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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211983/early-embryonic-development-detailed-in-new-digital-atlas-atlas-features-3-d-images-of-human-embryos-helps-chart-growth-rates-of-organs-structures
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211873/the-p53-family-members-have-distinct-roles-during-mammalian-embryonic-development
#2
Jeanine L Van Nostrand, Margot E Bowen, Hannes Vogel, Maria Barna, Laura D Attardi
The p53 tumor suppressor is a member of a multi-protein family, including the p63 and p73 transcription factors. These proteins can bind to the same consensus sites in DNA and activate the same target genes, suggesting that there could be functional redundancy between them. Indeed, double mutant mice heterozygous for any two family member-encoding genes display enhanced cancer phenotypes relative to single heterozygous mutants. However, whether the family members play redundant roles during embryonic development has remained largely unexplored...
February 17, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211263/increased-regurgitant-flow-causes-endocardial-cushion-defects-in-an-avian-embryonic-model-of-congenital-heart-disease
#3
Stephanie M Ford, Matthew T McPheeters, Yves T Wang, Pei Ma, Shi Gu, James Strainic, Christopher Snyder, Andrew M Rollins, Michiko Watanabe, Michael W Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The relationship between changes in endocardial cushion and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHD) has yet to be established. It has been shown that increased regurgitant flow early in embryonic heart development leads to endocardial cushion defects, but it remains unclear how abnormal endocardial cushions during the looping stages might affect the fully septated heart. The goal of this study was to reproducibly alter blood flow in vivo and then quantify the resultant effects on morphology of endocardial cushions in the looping heart and on CHDs in the septated heart...
February 17, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209406/endocrine-and-physiological-effects-of-linuron-and-s-metolachlor-in-zebrafish-developing-embryos
#4
C Quintaneiro, D Patrício, S C Novais, A M V M Soares, M S Monteiro
Evaluation of the effects of linuron and S-metolachlor on apical, biochemical and transcriptional endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages was the main purpose of this work. Embryos were exposed for 96h to a range of concentrations of each herbicide to determine lethal and sub-lethal effects on apical (e.g. malformations, hatching) and biochemical parameters (cholinesterase, ChE; catalase, CAT; glutathione S-transferase, GST; lipid peroxidation, LPO and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH). To evaluate endocrine disruption effects, embryos were exposed during 96h to 0...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#5
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207059/non-smc-elements-1-and-3-are-required-for-early-embryo-and-seedling-development-in-arabidopsis
#6
Gang Li, Wenxuan Zou, Liufang Jian, Jie Qian, Yingtian Deng, Jie Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207000/spatial-transcriptomic-analysis-of-cryosectioned-tissue-samples-with-geo-seq
#7
Jun Chen, Shengbao Suo, Patrick Pl Tam, Jing-Dong J Han, Guangdun Peng, Naihe Jing
Conventional gene expression studies analyze multiple cells simultaneously or single cells, for which the exact in vivo or in situ position is unknown. Although cellular heterogeneity can be discerned when analyzing single cells, any spatially defined attributes that underpin the heterogeneous nature of the cells cannot be identified. Here, we describe how to use Geo-seq, a method that combines laser capture microdissection (LCM) and single-cell RNA-seq technology. The combination of these two methods enables the elucidation of cellular heterogeneity and spatial variance simultaneously...
March 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203524/in-vivo-mapping-of-a-dynamic-ribonucleoprotein-granule-interactome-in-early-drosophila-embryos
#8
Jimiao Zheng, Ming Gao, Nhan Huynh, Samuel J Tindell, Hieu D L Vo, W Hayes McDonald, Alexey L Arkov
Macromolecular complexes and organelles play crucial roles within cells, but their native architectures are often unknown. Here, we use an evolutionarily conserved germline organelle, the germ granule, as a paradigm. In Drosophila embryos, we map one of its interactomes using a novel in vivo crosslinking approach that employs two interacting granule proteins and determines their common neighbor molecules. We identified an in vivo granule assembly of Tudor, Aubergine, motor and metabolic proteins, and RNA helicases, and provide evidence for direct interactions within this assembly using purified components...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202691/attenuation-of-n-glycosylation-causes-polarity-and-adhesion-defects-in-the-c-elegans-embryo
#9
Julia Stevens, Anne Spang
The C. elegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of N-glycosylation attenuation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the AB/P1 size ratio was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated ones...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#10
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199879/gene-expression-patterns-regulating-embryogenesis-based-on-the-integrated-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-the-japanese-flounder
#11
Yuanshuai Fu, Liang Jia, Zhiyi Shi, Junling Zhang, Wenjuan Li
The Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the most important commercial and biological marine fishes. However, the molecular biology involved during embryogenesis and early development of the Japanese flounder remains largely unknown due to a lack of genomic resources. A comprehensive and integrated transcriptome is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms of early development and to allow for the detailed characterization of gene expression patterns during embryogenesis; this approach is critical to understanding the processes that occur prior to mesectoderm formation during early embryonic development...
January 25, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199843/the-sin3a-hdac-corepressor-complex-functionally-cooperates-with-nanog-to-promote-pluripotency
#12
Arven Saunders, Xin Huang, Miguel Fidalgo, Michael H Reimer, Francesco Faiola, Junjun Ding, Carlos Sánchez-Priego, Diana Guallar, Carmen Sáenz, Dan Li, Jianlong Wang
Although SIN3A is required for the survival of early embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the role of SIN3A in the maintenance and establishment of pluripotency remains unclear. Here, we find that the SIN3A/HDAC corepressor complex maintains ESC pluripotency and promotes the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Members of the SIN3A/HDAC corepressor complex are enriched in an extended NANOG interactome and function in transcriptional coactivation in ESCs. We also identified a critical role for SIN3A and HDAC2 in efficient reprogramming of somatic cells...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198400/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase37-regulates-tcf7-dna-binding-for-the-activation-of-wnt-signalling
#13
Wonhee Han, Hyeyoon Lee, Jin-Kwan Han
The Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors mediates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate embryogenesis and diverse pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sumoylation and acetylation, are known to be important for the regulation of Tcf/Lef proteins. However, the importance of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms for Tcf/Lef activity are still unclear. Here, we newly show that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (Uch37), a deubiquitinase, interacts with Tcf7 (formerly named Tcf1) to activate Wnt signalling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#14
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
Background Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). Results We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197779/colonic-mesenchyme-differentiates-into-smooth-muscle-before-its-colonization-by-vagal-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-the-chick-embryo
#15
Annick Bourret, Norbert Chauvet, Pascal de Santa Barbara, Sandrine Faure
During development, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract arises from a primary tube composed of mesoderm and endoderm. The mesoderm gives rise to the digestive mesenchyme, which in turn differentiates into multiple tissues, namely the submucosa, the interstitial cells of Cajal and the smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by vagal enteric neural crest-derived cells (vENCDCs), a population of cells that gives rise to the enteric nervous system, the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract...
February 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196891/insights-into-immune-system-development-and-function-from-mouse-t-cell-repertoires
#16
Zachary Sethna, Yuval Elhanati, Chrissy S Dudgeon, Curtis G Callan, Arnold J Levine, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195383/the-morphological-ultrasound-types-known-as-blob-and-bagel-signs-should-be-reclassified-from-probable-to-definite-ectopic-pregnancy
#17
Batool Nadim, Fernando Infante, Lu Chuan, Nalayini Sathasivam, George Condous
OBJECTIVES: In a recent consensus statement on early pregnancy nomenclature by Barnhart 2011, a definite ectopic pregnancy(EP) was defined morphologically on transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) as an extra-uterine gestational sac(GS) with yolk sac and/or embryo(with or without cardiac activity) whilst a probable EP defined as an inhomogeneous adnexal mass("blob" sign) or extra-uterine sac-like structure("bagel" sign). This study aims to determine whether the ultrasound markers used to define probable EP can be used to predict a definite tubal EP...
February 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194463/improved-bovine-embryo-production-in-an-oviduct-on-a-chip-system-prevention-of-poly-spermic-fertilization-and-parthenogenic-activation
#18
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Pedro F Costa, Jos Malda, Ferry P Melchels, R Wubbolts, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to develop a more physiological in vitro oviduct culture system capable of supporting fertilization. U-shaped chambers were produced using stereo-lithography and mounted with polycarbonate membranes, which were used as culture inserts for primary BOECs...
February 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194156/integrated-management-strategies-increase-cottonseed-oil-and-protein-production-the-key-role-of-carbohydrate-metabolism
#19
Hongkun Yang, Xinyue Zhang, Binglin Chen, Yali Meng, Youhua Wang, Wenqing Zhao, Zhiguo Zhou
Cottonseed, oil, and protein, as the by-products of cotton production, have the potential to provide commodities to meet the increasing demand of renewable bio-fuels and ruminant feed. An increase in crop yield per unit area requires high-yielding cultivar management with an economic nitrogen (N) rate, an optimal N application schedule, high-yielding plant populations and strong seedlings. Whether the integration of these agronomic practices into a coherent management system can increase the productivity of cotton fiber, embryo oil and protein requires experimental elucidation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192787/m-6-a-dependent-maternal-mrna-clearance-facilitates-zebrafish-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#20
Boxuan Simen Zhao, Xiao Wang, Alana V Beadell, Zhike Lu, Hailing Shi, Adam Kuuspalu, Robert K Ho, Chuan He
The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is one of the most profound and tightly orchestrated processes during the early life of embryos, yet factors that shape the temporal pattern of vertebrate MZT are largely unknown. Here we show that over one-third of zebrafish maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can be N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modified, and the clearance of these maternal mRNAs is facilitated by an m(6)A-binding protein, Ythdf2. Removal of Ythdf2 in zebrafish embryos decelerates the decay of m(6)A-modified maternal mRNAs and impedes zygotic genome activation...
February 13, 2017: Nature
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