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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040586/plasma-nervonic-acid-is-a-potential-biomarker-for-major-depressive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#1
Yuki Kageyama, Takaoki Kasahara, Takemichi Nakamura, Kotaro Hattori, Yasuhiko Deguchi, Munehide Tani, Kenji Kuroda, Sumiko Yoshida, Yu-Ichi Goto, Koki Inoue, Tadafumi Kato
Background: Diagnostic biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are urgently needed because none are currently available. Methods: We performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of plasma samples from drug-free patients with MDD (n = 9), BD (n = 6), SZ (n = 17), and matched healthy controls (n = 19) (cohort 1), using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A significant effect of diagnosis was found for two metabolites: nervonic acid and cortisone, with nervonic acid being the most significantly altered...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040577/metabolomics-of-postprandial-plasma-alterations-a-comprehensive-japanese-study
#2
Takeo Moriya, Yoshinori Satomi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi
While endogenous metabolites in plasma can be used as clinical biomarkers, intra-day variations should be carefully considered. The postprandial effect is a large contributing factor and is dependent on regional features (e.g., meals, ethnicity). Thus, for clinical application, regional-specific postprandial baseline data are required. In this study, 10 healthy Japanese volunteers of different ages and genders ate the same meal, and blood samples were taken 30 min before and one hour after the meal challenge...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040513/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-reduced-levels-of-polyunsaturated-choline-plasmalogens-and-a-smaller-dimethylarginine-arginine-ratio-in-the-follicular-fluid-of-patients-with-a-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#3
J M Chao de la Barca, T Boueilh, G Simard, L Boucret, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, L Tessier, C Gadras, P E Bouet, P Descamps, V Procaccio, P Reynier, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040459/uc2-search-using-unique-connectivity-of-uncharged-compounds-for-metabolite-annotation-by-database-searching-in-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics
#4
Nozomu Sakurai, Takafumi Narise, Joon-Soo Sim, Chang-Muk Lee, Chiaki Ikeda, Nayumi Akimoto, Shigehiko Kanaya
Summary: For metabolite annotation in metabolomics, variations in the registered states of compounds (charged and multiple components such as salts) and their redundancy among compound databases could be the cause of misannotations and hamper immediate recognition of the uniqueness of metabolites while searching by mass values measured using mass spectrometry. We developed a search system named UC2 (Unique Connectivity of Uncharged Compounds) where compounds are tentatively neutralized into uncharged states and stored on the basis of their unique connectivity of atoms after removing their stereochemical information using the first block in the hash of the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier, by which false-positive hits are remarkably reduced, both charged and uncharged compounds are properly searched in a single query and records having a unique connectivity are compiled in a single search result...
October 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040445/rationale-and-design-of-the-effectiveness-of-lower-maintenance-dose-of-ticagrelor-early-after-myocardial-infarction-electra-pilot-study
#5
Jacek Kubica, Piotr Adamski, Katarzyna Buszko, Aldona Kubica, Wiktor Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Fabiszak, Bernd Jilma, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Przemyslaw Paciorek, Eliano P Navarese
BackgroundThe degree and time course of platelet inhibition using ticagrelor can vary during the acute phase and the following stable period after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The optimal level of platelet inhibition during the various stages of AMI remains an open question. The aim of the current study is to compare the antiplatelet efficacy of two ticagrelor maintenance dose regimens (60 mg b.i.d. vs 90 mg b.i.d.) in stable patients following an initial strategy with ticagrelor 90 mg b.i.d. during the first month after AMI...
October 10, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040409/towards-dynamic-genome-scale-models
#6
David Gilbert, Monika Heiner, Yasoda Jayaweera, Christian Rohr
The analysis of the dynamic behaviour of genome-scale models of metabolism (GEMs) currently presents considerable challenges because of the difficulties of simulating such large and complex networks. Bacterial GEMs can comprise about 5000 reactions and metabolites, and encode a huge variety of growth conditions; such models cannot be used without sophisticated tool support. This article is intended to aid modellers, both specialist and non-specialist in computerized methods, to identify and apply a suitable combination of tools for the dynamic behaviour analysis of large-scale metabolic designs...
October 13, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040392/%C3%AE-cypermethrin-and-its-metabolite-3-phenoxybenzoic-acid-exhibit-immunotoxicity-in-murine-macrophages
#7
Xia Wang, Bingnan He, Baida Kong, Lai Wei, Rong Wang, Chenqian Zhou, Yiyan Shao, Jiajia Lin, Yuanxiang Jin, Zhengwei Fu
β-Cypermethrin (β-CYP), one of most important pyrethroids, is widely used to control insects, and has been detected in organisms, including human. Pyrethroids have been shown to pose neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive risks in mammals. However, research in immunotoxicity of pyrethroids, especially their metabolites, is limited. A common metabolite of pyrethroids is 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in mammals. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity of β-CYP and 3-PBA in mouse macrophages, RAW 264...
October 11, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040229/development-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-method-for-quantification-of-mycophenolic-acid-and-its-glucuronides-in-dried-blood-spot-samples
#8
Hiromasa Iboshi, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Masafumi Kikuchi, Masaki Tanaka, Shinya Takasaki, Akiko Takahashi, Masamitsu Maekawa, Miki Shimada, Yasushi Matsuda, Yoshinori Okada, Nariyasu Mano
BACKGROUND: Personalized immunosuppressive therapy, including accurate drug dosing based on drug blood level, leads to better clinical outcomes, specifically with regard to avoidance of drug-induced adverse effects and maintenance of efficacy. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is used as an immunosuppressant in transplantation of various solid organs. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantification of MPA and its metabolites, mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) and mycophenolic acid acyl glucuronide, in dried blood spot (DBS) samples, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry...
October 14, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040228/analytical-pitfalls-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-thiopurines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#9
Melek Simsek, Berrie Meijer, Chris Jj Mulder, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Nanne Kh de Boer
The use of thiopurines in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be optimized by application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). In this procedure, 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) metabolites are monitored and related to therapeutic response and adverse events, respectively. Therapeutic drug monitoring of thiopurines, however, is hampered by several analytical limitations resulting in an impaired translation of metabolite levels to clinical outcome in IBD...
October 14, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039981/calcitriol-the-active-metabolite-of-vitamin-d3-inhibits-dry-eye-related-corneal-inflammation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Jing Zhang, Yiqin Dai, Dan Wu, Jianjiang Xu
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of topical administration of calcitriol on dry eye (DE) related corneal inflammation. METHODS: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC, 0.2%) was applied to induce DE. Then rats were treated topically with calcitriol (10(-6)μM). Tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining score, inflammatory index, and tear volume were measured. Corneal epithelium damage and corneal inflammation were examined by H&E staining or RT-qPCR. In vitro, human corneal epithelial cells (iHCEC) were cultured in hyperosmotic medium (450 mOsM) with various concentrations of calcitriol...
October 17, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039952/chloromonilinic-acids-c-and-d-phytotoxic-tetrasubstituted-3-chromanonacrylic-acids-isolated-from-cochliobolus-australiensis-with-potential-herbicidal-activity-against-buffelgrass-cenchrus-ciliaris
#11
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Suzette Clement, Gennaro Pescitelli, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Antonio Evidente
The fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis isolated from infected leaves of the invasive weed buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) was grown in vitro to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides against this weed. Two new tetrasubstituted 3-chromanonacrylic acids, named chloromonilinic acids C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the liquid cultures of C. australiensis, together with the known chloromonilinic acid B. Chloromonilinic acids C and D were characterized by spectroscopic and chemical methods as (E)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid and (Z)-3-chloro-3-[(5-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-7-methyl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)]acrylic acid, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039946/phenylpropenoids-from-bupleurum-fruticosum-as-anti-human-rhinovirus-species-a-selective-capsid-binders
#12
Benedetta Fois, Giulia Bianco, Vijay P Sonar, Simona Distinto, Elias Maccioni, Rita Meleddu, Claudia Melis, Luisa Marras, Raffaello Pompei, Costantino Floris, Pierluigi Caboni, Filippo Cottiglia
The dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Bupleurum fruticosum was found to inhibit the replication of human rhinovirus (HRV) serotypes 14 and 39. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of seven phenylpropenol derivatives (3-9), two polyacetylenes (1 and 2), and one monoterpene (10). Compounds 1 and 10 were identified as previously undescribed secondary metabolites after extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed a selective inhibition of viral replication against HRV39 serotype, with 2 and 4 being the most active, with EC50 values of 1...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039932/annotation-a-computational-solution-for-streamlining-metabolomics-analysis
#13
Xavier Domingo-Almenara, J Rafael Montenegro-Burke, H Paul Benton, Gary Siuzdak
The aim of any untargeted metabolomics experiment is to identify and quantify dysregulated compounds relevant to a particular disease or stressor. However, metabolite identification is still considered an imposing bottleneck in untargeted metabolomics. Untargeted data analysis workflows for liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) usually consist in applying peak-picking algorithms, align those peaks across multiple samples to obtain the so-called peak features (defined as a peak, or a set of aligned peaks across samples with a unique \textit{m/z} and a specific retention time), and subsequently discover statistically significant variations between experimental groups or conditions...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037000/-analysis-of-fipronil-and-metabolites-residues-distrubution-in-eggs
#14
B Lyu, D W Chen, J G Li, S Zhou, Y F Zhao
Objective: To compare the residual distribution of fipronil and its metabolites in white and yellow egg, and to analyze the residual changes of fipronil and its metabolites in raw and cooked samples, regarding the risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites via consuming egg for different age groups. Methods: The white egg and yellow egg were isolated from 10 egg samples containing fipronil residues. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified, and determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036599/carbon-allocation-and-partitioning-in-populus-tremuloides-are-modulated-by-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-under-phosphorus-limitation
#15
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#16
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035945/the-functional-consequences-of-the-microbiome-in-hiv-insights-from-metabolomic-studies
#17
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Santiago Moreno, Manuel Ferrer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is critical to gain insight into the metabolic pathways by which the microbiota might influence HIV immunopathogenesis to exploit host-microbiota interactions. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of recent advances in our knowledge of how HIV might affect the microbiota, with a focus on specific gene products, particularly, metabolites produced by the microbiota that may affect HIV immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: First, we describe the different approaches used to explore imbalances in effector microbial products during HIV infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035928/what-did-we-learn-from-omics-studies-in-osteoarthritis
#18
Cristina Ruiz-Romero, Ignacio Rego-Perez, Francisco J Blanco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 'Omics' technologies developed for the massive analysis of the major biologically relevant molecules (genes, proteins, metabolites) have been applied to the study of osteoarthritis (OA) for more than a decade. RECENT FINDINGS: 'Omics' studies have undoubtedly contributed to increase the knowledge on pathogenic processes related with OA and have provided hundreds to thousands of molecules that might have a putative biomarker utility for this disease...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035782/opposing-effects-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-low-dose-prednisolone-on-arginine-metabolomics
#19
Anjana Radhakutty, Brenda L Mangelsdorf, Sophie M Drake, Andrew Rowland, Malcolm D Smith, Arduino A Mangoni, Campbell H Thompson, Morton G Burt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of low dose prednisolone on circulating markers of endothelial function, the arginine metabolites asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), mono methyl arginine (MMA), and homoarginine, are uncertain. We assessed whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis have perturbations in arginine metabolite concentrations that are reversed by low dose prednisolone. METHODS: Eighteen rheumatoid arthritis patients who had not taken prednisolone for >6 months (non-glucocorticoid (GC) users), 18 rheumatoid arthritis patients taking continuous oral prednisolone (6...
October 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035679/performance-and-membrane-fouling-of-a-step-fed-submerged-membrane-sequencing-batch-reactor-treating-swine-biogas-digestion-slurry
#20
Zhiying Han, Shixia Chen, Xiaochang Lin, Hongjun Yu, Li'an Duan, Zhangying Ye, Yanbo Jia, Songming Zhu, Dezhao Liu
To identify the performance of step-fed submerged membrane sequencing batch reactor (SMSBR) treating swine biogas digestion slurry and to explore the correlation between microbial metabolites and membrane fouling within this novel reactor, a lab-scale step-fed SMSBR was operated under nitrogen loading rate of 0.026, 0.052 and 0.062 g NH4(+)-N (gVSS·d)(-1). Results show that the total removal efficiencies for NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand in the reactor (>94%, >89% and >97%, respectively) were high during the whole experiment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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