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Pneumonia and risk of cardiovascular event

Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Jari Kankaanpää, Maritta Sämpi, Risto Bloigu, Chunguang Wang, Ramin Akhi, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Anne M Remes, Olavi Ukkola, Sohvi Hörkkö
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antibodies to phosphocholine and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are proposed to modify progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the prognostic value of antibodies to phosphocholine (PCho), Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS) and oxLDL in defining long-term CVD survival. METHODS: CVD incidence was followed for 18 years and analyzed with baseline plasma IgM, IgG and IgA antibody levels to PCho, CWPS and oxLDL in 1044 subjects of Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis study (OPERA)...
December 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
Shih-Hsiang Yen, Jen-Hung Chen, Yu-Der Lu, Jun-Wen Wang
BACKGROUND: Total hip arthroplasty in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be associated with a high complication rate. However, the perioperative complication and mortality rates in these patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have rarely been investigated. The purposes of this study were to measure the mortality and complication rates and to evaluate the 2- to 10-year clinical outcome of TKA in dialysis patients at our hospital during the past decade. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 21 patients (26 knees) with ESRD who underwent primary TKA between 2007 and 2015...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
Wessel W Fuijkschot, Martine C Morrison, Ilse P A Zethof, Paul A J Krijnen, Robert Kleemann, Hans W M Niessen, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational studies show a peak incidence in cardiovascular events during and early after clinical conditions associated with substantial systemic inflammation, such as pneumonia. The acuteness of this increased risk suggests rapid plaque destabilization and associated intra-plaque inflammation. We evaluated whether LPS-evoked acute systemic inflammation would induce such detrimental vascular changes in murine aortas with manifest atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE3*Leiden mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 20 weeks to establish atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2017: Shock
Mette Heringa, Annemieke Floor-Schreudering, Hans Wouters, Peter A G M De Smet, Marcel L Bouvy
INTRODUCTION: The management of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a complex process in which risk-benefit assessments should be combined with the patient's perspective. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine patients' and pharmacists' preferences regarding DDI management. METHODS: We conducted a choice-based conjoint survey about a fictitious DDI concerning the combination of a cardiovascular drug and an antibiotic for pneumonia...
September 30, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Courtney Crim, Peter M A Calverley, Julie A Anderson, Andrew P Holmes, Sally Kilbride, Fernando J Martinez, Robert D Brook, David E Newby, Julie C Yates, Bartolomé R Celli, Jørgen Vestbo
RATIONALE: Pneumonia risk with inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been thoroughly assessed in patients with moderate airflow limitation. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of pneumonia and risk factors in COPD patients with moderate airflow limitation who had, or were at high risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy in COPD (SUMMIT), 16,590 subjects with moderate airflow limitation (50% ≤ FEV1  ≤ 70% predicted) and heightened cardiovascular risk were randomized double-blind 1:1:1:1 to inhaled once-daily vilanterol 25 μg (VI), fluticasone furoate 100 μg (FF), vilanterol 25 μg combined with 100 μg fluticasone furoate (FF/VI), or matched placebo...
October 2017: Respiratory Medicine
C Spitzweg, M Reincke, R Gärtner
Thyroid emergencies are rare life-threatening endocrine conditions resulting from either decompensated thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm) or severe thyroid hormone deficiency (myxedema coma). Both conditions develop out of a long-standing undiagnosed or untreated hyper- or hypothyroidism, respectively, precipitated by an acute stress-associated event, such as infection, trauma, or surgery. Cardinal features of thyroid storm are myasthenia, cardiovascular symptoms, in particular tachycardia, as well as hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction...
October 2017: Der Internist
Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Jackson Tan, Said Khamis, Muhammad AshhadUllah Khalil, Rabeea Azmat, Arslan Rahat Ullah
Cigarette smoking affects many organs. It causes vasoconstriction through activation of sympathetic nervous system which leads to elevation of blood pressure and reduction in glomerular filtration rate and filtration pressure. It also causes thickening of renal arterioles. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of microalbuminuria and accelerates progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, it causes rapid loss of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease patients. After kidney donation, these factors may be injurious to the solitary kidney...
2017: Advances in Medicine
Paulo Sérgio Lucas da Silva, Marcelo Cunio Machado Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular collapse is a life-threatening event after unplanned extubations (UEs) in the pediatric ICU (PICU). However, there is a paucity of pediatric studies assessing this complication. We sought to assess the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of cardiovascular collapse after UEs in PICU patients. METHODS: All children who had been mechanically ventilated for ≥12 h were prospectively tracked for UEs over an 8-y period. Subjects were included in the study if they were between ages 1 month and 16 y and had experienced UE...
April 11, 2017: Respiratory Care
Jessica R Glover, Frank O Velez-Cubian, Wei Wei Zhang, Kavian Toosi, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Emily P Ng, Carla C Moodie, Joseph R Garrett, Jacques P Fontaine, Eric M Toloza
BACKGROUND: Female gender has been associated with worse outcomes after cardiovascular surgery and critical illness. We investigated the effect of gender on perioperative outcomes following robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 282 consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy by one surgeon over 53 months. Perioperative outcomes and clinically significant intraoperative and postoperative complications, including respiratory and cardiovascular events, were noted...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Pablo A Méndez-Lázaro, Cynthia M Pérez-Cardona, Ernesto Rodríguez, Odalys Martínez, Mariela Taboas, Arelis Bocanegra, Rafael Méndez-Tejeda
Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the most common causes of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), encompassing infections mild enough to be treated on an outpatient basis, as well as those requiring hospital care, or even intensive care unit admission. This microorganism is associated with a significant burden of disease, causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, and generating considerable health-care costs. The reason that pneumococcal CAP remains such a common cause of disease relates to the presence of several risk factors for this infection in patients throughout the world...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Scott Sibbel, Reiko Sato, Abigail Hunt, Wendy Turenne, Steven M Brunelli
BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving dialysis are at particular risk for infection. We assessed the clinical and economic burden of pneumonia in a population of Medicare-enrolled ESRD patients with respect to incidence and case fatality rates, rates of all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization, and costs. METHODS: Patients received dialysis between 01 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 and were enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B. Pneumonia episodes were identified from institutional and supplier claims...
December 12, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Alison Avenell, Toby O Smith, James P Curtain, Jenson Cs Mak, Phyo K Myint
BACKGROUND: Older people with hip fractures are often malnourished at the time of fracture, and subsequently have poor food intake. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000, and previously updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects (benefits and harms) of nutritional interventions in older people recovering from hip fracture. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, trial registers and reference lists...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gustavo J Rodrigo, Hugo Neffen
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta2-agonists as first-line therapy for COPD patients at risk for acute exacerbations and/or severe airflow limitation. This systematic review assesses available evidence on the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) combination versus each alone, for the treatment of patients with severe to very severe stable COPD. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of >8 weeks of duration were included...
February 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Amal N Trivedi, Ross Bailie, Jodie Bailie, Alex Brown, Margaret Kelaher
BACKGROUND: To close health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, the Australian government in 2010 reduced medication copayments for Indigenous Australians living with, or at risk of, a chronic disease. Patients were registered for this incentive by their general practitioner. OBJECTIVE: To assess rates of hospitalizations for chronic conditions among Indigenous Australians before and after copayment reductions. DESIGN: Observational time-trend study of hospitalizations for chronic conditions sensitive to medication adherence...
May 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Norrina B Allen, Mary Cushman, Erin D Michos, Tatjana Rundek, Jamal S Rana, Ron Blankstein, Roger S Blumenthal, Michael J Blaha, Emir Veledar, Khurram Nasir
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association introduced the Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics to assess and promote cardiovascular health. We examined the association between the LS7 metrics and noncardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 6506 men and women aged between 45 and 84 years, enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Median follow-up time was 10.2 years. Each component of the LS7 metrics (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose) was assigned points, 0 indicates "poor" category; 1, "intermediate," and 2, "ideal...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Joseph Em van Agteren, Kristin V Carson, Leong Ung Tiong, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adrian D Wood, Gurdeep S Mannu, Allan B Clark, Somsak Tiamkao, Kannikar Kongbunkiat, Joao H Bettencourt-Silva, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth, Narongrit Kasemsap, Raphae S Barlas, Mamas Mamas, Phyo Kyaw Myint
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rheumatic valvular heart disease is associated with the increased risk of cerebrovascular events, although there are limited data on the prognosis of patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) after stroke. METHODS: We examined the association between RMVD and both serious and common cardiovascular and noncardiovascular (respiratory and infective) complications in a cohort of hospitalized stroke patients based in Thailand. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were also explored...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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