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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475132/differential-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-endothelial-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-neointima-formation-antioxidant-action-of-butyrate
#1
Xinxu Yuan, Lei Wang, Owais M Bhat, Hannah Lohner, Pin-Lan Li
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a family of gut microbial metabolites, have been reported to promote preservation of endothelial function and thereby exert anti-atherosclerotic action. However, the precise mechanism mediating this protective action of SCFAs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate and butyrate) on the activation of Nod-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome in endothelial cells (ECs) and associated carotid neointima formation. Using a partial ligated carotid artery (PLCA) mouse model fed with the Western diet (WD), we found that butyrate significantly decreased Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and activation in the carotid arterial wall of wild type mice (Asc+/+ ), which was comparable to the effect of gene deletion of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein gene (Asc-/- )...
February 13, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475129/effects-of-short-term-feeding-of-different-sources-of-fatty-acids-in-pre-mating-diets-on-reproductive-performance-and-blood-metabolites-of-fat-tailed-iranian-afshari-ewes
#2
H Mirzaei-Alamouti, Z Mohammadi, M H Shahir, M Vazirigohar, M Mansouryar
The effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) in pre-mating diets on reproductive performances and metabolic status of ewes have not been well investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of supplementing different source of FAs on different aspects of reproductive performance of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes. Thirty-two cycling, multiparous Afshari ewes were divided into four groups and fed one of the isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with Sunflower oil (SFO), Fish oil (FO), calcium salt of palm oil (CaPO) and/or an equal mixture of SFO + FO (SFOFO)...
February 15, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475067/transcriptional-profiling-of-male-cd-1-mouse-lungs-and-harderian-glands-supports-the-involvement-of-calcium-signaling-in-acrylamide-induced-tumors
#3
Nikolai L Chepelev, Rémi Gagné, Timothy Maynor, Byron Kuo, Cheryl A Hobbs, Leslie Recio, Carole L Yauk
Acrylamide (AA) exposure causes increased incidence of forestomach, lung, and Harderian gland tumors in male mice. One hypothesized mode of action (MOA) for AA-carcinogenicity includes genotoxicity/mutagenicity as a key event, possibly resulting from AA metabolism to the direct genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Alternatively, altered calcium signaling (CS) has been proposed as a central key event in the MOA. To examine the plausibility of these proposed MOAs, RNA-sequencing was performed on tumor target tissues: Harderian glands (the most sensitive tumor target tissue in the rodent 2-year cancer bioassay) and lungs of AA-exposed male CD-1 mice...
February 20, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475061/a-fungal-metabolite-zearalenone-as-a-cftr-inhibitor-and-potential-therapy-of-secretory-diarrheas
#4
Paradorn Muangnil, Saravut Satitsri, Kwanruthai Tadpetch, Patchreenart Saparpakorn, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Supa Hannongbua, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Chatchai Muanprasat
Overstimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas, which remain an important global health problem. This study aimed to identify inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion from a library of fungus-derived compounds and to evaluate their pharmacological properties and anti-diarrheal utility. We identified zearalenone, 7'-dehydrozearalenone and 8'-hydroxyzearalenone isolated from the seagrass-derived fungus Fusarium sp. PSU-ES123 as inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475037/lanthionine-ketimine-5-ethyl-ester-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-okadaic-acid-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Daniel Koehler, Zahoor A Shah, Kenneth Hensley, Frederick E Williams
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that is used to induce neurodegeneration and study disease states such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester (LKE) is a bioavailable derivative of the naturally occurring brain sulfur metabolite, lanthionine ketimine (LK). In previously conducted studies, LKE exhibited neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in murine models but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. In this study, a recently established zebrafish OKA-induced AD model was utilized to further elucidate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties of LKE in the context of an AD-like condition...
February 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475030/screening-for-protein-adducts-of-naphthalene-and-chrysene-in-plasma-of-exposed-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#6
Karianne S Enerstvedt, Magne O Sydnes, Eivind Larssen, Daniela M Pampanin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known contaminants, ubiquitously present in the habitat and spawning areas for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The Atlantic cod is a key species and a globally important food source, thus continuous monitoring of PAHs is considered highly valuable to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. PAH adducts to plasma proteins are applied as sensitive biomarkers of PAH exposure in humans and other species, thus the presence of PAH protein adducts in Atlantic cod plasma was investigated to identify PAH protein adduct biomarker candidates of exposure to PAHs...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474999/serum-metabolomics-study-in-a-group-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients-from-northern-india
#7
G Nagesh Babu, Manjeet Gupta, Vimal K Paliwal, Suruchi Singh, Tanushri Chatterji, Raja Roy
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the result of progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and depletion of neurotransmitter dopamine in the striatum. METHODS: We included 17 patients with PD along with 7 patients of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 6 patients of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and 22 age and sex-matched healthy controls. We analyzed metabolite profiles in the serum of these patients and controls using1 H NMR spectroscopy...
February 20, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474979/the-influence-of-natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-on-bioactive-natural-products-studying-interactions-between-a-hydrogel-model-and-schisandra-chinensis-metabolites
#8
Yang Liu, Yu Zhang, Shao-Nong Chen, J Brent Friesen, Dejan Nikolić, Mary P Choules, James B McAlpine, David C Lankin, Richard A Gemeinhart, Guido F Pauli
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) species can exhibit unexpected solubilizing power for lipophilic molecules despite their simple composition, hydrophilic organic molecules and water. In the present study, the unique properties of NADES species were applied in combination with a model polymer system: a hydrophilic chitosan/alginate hydrogel. Briefly, NADES species (e.g., mannose-dimethylurea-water, 2:5:5, mole/mole) formed matrices to 1) dissolve lipophilic molecules (e.g., curcumin), 2) load lipophilic molecule(s) into the hydrogel, and 3) spontaneously vacate from the system...
February 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474977/activated-production-of-silent-metabolites-from-marine-derived-fungus-penicillium-citrinum
#9
Yuqin Gu, Peiyu Ding, Zhipeng Liang, Yan Song, Yonghong Liu, Guangtong Chen, Jian Lin Li
As an attempt to utilize of rare earth elements as a novel method to activate the silent genes in fungus, the marine-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum was cultured under ordinary laboratory fermentation conditions in the presence of scandium chloride (ScCl3 , 50 μM), and chemical investigation led to the isolation and characterization of three new peptide derivatives (1-3), along with four known pyrrolidine alkaloids (4-7). Those structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, as well as chemical reactions...
February 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474901/arachidonic-acid-metabonomics-study-for-understanding-therapeutic-mechanism-of-huo-luo-xiao-ling-dan-on-rat-model-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Nannan Wang, Xiaoning Zhao, Jiaxin Huai, Yiran Li, Congcong Cheng, Kaishun Bi, Ronghua Dai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the potential therapeutic mechanism of HLXLD on anti-inflammatory activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A metabolomic approach based on UFLC-MS/MS to profile arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic changes was used. The cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) catalyzed metabolites in plasma were quantified on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the rats injected with Complete Freund's adjuvant and orally administrated with HLXLD, methotrexate and dexamethasone in parallel as the positive control drugs...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474897/aqueous-injection-of-quercetin-an-approach-for-confirmation-of-its-direct-in-vivo-cardiovascular-effects
#11
Elena Piera Porcu, Massimo Cossu, Giovanna Rassu, Paolo Giunchedi, Guido Cerri, Jana Pourová, Iveta Najmanová, Thomas Migkos, Veronika Pilařová, Lucie Nováková, Přemysl Mladěnka, Elisabetta Gavini
Potential positive effects of flavonol quercetin on humans were suggested by many studies. However, it is not clear if these effects are mediated by quercetin or its metabolites. The in vivo confirmation of quercetin effects is largely hindered by its low water solubility and thus impossibility to test directly its impact. Therefore, a solid dispersion of quercetin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was developed to prepare an injectable formulation of water-soluble quercetin. The optimized formulation provided a 20,000-fold increase in quercetin solubility...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474889/human-gut-microbiota-and-gastrointestinal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Changting Meng, Chunmei Bai, Thomas D Brown, Leroy Hood, Qiang Tian
Human gut microbiota play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. In the past decade, the interactions between microorganisms and tumors have attracted much attention in the efforts understanding various features of the complex microbial communities, as well as the possible mechanisms through which the microbiota are involved in cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, and anti-cancer therapy. A large number of studies have indicated that microbial dysbiosis contributes to cancer susceptibility via multiple pathways...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474822/male-urinary-biomarkers-of-antimicrobial-exposure-and-bi-directional-associations-with-semen-quality-parameters
#13
Melissa M Smarr, Masato Honda, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Zhen Chen, Sungduk Kim, Germaine M Buck Louis
Antimicrobials including parabens, triclosan, and triclocarban have endocrine disrupting properties. Among 501 male partners of couples planning to become pregnant, preconception urinary biomarkers of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban exposure were quantified in spot urine samples. Men also provided two fresh semen samples collected approximately one month to undergo 24-hour semen quality analysis. Linear mixed-effects models, adjusted for creatinine, race, age and body mass index, were utilized to assess the relationship between log transformed chemical concentrations rescaled by their standard deviations and semen parameters...
February 20, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474787/-1-h-nmr-based-identification-of-intestinally-absorbed-metabolites-by-ussing-chamber-analysis-of-the-rat-cecum
#14
Meredith Dinges, Christian Lytle, Cynthia K Larive
The large intestine (cecum and colon) is a complex biochemical factory of vital importance to human health. It plays a major role in digestion and absorption by salvaging nutrients from polysaccharides via fermentation initiated by the bacteria that comprise the gut microbiome. We hypothesize that the intestinal epithelium absorbs a limited number of luminal metabolites with bioactive potential while actively excluding those with toxic effects. To explore this concept, we combined1 H NMR detection with Ussing chamber measurements of absorptive transport by rat cecum...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474728/longitudinal-changes-in-blood-metabolites-amino-acid-profile-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-american-foxhounds-fed-a-nutrient-fortified-diet
#15
Alison N Beloshapka, Maria R C de Godoy, Rebecca A Carter, Andrea J Fascetti, Zengshou Yu, Bridgett J McIntosh, Kelly S Swanson, Preston R Buff
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes in blood metabolites, amino acid profile, and oxidative stress markers in American Foxhound dogs fed a nutrient-fortified endurance diet while undergoing unstructured endurance exercise over several months. Thirty-six adult American Foxhound dogs (mean age: 4.5, range 2-10 years and mean body weight (BW): 34.7, range: 23.1-46.9 kg) were selected to participate in the study. Prior to the study, all dogs consumed a commercial diet for 16 weeks. After collecting baseline blood samples, dogs were assigned to a standard commercial performance diet (control) or a nutrient-fortified dog food (test)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474495/in-silico-and-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reduction-of-unsaturated-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-bonds-of-trans-2-hexenedioic-acid-and-6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic-acid-important-steps-towards-biobased-production-of-adipic-acid
#16
Emma Karlsson, Jae Ho Shin, Gunnar Westman, Leif A Eriksson, Lisbeth Olsson, Valeria Mapelli
The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474420/a-new-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-paclitaxel-and-6%C3%AE-hydroxy-paclitaxel-in-human-plasma-development-validation-and-application-in-a-clinical-pharmacokinetic-study
#17
Bianca Posocco, Mauro Buzzo, Andrea Follegot, Luciana Giodini, Roberto Sorio, Elena Marangon, Giuseppe Toffoli
Paclitaxel belongs to the taxanes family and it is used, alone or in multidrug regimens, for the therapy of several solid tumours, such as breast-, lung-, head and neck-, and ovarian cancer. Standard dosing of chemotherapy does not take into account the many inter-patient differences that make drug exposure highly variable, thus leading to the insurgence of severe toxicity. This is particularly true for paclitaxel considering that a relationship between haematological toxicity and plasma exposure was found...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474345/opioid-related-genetic-polymorphisms-do-not-influence-postoperative-opioid-requirement-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Frédéric Aubrun, Noël Zahr, Olivier Langeron, Nicolas Boccheciampe, Nathalie Cozic, Lisa Belin, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Frederic Khiami, Bruno Riou
BACKGROUND: Among the various factors that may influence the pharmacological response to opioids, genetic polymorphisms [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] have generated some interest. OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence on morphine dose requirements and adverse events in the postoperative period of four SNP [opioid receptor mu1 (OPRM1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) ex-21 and ex-26, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT)] in candidate genes involved in morphine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473933/assessment-of-genetic-integrity-splenic-phagocytosis-and-cell-death-potential-of-z-4-1-5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2-3dihydro-1h-pyrazol-4-yl-amino-4-oxobut-2-enoic-acid-and-its-effect-when-combined-with-commercial-chemotherapeutics
#19
Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Naiara da Cruz Leite Santos, João Renato Pesarini, Beatriz Carneiro de Oliveira, Claudia Rodrigues Berno, Flávio Henrique Souza de Araújo, Ingridhy Ostaciana Maia Freitas da Silveira, Raquel Oliveira Nascimento, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Antônio Carlos Duenhas Monreal, Adilson Beatriz, Dênis Pires de Lima, Roberto da Silva Gomes
The increased incidence of cancer and its high treatment costs have encouraged the search for new compounds to be used in adjuvant therapies for this disease. This study discloses the synthesis of (Z)-4-((1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) amino)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid (IR-01) and evaluates not only the action of this compound on genetic integrity, increase in splenic phagocytosis and induction of cell death but also its effects in combination with the commercial chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide...
February 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473901/comparative-analysis-of-major-mosquito-vectors-response-to-seed-derived-essential-oil-and-seed-pod-derived-extract-from-acacia-nilotica
#20
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Raji Venkatesan, Govindaraju Ramkumar, Sengodan Karthi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Muthugoundar Subramanian Shivakumar
Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) -...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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