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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166269/selected-steps-of-swine-icsi-method-to-overcome-seasonal-effect-and-achieve-acceptable-early-embryonic-development-a-preliminary-study
#1
I A Tsakmakidis, M Tsantarliotou, I A Michos, A G Basioura, G Tsousis, C M Boscos
Porcine intra cytoplasmic sperm injection's (ICSI) efficacy by selected protocol steps was investigated. Three trials per year's period (hot, medium, cold) were carried out. Only large size follicles (6-8mm) were aspirated, brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test was performed and only the BCB+ oocytes were in vitro maturated (40h) and involved to ICSI process. The presumptive embryos were in vitro cultured (15h). Raw boar semen and SpermCatch® as slowing medium were used. No differences were observed between periods regarding early embryonic development and maturation competence...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165653/transgenerational-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-gene-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-imprinted-genes-in-brain
#2
Zuzana Drobná, Anne D Henriksen, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Catalina Montiel, Philip S Lambeth, Stephen Shang, Erin P Harris, Changqing Zhou, Jodi A Flaws, Mazhar Adli, Emilie F Rissman
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous man-made endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). Developmental exposure to BPA changes behavioral and reproductive phenotypes and these effects can last for generations. We exposed embryos to BPA producing two lineages: controls and BPA-exposed. In the third generation (F3), brain tissues containing the preoptic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamus were collected. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and subsequent data analyses revealed 50 differentially regulated genes in the brains of F3 juveniles from BPA- versus control-lineages...
November 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164502/superovulation-alters-dna-methyltransferase-protein-expression-in-mouse-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#3
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk, Gokhan Akkoyunlu
PURPOSE: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that plays critical roles during mammalian oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. It is achieved by adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites using DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes for de novo and maintenance methylation processes. DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B play important roles in establishing methylation of developmentally related genes in oocytes and early embryos...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163825/maternal-histone-acetyltransferase-kat8-is-required-for-porcine-preimplantation-embryo-development
#4
Zubing Cao, Ronghua Wu, Di Gao, Tengteng Xu, Lei Luo, Yunsheng Li, Jianyong Han, Yunhai Zhang
K (lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8), an acetyltransferase that specifically catalyzes histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation, is critical for key biological processes including cell proliferation and maintenance of genome stability. However, the role of KAT8 during preimplantation development in pigs remains unclear. Results herein showed that KAT8 mRNA is maternally derived and it is required for successful development of early embryos. An abundance of KAT8 transcripts are expressed in oocytes and its abundance continuously decreases throughout meiotic maturation and preimplantation development...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163070/origin-and-migration-of-olfactory-cajal-retzius-cells
#5
María Daniela Frade-Pérez, Amaya Miquelajáuregui, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría
Early telencephalic development involves the migration of diverse cell types that can be identified by specific molecular markers. Most prominent among them are Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells that emanate mainly from the cortical hem and to a lesser extent from rostrolateral, septal and caudo-medial regions. One additional territory proposed to give rise to CR cells that migrate dorsally into the neocortex lies at the ventral pallium, although contradictory results question this notion. With the use of a cell-permeable fluorescent tracer in cultured embryos, we identified novel migratory paths of putative CR cells and other populations that originate from the rostrolateral telencephalon at its olfactory region...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163030/tcf12-is-involved-in-early-cell-fate-determination-and-subset-specification-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#6
Simone Mesman, Marten P Smidt
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein family has previously been shown to be involved in the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons in the murine midbrain. Specifically, Ngn2 and Mash1 are known to have a role in the specification of neural progenitors in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the midbrain towards an mdDA neuronal cell-fate. Furthermore, other members of the bHLH protein family, the E-box factors, are expressed in the developing midbrain and are thought to have a role in neuronal differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162723/the-transcription-factor-foxc1a-in-zebrafish-directly-regulates-expression-of-nkx2-5-encoding-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#7
Yunyun Yue, Mingyang Jiang, Luqingqing He, Zhaojunjie Zhang, Qinxin Zhang, Chun Gu, Meijing Liu, Nan Li, Qingshun Zhao
Cardiogenesis is a tightly controlled biological process required for formation of a functional heart. The transcription factor Foxc1 not only plays a crucial role in outflow tract development in mice, but is also involved in  cardiac structure formation and normal function in human. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Foxc1 controls cardiac development remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that zebrafish embryos deficient in foxc1a, an ortholog of mammalian Foxc1, display pericardial edemas and die 9-10 days post fertilization...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162700/double-strand-dna-breaks-are-mainly-repaired-by-the-homologous-recombination-pathway-in-early-developing-swine-embryos
#8
Rodrigo C Bohrer, Naomi Dicks, Karina Gutierrez, Raj Duggavathi, Vilceu Bordignon
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are less frequent than single-strand breaks but have more harmful consequences on cell survival and physiology. Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) are the two main pathways that are responsible for DSB repair in eukaryotic cells, but their importance for the preservation of genome stability in totipotent blastomeres of early developing embryos has not been determined. In this study, we observed that the chemical inhibition of HR or both pathways, but not NHEJ alone, increased the number of DSBs, reduced embryo development to the blastocyst stage, and resulted in embryos with higher proportions of apoptotic cells...
November 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162510/unravelling-the-link-between-embryogenesis-and-cancer-metastasis
#9
Kanisha Shah, Shanaya Patel, Sheefa Mirza, Rakesh M Rawal
PURPOSE: Cancer as opposed to embryonic development is characterized by dysregulated, uncontrolled and clonal growth of cells. Inspite of that they share certain commonality in gene expression patterns and a number of cellular & molecular features. Consequently, in the present study we aimed to evaluate the role of a definite set of genes in fetal liver, primary liver cancers and metastatic liver tissue. METHODS: The relative expression of fourteen candidate genes obtained by data mining and manual curation of published data (CXCL12, CXCR4, CK7, CDH1, CTNNB1, CLDN4, VEGFA, HIF1A, MMP9, p53, OPN, CDKN2A, TGFBR2, MUC16, β-actin) were performed on 62 tissues (32 liver metastasis tissues and 30 primary Liver cancer tissues), Fetal liver tissues (below and above 20weeks of gestation) and 2 sets of control samples by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR)...
November 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162325/scriptaid-improves-the-reprogramming-of-donor-cells-and-enhances-canine-porcine-interspecies-embryo-development
#10
Jin-Gu No, Tai-Young Hur, Minghui Zhao, Seunghoon Lee, Mi-Kyung Choi, Yoon-Seok Nam, Dong-Hyun Yeom, Gi-Sun Im, Dong-Hoon Kim
Histone methylation, histone acetylation, and DNA methylation are the important factors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) have been used to improve cloning efficiency. In particular, scriptaid, an HDACi, has been shown to improve SCNT efficiency. However, no studies have been performed on canines. Here, we evaluated the effects of scriptaid on histone modification in canine ear fibroblasts (cEFs) and cloned canine embryos derived from cEFs...
November 18, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162091/role-of-micrornas-in-embryo-implantation
#11
REVIEW
Jingjie Liang, Shaoyu Wang, Zhengguang Wang
Failure of embryo implantation is a major limiting factor in early pregnancy and assisted reproduction. Determinants of implantation include the embryo viability, the endometrial receptivity, and embryo-maternal interactions. Multiple molecules are involved in the regulation of implantation, but their specific regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA), functioning as the transcriptional regulator of gene expression, has been widely reported to be involved in embryo implantation. Recent studies reveal that miRNAs not only act inside the cells, but also can be released by cells into the extracellular environment through multiple packaging forms, facilitating intercellular communication and providing indicative information associated with physiological and pathological conditions...
November 21, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161633/urinary-concentrations-of-biomarkers-of-phthalates-and-phthalate-alternatives-and-ivf-outcomes
#12
Ronit Machtinger, Audrey J Gaskins, Catherine Racowsky, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser
Phthalates are a class of chemicals found in a large variety of consumer products. Available experimental and limited human data show adverse effects of some phthalates on ovarian function, which has raised concerns regarding potential effects on fertility. The aim of the current study was to determine whether urinary concentrations of metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with intermediate and clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We enrolled 136 women undergoing IVF in a Tertiary University Affiliated Hospital...
November 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161430/methbank-3-0-a-database-of-dna-methylomes-across-a-variety-of-species
#13
Rujiao Li, Fang Liang, Mengwei Li, Dong Zou, Shixiang Sun, Yongbing Zhao, Wenming Zhao, Yiming Bao, Jingfa Xiao, Zhang Zhang
MethBank (http://bigd.big.ac.cn/methbank) is a database that integrates high-quality DNA methylomes across a variety of species and provides an interactive browser for visualization of methylation data. Here, we present an updated implementation of MethBank (version 3.0) by incorporating more DNA methylomes from multiple species and equipping with more enhanced functionalities for data annotation and more friendly web interfaces for data presentation, search and visualization. MethBank 3.0 features large-scale integration of high-quality methylomes, involving 34 consensus reference methylomes derived from a large number of human samples, 336 single-base resolution methylomes from different developmental stages and/or tissues of five plants, and 18 single-base resolution methylomes from gametes and early embryos at multiple stages of two animals...
November 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160132/active-h3k27me3-demethylation-by-kdm6b-is-required-for-normal-development-of-bovine-preimplantation-embryos
#14
Nhi Chung, Yanina S Bogliotti, Wei Ding, Marcela Vilarino, Kazuki Takahashi, James L Chitwood, Richard M Schultz, Pablo J Ross
The substantial epigenetic remodeling that occurs during early stages of mammalian embryonic development likely contributes to reprogramming the parental genomes from a differentiated to a totipotent state and activation of the embryonic genome. Trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3) is a repressive mark that undergoes global dynamic changes during preimplantation development of several species. To ascertain the role of H3K27me3 in bovine preimplantation development we perturbed the activity of KDM6B, which demethylates H3K27me3...
November 21, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158889/non-canonical-dorsoventral-patterning-in-the-moth-midge-clogmia-albipunctata
#15
Karl R Wotton, Anna Alcaine-Colet, Johannes Jaeger, Eva Jiménez-Guri
Background: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are of central importance for dorsal-ventral (DV) axis specification. They are core components of a signalling cascade that includes the BMP ligand decapentaplegic (DPP) and its antagonist short gastrulation (SOG) in Drosophila melanogaster. These components are very ancient, with orthologs involved in DV patterning in both protostomes and deuterostomes. Despite such strong conservation, recent comparative work in insects has revealed interesting differences in the way the patterning function of the DV system is achieved in different species...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158485/cytoplasmic-cleavage-of-dppa3-is-required-for-intracellular-trafficking-and-cleavage-stage-development-in-mice
#16
Seung-Wook Shin, Edgar John Vogt, Maria Jimenez-Movilla, Boris Baibakov, Jurrien Dean
Degradation of maternal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) accompanies the maternal-to-zygotic transition. DPPA3/Stella/PGC7, encoded by a maternal effect gene, is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of zygotes and has been associated with protecting the female pronucleus from TET3-mediated demethylation. We now report that cytoplasmic DPPA3 is partially cleaved by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and an N-terminus fragment remains in the cytoplasm where it associates with early and re-cycling endosomes...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158447/krox20-defines-a-subpopulation-of-cardiac-neural-crest-cells-contributing-to-arterial-valves-and-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#17
Gaëlle Odelin, Emilie Faure, Fanny Coulpier, Maria Di Bonito, Fanny Bajolle, Michèle Studer, Jean-François Avierinos, Patrick Charnay, Piotr Topilko, Stéphane Zaffran
Although cardiac neural crest cells are required at early stages of arterial valve development, their contribution during valvular leaflet maturation remains poorly understood. Here we show in mouse that neural crest cells from pre-otic and post-otic regions make distinct contributions to the arterial valve leaflets. Genetic fate-mapping analysis of neural crest Krox20-expressing cells reveals a large contribution to the borders and the interleaflet triangles of the arterial valves. Loss of Krox20 function results in hyperplastic aortic valve and partially penetrant bicuspid aortic valve formation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158446/drosophila-embryonic-type-ii-neuroblasts-origin-temporal-patterning-and-contribution-to-the-adult-central-complex
#18
Kathleen T Walsh, Chris Q Doe
Drosophila neuroblasts are an excellent model for investigating how neuronal diversity is generated. Most brain neuroblasts generate a series of ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each make two neurons (type I lineage), but sixteen brain neuroblasts generate a series of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) that each produce 4-6 GMCs and 8-12 neurons (type II lineage). Thus, type II lineages are similar to primate cortical lineages, and may serve as models for understanding cortical expansion. Yet the origin of type II neuroblasts remains mysterious: do they form in the embryo or larva? If they form in the embryo, do their progeny populate the adult central complex, as do the larval type II neuroblast progeny? Here we present molecular and clonal data showing that all type II neuroblasts form in the embryo, produce INPs, and express known temporal transcription factors...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158440/cohesin-facilitates-zygotic-genome-activation-in-zebrafish
#19
Michael Meier, Jenny Grant, Amy Dowdle, Amarni Thomas, Jennifer Gerton, Philippe Collas, Justin M O'Sullivan, Julia A Horsfield
At zygotic genome activation (ZGA), changes in chromatin structure are associated with new transcription immediately following the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). The nuclear architectural proteins, cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), contribute to chromatin structure and gene regulation. We show here that normal cohesin function is important for ZGA in zebrafish. Depletion of cohesin subunit Rad21 delays ZGA without affecting cell cycle progression. In contrast, CTCF depletion has little effect on ZGA whereas complete abrogation is lethal...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158336/severe-fertility-effects-of-sheepish%C3%A2-sperm-caused-by-failure-to-enter-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Masatoshi Tomaru, Takashi Ohsako, Masahide Watanabe, Naoto Juni, Hiroshi Matsubayashi, Hiromi Sato, Ayako Takahashi, Masa-Toshi Yamamoto
In Drosophila, mature sperm are transferred from males to females during copulation, stored in the sperm storage organs of females, and then utilized for fertilization. Here, we report a gene named sheepish (shps) of D. melanogaster that is essential for sperm storage in females. shps mutant males, although producing morphologically normal and motile sperm that are effectively transferred to females, produce very few offspring. Direct counts of sperm indicated that the primary defect was correlated to failure of shps sperm to migrate into the female sperm storage organs...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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