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Shin-Ichi Inaba, Maki Goto, Kaoru Tanaka-Takanaka, Hisako Tanaka, Wataru Tomisato, Hiroshi Yuita, Hiromi Doi-Komuro, Ryotaku Inoue, Keiko Oshima, Takashi Kagari, Takaichi Shimozato, Takashi Izumi
The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was conducted for the reduction of peripheral lymphocytes after oral administration of CS-0777 to healthy rats, monkeys and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced rats. M1, the phosphorylated active metabolite of CS-0777, is a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 modulator. A linear one-and two-compartment model with reversible metabolism process characterized the time courses of CS-0777 and M1 concentrations in rats and monkeys, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Yan G Fulcher, Martial Fotso, Chee-Hoon Chang, Hans Rindt, Carol R Reinero, Steven R Van Doren
Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma...
2016: PloS One
Jun Li, Wei Zhen, Dengkai Long, Ling Ding, Anhui Gong, Chenghong Xiao, Weike Jiang, Xiaoqing Liu, Tao Zhou, Luqi Huang
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P...
2016: PloS One
Lesley K Rao, Alicia M Flaker, Christina C Friedel, Evan D Kharasch
BACKGROUND: At therapeutic concentrations, cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the major P450 isoform catalyzing hepatic ketamine N-demethylation to norketamine in vitro. The CYP2B6 gene is highly polymorphic. The most common variant allele, CYP2B6*6, is associated with diminished hepatic CYP2B6 expression and catalytic activity compared with wild-type CYP2B6*1/*1. CYP2B6.6, the protein encoded by the CYP2B6*6 allele, and liver microsomes from CYP2B6*6 carriers had diminished ketamine metabolism in vitro...
October 20, 2016: Anesthesiology
Nabil Killiny
Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these two plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Biswapriya B Misra, Zepeng Yin, Sisi Geng, Evaldo de Armas, Sixue Chen
Global CO2 level presently recorded at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment likely to impact plant growth and productivity. Using targeted LC-MS and GC-MS platforms we quantified 229 and 29 metabolites, respectively in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses to different concentrations (1, 3, and 10 mM) of bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) under light and dark conditions. Results indicate that HCO3(-) treatment responsive metabolomic changes depend on the HCO3(-) concentration, time of treatment, and light/dark...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Ulrike Glaubitz, Xia Li, Sandra Schaedel, Alexander Erban, Ronan Sulpice, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha, Ellen Zuther
Transcript and metabolite profiling were performed on leaves from six rice cultivars under high night temperature (HNT) condition. Six genes were identified as central for HNT response encoding proteins involved in transcription regulation, signal transduction, protein-protein interactions, jasmonate response, and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Sensitive cultivars showed specific changes in transcript abundance including abiotic stress responses, changes of cell wall related genes, of ABA signaling and secondary metabolism...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Morahem Ashengroph
The present study has been conducted towards isolation of moderately halophilic bacteria capable of transforming caffeine into theobromine. A total of 45 caffeine-degrading moderate halophiles were enriched from hypersaline lakes and examined for the biotransformation of caffeine to theobromine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Strain GL6, giving the highest yield of theobromine, was isolated from the Hoz Soltan Lake, 20 % w/v salinity, central Iran, and identified as Salinivibrio costicola based on morphological and biochemical features as well as its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank Accession No...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Colleen E Dugan, James P Grinias, Sebastian D Parlee, Mahmoud El-Azzouny, Charles R Evans, Robert T Kennedy
Microfluidics is an enabling technology for both cell biology and chemical analysis. We combine these attributes with a microfluidic device for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of secreted metabolites from living cells in culture on the chip. The device was constructed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and contains a reversibly sealed chamber for perfusing cells. A multilayer design allowed a series of valves to control an on-chip 7.5 μL injection loop downstream of the cell chamber with operation similar to a six-port valve...
October 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Amit Ghosh, David Ando, Jennifer Gin, Weerawat Runguphan, Charles Denby, George Wang, Edward E K Baidoo, Chris Shymansky, Jay D Keasling, Héctor García Martín
Efficient redirection of microbial metabolism into the abundant production of desired bioproducts remains non-trivial. Here, we used flux-based modeling approaches to improve yields of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We combined (13)C labeling data with comprehensive genome-scale models to shed light onto microbial metabolism and improve metabolic engineering efforts. We concentrated on studying the balance of acetyl-CoA, a precursor metabolite for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. A genome-wide acetyl-CoA balance study showed ATP citrate lyase from Yarrowia lipolytica as a robust source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA and malate synthase as a desirable target for downregulation in terms of acetyl-CoA consumption...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Manuel Wohde, Silvia Berkner, Thomas Junker, Sabine Konradi, Lisa Schwarz, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The spread of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) and biocides via manure onto agriculturally used areas represents a very important emission into the environment for these product groups. Within this literature study, publicly available transformation studies with liquid manure are summarized. Transformation studies were evaluated regarding the transformation fate of tested substances, the origin and characteristics of used manure, the experimental setup, and the measured parameters. As main topics within the 42 evaluated transformation studies, the high dependency of transformation on temperature, redox potential, dry matter content, and other parameters is reported...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hao Huang, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Jianqiong Yang, Xiaoliang Yuan, Longhuo Wu
Nobiletin (NOB) chemically known as 5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Citrus fruits. Recent evidences show that NOB is a multifunctional pharmaceutical agent. The various pharmacological activities of NOB include neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, antimetabolic disorder, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation. These events may be underpinned by modulation of signaling cascades, including PKA/ERK/MEK/CREB, NF-κB, MAPK, Ca(2+)/CaMKII, PI3K/Akt1/2, HIF-1α, and TGFβ signaling pathways...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Asmaa I Owis, Nada S Abdelwahab, Adel A Abul-Soad
BACKGROUND: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. OBJECTIVES: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mohamed A Farag, Ahlam M El Fishawy, Sayed A El-Toumy, Khadiga F Amer, Ahmed M Mansour, Hala E Taha
BACKGROUND: Panicum turgidum, desert grass, has not reported any detailed phytochemical or biological study as yet. OBJECTIVE: To establish P. turgidum secondary metabolite profile and to assess its antihepatotoxic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was used for large-scale secondary metabolites profiling in P. turgidum extract, alongside assessing median lethal dose (LD50) and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Sunita Singh Dhawan, Seema Singh, Kumar Avinash Bharati, Jyotsana
BACKGROUND: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug. OBJECTIVE: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Bera Rammohan, Karmakar Samit, Das Chinmoy, Saha Arup, Kundu Amit, Sarkar Ratul, Karmakar Sanmoy, Adhikari Dipan, Sen Tuhinadri
BACKGROUND: Traditionally GS is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Drug-herb interaction of GS via cytochrome P450 enzyme system by substrate cocktail method using HLM has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in-vitro modulatory effects of GS extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) and deacylgymnemic acid (DGA) on human CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities in HLM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Probe substrate-based LCMS/MS method was established for all CYPs...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Igor Florez-Sarasa, Ko Noguchi, Wagner Araujo, Ana Garcia-Nogales, Alisdair R Fernie, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast acting as an energy balance mechanism. Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in CEF-PSI mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high light (HL) conditions. However, in vivo measurements of AOX activity are still required to confirm the exact role of AOX on dissipating the excess of reductant power from the chloroplast...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
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