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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655199/proteins-involved-in-endocytosis-are-upregulated-by-ageing-in-the-normal-human-brain-implications-for-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Mouhamed Alsaqati, Rhian S Thomas, Emma J Kidd
The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is advanced age, but the reason for this association remains unclear. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is produced from amyloid precursor protein (APP) primarily after APP is internalised by clathrin-mediated or clathrin-independent endocytosis. Changes in endocytosis in AD have been identified. We hypothesised that endocytic protein expression is altered during ageing, thus influencing the likelihood of developing AD by increasing Aβ production. We explored how levels of endocytic proteins, APP, its metabolites, secretase enzymes and tau varied with age in cortical brain samples from men of three age ranges (young (20-30), middle-aged (45-55) and old (70-90)) with no symptoms of dementia...
June 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654869/a-review-of-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-urinary-methods-for-anticancer-drug-exposure-of-health-care-workers
#2
REVIEW
Patricia I Mathias, Thomas H Connor, Clayton B'Hymer
This review describes published high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods for the determination of anticancer drugs in human urine as non-invasive tool for monitoring of health care worker exposure to antineoplastic and cytotoxic drugs. HPLC-MS is a sensitive and specific method for analysis of anticancer drugs and their metabolites in biological fluids. In this review, a tabular summary and overview of published HPLC-MS methods are presented, as well as future trends and limitations in this area of research...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654861/aging-alters-mrna-expression-of-amyloid-transporter-genes-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Doreen Osgood, Miles C Miller, Arthur A Messier, Liliana Gonzalez, Gerald D Silverberg
Decreased clearance of potentially toxic metabolites, due to aging changes, likely plays a significant role in the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides and other macromolecules in the brain of the elderly and in the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aging is the single most important risk factor for AD development. Aβ transport receptor proteins expressed at the blood-brain barrier are significantly altered with age: the efflux transporters lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 and P-glycoprotein are reduced, whereas the influx transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products is increased...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654805/role-of-root-exudates-in-metal-acquisition-and-tolerance
#4
REVIEW
Yi-Tze Chen, Ying Wang, Kuo-Chen Yeh
Plants acquire mineral nutrients mostly through the rhizosphere; they secrete a large number of metabolites into the rhizosphere to regulate nutrient availability and to detoxify undesirable metal pollutants in soils. The secreted metabolites are inorganic ions, gaseous molecules, and mainly carbon-based compounds. This review focuses on the mechanisms and regulation of low-molecular-weight organic-compound exudation in terms of metal acquisition. We summarize findings on riboflavin/phenolic-facilitated and phytosiderophore-facilitated iron acquisition and discuss recent studies of the functions and secretion mechanisms of low-molecular-weight organic acids in heavy-metal detoxification...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654798/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-kidney-function-and-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Fariba Mahmoodpoor, Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Abolfazl Barzegari, Mohammadreza Ardalan, Sepideh V Zununi Vahed
Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are a global health problem. Besides diverse leading reasons in initiation and progression of CKDs, it is evident that they might largely originate from changes in the gut microbial community (microbiota). Mounting evidence indicates that a bidirectional relationship exists between host and microbiome in humans and animals with CKDs. Changes in the microbiota composition and structure (dysbiosis) produce excessive amounts of uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate and trimethylamine-N-oxide) but less reno-protective metabolites that are implicated in oxidative stress, uremia, inflammation, deterioration of kidney function, kidney diseases progression, a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk, and mortality in patients with CKD...
June 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654751/substrate-recognition-mechanism-of-the-putative-yeast-carnosine-n-methyltransferase
#6
Xiwen Liu, Jialiang Wu, Yujie Sun, Wei Xie
Anserine (β-alanyl-N(Pi) -methyl-L-histidine) is a natural metabolite present in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system of vertebrates, and plays important physiological roles in living organisms. The production of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferases, which transfer a methyl group to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine). However, the structural basis of the substrate recognition for the enzymes is unknown. We present the crystal structure of the putative carnosine N-methyltransferase from yeast named YNL092W in complex with SAH, solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method...
June 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654704/2-5-hexanedione-downregulates-nerve-growth-factor-and-induces-neuron-apoptosis-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats-via-inhibition-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#7
Zhemin Wang, Zewen Qiu, Chenxue Gao, Yijie Sun, Wei Dong, Yan Zhang, Ruolin Chen, Yuan Qi, Shuangyue Li, Yanjie Guo, Yongjun Piao, Sheng Li, Fengyuan Piao
2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main active metabolite of n-hexane and induces apoptosis in nerve tissue, however, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In the present study, neuropathic animal models were successfully constructed in rats by injecting 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 2,5-HD intraperitoneally for 5 weeks. Rats exposed to 2,5-HD exhibited progressive gait abnormalities and slower motor neural response in a dose-dependent manner. TUNEL analysis and immunofluorescence dual labeling revealed that the spinal cord of the 2,5-HD treated rats underwent significantly more apoptosis in the cells of spinal cord than that of the control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654660/isolation-and-characterization-of-gmmybj3-an-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-that-affects-isoflavonoids-biosynthesis-in-soybean
#8
Mingzhu Zhao, Tianliang Wang, Ping Wu, Wenyun Guo, Liantai Su, Ying Wang, Yajing Liu, Fan Yan, Qingyu Wang
Isoflavonoids are secondary metabolites that play a variety of roles in plant-microbe interactions and plant defenses against abiotic stresses. Here we report a new MYB transcription factor (TF) gene, GmMYBJ3, that is involved in the isoflavonoids biosynthesis. The GmMYBJ3 gene is 1,002 bp long and encodes a protein of 333 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that GmMYBJ3 is a typical R2R3 MYB TF. Yeast expression experiment demonstrated that GmMYBJ3 has its transcription activity in the nucleus and is transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654323/metabolite-measurement-pitfalls-to-avoid-and-practices-to-follow
#9
Wenyun Lu, Xiaoyang Su, Matthias S Klein, Ian A Lewis, Oliver Fiehn, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Metabolites are the small biological molecules involved in energy conversion and biosynthesis. Studying metabolism is inherently challenging due to metabolites' reactivity, structural diversity, and broad concentration range. Herein, we review the common pitfalls encountered in metabolomics and provide concrete guidelines for obtaining accurate metabolite measurements, focusing on water-soluble primary metabolites. We show how seemingly straightforward sample preparation methods can introduce systematic errors (e...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654321/redox-based-regulation-of-bacterial-development-and-behavior
#10
Abigail J Sporer, Lisa J Kahl, Alexa Price-Whelan, Lars E P Dietrich
Severe changes in the environmental redox potential, and resulting alterations in the oxidation states of intracellular metabolites and enzymes, have historically been considered negative stressors, requiring responses that are strictly defensive. However, recent work in diverse organisms has revealed that more subtle changes in the intracellular redox state can act as signals, eliciting responses with benefits beyond defense and detoxification. Changes in redox state have been shown to influence or trigger chromosome segregation, sporulation, aerotaxis, and social behaviors, including luminescence as well as biofilm establishment and dispersal...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654297/eriodictyol-not-its-glucuronide-metabolites-attenuates-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity
#11
Ling Ye, Zhaoyu Wang, Yao Lan, Minghao Chen, Cailing Wen, Yanxian Hu, Zhong Qiu Liu
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used oral analgesics and antipyretics, but hepatotoxicity including liver failure may occur after overdose. The therapeutic options for treating APAP hepatotoxicity are limited. Eriodictyol, a dietary flavonoid with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, was used here to determine its protective effects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Various administration routes and pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) analyses were used to determine these effects...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654223/the-pomegranate-punica-granatum-l-genome-and-the-genomics-of-punicalagin-biosynthesis
#12
Gaihua Qin, Chunyan Xu, Ray Ming, Haibao Tang, Romain Guyot, Elena M Kramer, Yudong Hu, Xingkai Yi, Yongjie Qi, Xiangyang Xu, Zhenghui Gao, Haifa Pan, Jianbo Jian, Yinping Tian, Zhen Yue, Yiliu Xu
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a perennial fruit crop grown since ancient times that has been planted worldwide and is known for its functional metabolites, particularly punicalagins. We have sequenced and assembled the pomegranate genome with 328 Mb anchored into nine pseudo-chromosomes and annotated 29 229 gene models. A Myrtales lineage-specific whole-genome duplication (WGD) event was detected that occurred in the common ancestor before the divergence of pomegranate and Eucalyptus. Repetitive sequences accounted for 46...
June 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654199/imidacloprid-is-hydroxylated-by-laodelphax-striatellus-cyp6ay3v2
#13
R Wang, Y Zhu, L Deng, H Zhang, Q Wang, M Yin, P Song, M E A Elzaki, Z Han, M Wu
Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is one of the most destructive pests of rice, and has developed high resistance to imidacloprid. Our previous work indicated a strong association between imidacloprid resistance and the overexpression of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP6AY3v2 in a L. striatellus imidacloprid resistant strain (Imid-R). In this study, a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster line that overexpressed the L. striatellus CYP6AY3v2 gene was established and was found to confer increased levels of imidacloprid resistance...
June 27, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#14
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654061/the-inverted-heart-model-for-interstitial-transudate-collection-from-the-isolated-rat-heart
#15
Kezhe Tan, Zhaoping Ding, Bodo Steckel, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Xiaoming Deng, Jürgen Schrader
The present protocol describes a unique approach that enables the collection of cardiac transudate (CT) from the isolated, saline-perfused rat heart. After isolation and retrograde perfusion of the heart according to the Langendorff technique, the heart is inverted into an upside-down position and is mechanically stabilized by a balloon catheter inserted into the left ventricle. Then, a thin latex cap - previously cast to match the average size of the rat heart - is placed over the epicardial surface. The outlet of the latex cap is connected to silicon tubing, with the distal opening 10 cm below the base level of the heart, creating slight suction...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653936/repeated-treatment-with-reserpine-as-a-progressive-animal-model-of-depression
#16
Huma Ikram, Darakhshan J Haleem
Treatment-resistant depression is a major health problem worldwide. Restricted validity of the existing animal models of depression along with the need for the study of progressive development of resistance to antidepressants, demands the modeling of a progressive animal model of depression. Present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the repeated administration of reserpine could serve as a progressive animal model of depression. Animals were injected with reserpine (1.0mg/kg; once a day) for three weeks...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653919/dpph-abts-free-radical-scavenging-antibacterial-and-phytochemical-evaluation-of-crude-methanolic-extract-and-subsequent-fractions-of-chenopodium-botrys-aerial-parts
#17
Farhat Ullah, Naveed Iqbal, Muhammad Ayaz, Abdul Sadiq, Ihsan Ullah, Sajjad Ahmad, Muhammad Imran
We investigated antioxidant, antibacterial potentials and secondary metabolites of Chenopodium botrys aerial parts to rationalize its effectiveness in free radicals induced disorders and infectious diseases. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts were investigated using DPPH and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Antibacterial potential was studied using well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis was performed for the presence of secondary metabolites. In DPPH assay chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-hexane fraction (NHF) were most active causing average inhibition of 65...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653770/studies-on-n-acetyltransferase-nat2-genotype-relationships-in-emiratis-confirmation-of-the-existence-of-phenotype-variation-among-slow-acetylators
#18
Mohammad M Al-Ahmad, Naheed Amir, Subramanian Dhanasekaran, Anne John, Yousef M Abdulrazzaq, Bassam R Ali, Salim Bastaki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with slow N-acetylation phenotype often experience toxicity from drugs such as isoniazid, sulfonamides, procainamide, and hydralazine, whereas rapid acetylators may not respond to these medications. The highly polymorphic N-acetyltransferase 2 enzyme encoded by the NAT2 gene is one of the N-acetylators in humans with a clear impact on the metabolism of a significant number of important drugs. However, there are limited studies on N-acetylation phenotypes and NAT2 genotypes among Emiratis, and thus this study was carried out to fill this gap...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653740/isolation-diversity-and-biotechnological-potential-of-rhizo-and-endophytic-bacteria-associated-with-mangrove-plants-from-saudi-arabia
#19
F Bibi, I Ullah, S A Alvi, S A Bakhsh, M Yasir, A A K Al-Ghamdi, E I Azhar
Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653198/a-combined-nmr-and-hplc-ms-ms-based-metabolomics-to-evaluate-the-metabolic-perturbations-and-subacute-toxic-effects-of-endosulfan-on-mice
#20
Ping Zhang, Wentao Zhu, Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Yao Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Lin He
Endosulfan is the newly persistent organic pollutants (POPs) added to the Stockholm Convention as its widespread use, persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, endocrine disruption, and toxicity related to various adverse effects. In the present study, male mice were administrated endosulfan at 0, 0.5, and 3.5 mg/kg by gavage for 2 weeks. (1)H-NMR-based urinary metabolomics, HPLC-MS/MS-based targeted serum metabolomics, clinical analysis, and histopathology techniques were employed to evaluate the metabolic perturbations of subacute endosulfan exposure...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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