalian pluripotency for many decades. However, after the derivation of human ESC in 1998, comparative studies showed that different types of pluripotency exist in early embryos and that these can be captured in vitro under various culture conditions. Over the past decade much has been learned about the key signaling pathways, growth factor requirements, and transcription factor profiles of pluripotent cells in embryos, allowing improvement of derivation and culture conditions for novel pluripotent stem cell types...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Takayuki Tatsumi, Kaori Takayama, Shunsuke Ishii, Atsushi Yamamoto, Taichi Hara, Naojiro Minami, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Toshiro Kubota, Akira Matsuura, Eisuke Itakura, Satoshi Tsukamoto
Although autophagy is classically viewed as a non-selective degradation system, recent studies have revealed that various forms of selective autophagy also play crucial physiological roles. However, the induction of selective autophagy is not well understood. In this study, we established a forced selective autophagy system using a fusion of an autophagy adaptor and a substrate-binding protein. In both mammalian cells and fertilized mouse embryos, efficient forced lipophagy was induced by expression of a fusion of p62 (Sqstm1) and a lipid droplet (LD)-binding domain...
February 23, 2018: Development
Da Mi, Zhen Li, Lynette Lim, Mingfeng Li, Monika Moissidis, Yifei Yang, Tianliuyun Gao, Tim Xiaoming Hu, Thomas Pratt, David J Price, Nenad Sestan, Oscar Marín
GABAergic interneurons regulate neural circuit activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex. These cortical interneurons are structurally and functionally diverse. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to study the origins of this diversity in mouse. We identify distinct types of progenitor cells and newborn neurons in the ganglionic eminences, the embryonic proliferative regions that give rise to cortical interneurons. These embryonic precursors show temporally and spatially restricted transcriptional patterns that lead to different classes of interneurons in the adult cerebral cortex...
February 22, 2018: Science
Young Sun Hwang, Minseok Seo, Bo Ram Lee, Hong Jo Lee, Young Hyun Park, Sang Kyung Kim, Hyung Chul Lee, Hee Jung Choi, Joon Yoon, Heebal Kim, Jae Yong Han
The phylogenomics and comparative functional genomics of avian species were investigated in the Bird10K project because of the important evolutionary position of birds and their value as a research model. However, the systematic profiling of transcriptional changes prior to oviposition has not been investigated in avian species because of the practical difficulties in obtaining pre-oviposited eggs. In this study, a total of 137 pre-oviposited embryos were collected from hen ovaries and oviducts and subjected to RNA sequencing analyses...
February 21, 2018: Development
Yung-Chun Wang, Ya-Hui Chuang, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether lncRNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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