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Anton Kontunen, Markus Karjalainen, Jukka Lekkala, Antti Roine, Niku Oksala
Electrosurgery is widely used in various surgical operations. When tissue is cut with high-frequency current, the cell contents at the incision area evaporate and together with water and possible soot particles, form surgical smoke. The smoke contains cell metabolites, and therefore, possible biomarkers for cancer or bacterial infection. Thus, the analysis of surgical smoke could be used in intraoperative medical diagnostics. We present a method that can be used to detect the characteristics of various tissue types by means of differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of surgical smoke...
April 24, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Federico M Flores, Rosa M Torres Sánchez, Maria Dos Santos Afonso
The most worldwide used herbicide is glyphosate, phosphonomethylglycine (PMG). Consequently, a significant amount of PMG, its metabolites (sarcosine, SAR, and aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) and the degradation product, methylphosphonic acid (MPA), reaches the soil, which acts as final sink. Because clays are one of the most reactive components of soils, expansive clays such as montmorillonite (Mt) are used to retain agriculture contaminants with some success. In this work, as a preliminary step for the evaluation of the risk that PMG, SAR, AMPA, and MPA occurrence could have on the environment, their adsorption on Mt surface was performed...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Roberta C Riéffel, Maiara C Velho, Andiara P Ramos, Kátia Nascimento, Michele R Sagrillo, Aline F Ourique, Aleksandro S da Silva, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
Trypanosoma evansi is a zoonotic parasite associated with high animal mortality that has gained importance due to its capacity to infect humans. Recently, some evidences have demonstrated that T. evansi infection causes severe genotoxic and cytotoxic damage in brain cells, contributing to the pathogenesis and clinical signs of the disease. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres, a natural compound with trypanocidal and neuroprotective effects, is able to protect the brain tissue from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects found during T...
April 24, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Mainak Dutta, Brajesh Singh, Mamata Joshi, Debanjan Das, Elavarasan Subramani, Meenu Maan, Saikat Kumar Jana, Uma Sharma, Soumen Das, Swagata Dasgupta, Chaitali Datta Ray, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease, characterized by growth and proliferation of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus. With studies showing metabolic changes in various biofluids of endometriosis women, we have set upon to investigate whether endometrial tissue show differences in their metabolic profiles. 1 H NMR analysis was performed on eutopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis and controls. Analysis was performed on spectral data and on relative concentrations of metabolites obtained from spectra using multivariate and univariate data analysis...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Colin R Jefcoate, Jinwoo Lee
Cholesterol is an important regulator of cell signaling, both through direct impacts on cell membranes and through oxy-metabolites that activate specific receptors (steroids, hydroxy-cholesterols, bile acids). Cholesterol moves slowly through and between cell membranes with the assistance of specific binding proteins and transfer processes. The prototype cholesterol regulator is the Steroidogenesis Acute Regulatory (STAR), which moves cholesterol into mitochondria, where steroid synthesis is initiated by cytochrome P450 11A1 in multiple endocrine cell types...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Shi-Wei He, Yong-Gang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Mi-Cong Jin, Yan Zhu
A novel hydrophilicity nano-titania coating modified magnetic graphene oxide (HTC-Mag-GO) has been synthesized. It has been evaluated in PRiME (process, robustness, improvements, matrix effects, ease of use) pass-through cleanup procedure for human blood prior to analysis of fipronil and its metabolites, i.e., fipronil sulphone, fipronil sulphide and fipronil desulfinyl by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Compared with the Oasis PRiME HLB cartridge, HTC-Mag-GO is much more effective for the removal of matrix effect...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jia Zhong, Andrea A Baccarelli, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Ravit Nahum, Russ Hauser, Valentina Bollati, Catherine Racowsky, Ronit Machtinger
Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerts both short- and long-term adverse effects on the developing fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be uncovered. Maternal-fetal signaling is mediated in part by signaling molecules (eg, microRNAs [miRNAs]) contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by the placenta into the maternal circulation. We investigated whether maternal exposure to the EDCs phthalates and personal care products alters the miRNA profile of placental-derived EVs circulating in maternal blood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Shun Katada, Takuya Watanabe, Tomohito Mizuno, Shinichi Kobayashi, Masao Takeshita, Noriko Osaki, Shigeru Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) reduce blood pressure and body fat, and enhance fat metabolism. In roasted coffee, CGAs exist together with the oxidant component hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). HHQ counteracts the antihypertensive effects of CGA, but its effects on CGA-induced fat oxidation (FOX) are unknown. Here we assessed the effects of CGA-enriched and HHQ-reduced coffee on FOX. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (age: 38 ± 8 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 22.4 ± 1.5 kg/m²) participated in this crossover study...
April 23, 2018: Nutrients
Sergio Davinelli, Michael E Nielsen, Giovanni Scapagnini
Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a secondary metabolite naturally synthesized by a number of bacteria, microalgae, and yeasts. The commercial production of this pigment has traditionally been performed by chemical synthesis, but the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis appears to be the most promising source for its industrial biological production. Due to its collective diverse functions in skin biology, there is mounting evidence that astaxanthin possesses various health benefits and important nutraceutical applications in the field of dermatology...
April 22, 2018: Nutrients
Andrea Balažová, Júlia Urdová, František Bilka, Ivana Holková, Branislav Horváth, Vladimír Forman, Pavel Mučaji
The basal production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants is limited. One of the effective approaches that encourages plants to produce a remarkable amount of precious compounds is an application of elicitors. Our work was focused on the elicitation of Eschscholzia californica Cham. suspension cultures using various concentrations of MnCl₂ (5; 10; 15 mg/L) with the aim of evaluating its effect on sanguinarine, chelerythrine, and macarpine production and gene expression of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mentioned secondary metabolites (BBE, 4′-OMT, CYP80B1) or in defense processes (LOX)...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sonja Krstin, Mansour Sobeh, Markus Santhosh Braun, Michael Wink
Background: Garlics and onions have been used for the treatment of diseases caused by parasites and microbes since ancient times. Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are a concern in many areas of the world, especially in poor countries. Methods: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Leishmania tarentolae were used to investigate the anti-parasitic effects of dichloromethane extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) bulbs. As a confirmation of known antimicrobial activities, they were studied against a selection of G-negative, G-positive bacteria and two fungi...
April 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Abdel-Rahim S Ibrahim, Khaled M Elokely, Daneel Ferreira, Amany E Ragab
Biotransformation of fusidic acid ( 1 ) was accomplished using a battery of microorganisms including Cunninghamella echinulata NRRL 1382, which converted fusidic acid ( 1 ) into three new metabolites 2 ⁻ 4 and the known metabolite 5 . These metabolites were identified using 1D and 2D NMR and HRESI-FTMS data. Structural assignment of the compounds was supported via computation of ¹H- and 13 C-NMR chemical shifts. Compounds 2 and 3 were assigned as the 27-hydroxy and 26-hydroxy derivatives of fusidic acid, respectively...
April 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
H Kachingwe, Li-Hsuan Wang, Yow-Shieng Uang, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, Shwu-Jiuan Lin
Compound 1 (ent-16-oxobeyeran-19-N-methylureido) is a semisynthetic isosteviol derivative that showed anti-hepatitis B virus activity in Huh7 cells by affecting viral DNA transcription and the Toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Thus, the pharmacokinetics and metabolite identification were studied as part of the discovery and development process of compound 1. The pharmacokinetics was evaluated after administration to rats at an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg, and oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg...
April 24, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Junjun Wang, Xuejin Yu, Ling Zhang, Ling Wang, Zhihong Peng, Yong Chen
Curcumin (CUR) is the major active component of turmeric and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases such as respiratory, neurodegenerative disease and so on. In the present work, a rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of CUR and its metabolites in mice after intravenous administration of CUR (20 mg/kg). The results showed that the AUC0-∞ were 107.0 ± 18.3, 6.0 ± 1.2 and 12.0 ± 4.0 (mg/L)·min, and the t1/2z were 32...
April 24, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Roberto Fernandez-Maestre
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique used for fast and sensitive detection of illegal substances in customs and airports, diagnosis of diseases through detection of metabolites in breath, fundamental studies in physics and chemistry, space exploration and many more applications. IMS separates ions in the gas-phase drifting under an electric field according to their size to charge ratio. IMS disadvantages are false positives that delay transportation, compromise patient's health and other negative issues when IMS is used for detection...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Xing Fan, Jun Rao, Ziwei Zhang, Dengfeng Li, Wenhao Cui, Jun Zhang, Hua Wang, Fangfang Tou, Zhi Zheng, Qiang Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Induction of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated-apoptosis have been utilized as effective strategies in anticancer therapy. Macranthoidin B (MB) is a potent inducer of ROS-mediated apoptosis in cancer, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. METHOD: Superoxide production with MB exposure in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was measured using lucigenin chemiluminescence and real-time PCR. MB's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of CRC cells was determined by proliferation assays...
April 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ang Li, Yan Liu, Xiaosong Zhu, Xiao Sun, Xiuli Feng, Dawei Li, Jiangqiang Zhang, Meihua Zhu, Zhongxi Zhao
In this study, we revealed that methylallyl sulfone (AMSO2), the metabolite of active organosulfur compounds, had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect in a cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced lung injury model. Firstly, histological analysis showed that the CSE group exhibited lung injury compared with the control, which was alleviated by AMSO2. Secondly, we estimated its anti-inflammatory capacity. The results indicated that pretreatment with AMSO2 significantly decreased CSE-elevated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum...
April 21, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Allison L Phillips, Stephanie C Hammel, Kate Hoffman, Amelia M Lorenzo, Albert Chen, Thomas F Webster, Heather M Stapleton
BACKGROUND: Following the phase-out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been increasingly used in consumer products and building materials for their flame retardant and plasticizing properties. As a result, human exposure to these chemicals is widespread as evidenced by common detection of their metabolites in urine. However, little is known about the major exposure pathways, or factors that influence children's exposure to OPEs. Furthermore, little data is available on exposure to the novel aryl OPEs...
April 20, 2018: Environment International
William R Arnold, Austin T Weigle, Aditi Das
Phytocannabinoids have well-known cardiovascular implications. For instance, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the principal component of cannabis, induces tachycardia in humans. In order to understand the impact of phytocannabinoids on human cardiovascular health, there is a need to study the metabolism of phytocannabinoids by cardiac cytochromes p450 (CYPs). CYP2J2, the primary CYP of cardiomyocytes, is responsible for the metabolism of the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), into cardioprotective epoxides (EET-EAs)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Özge Özçinar, Özgür Tağ, Hasan Yusufoglu, Bijen Kivçak, Erdal Bedir
Biotransformation of steroidal ruscogenins (neoruscogenin and ruscogenin) was carried out with Cunninghamella blakesleeana NRRL 1369 and endophytic fungus Neosartorya hiratsukae yielding mainly P450 monooxygenase products together with a glycosylated compound. Fermentation of ruscogenins (75:25, neoruscogenin-ruscogenin mixture) with C. blakesleeana yielded 8 previously undescribed hydroxylated compounds. Furthermore, microbial transformation of neoruscogenin by endophytic fungus N. hiratsukae afforded three previously undescribed neoruscogenin derivatives...
April 21, 2018: Phytochemistry
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