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Vaccines and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737499/vaccines-targeting-pcsk9-a-promising-alternative-to-passive-immunization-with-monoclonal-antibodies-in-the-management-of-hyperlipidaemia
#1
Stefan Weisshaar, Markus Zeitlinger
Hypercholesterolaemia is frequently observed in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is associated with increased mortality. Statin treatment has been the standard of care for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to improve cardiovascular outcomes. However, statins have limited effects in some patients and may be discontinued due to adverse effects resulting in LDL-C above target levels. The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a pivotal regulator in the LDL-C metabolism by degrading the LDL-C receptor on hepatocytes...
May 8, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735288/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-the-mexican-college-of-rheumatology
#2
Daniel Xibillé-Friedmann, Marcela Pérez-Rodríguez, Sandra Carrillo-Vázquez, Everardo Álvarez-Hernández, Francisco Javier Aceves, Mario C Ocampo-Torres, Conrado García-García, José Luis García-Figueroa, Javier Merayo-Chalico, Ana Barrera-Vargas, Margarita Portela-Hernández, Sandra Sicsik, Lilia Andrade-Ortega, Víctor Manuel Rosales-Don Pablo, Aline Martínez, Pilar Prieto-Seyffert, Mario Pérez-Cristóbal, Miguel Ángel Saavedra, Zully Castro-Colín, Azucena Ramos, Gabriela Huerta-Sil, María Fernanda Hernández-Cabrera, Luis Javier Jara, Leonardo Limón-Camacho, Lizbet Tinajero-Nieto, Leonor A Barile-Fabris
There are national and international clinical practice guidelines for systemic lupus erythematosus treatment. Nonetheless, most of them are not designed for the Mexican population or are devoted only to the treatment of certain disease manifestations, like lupus nephritis, or are designed for some physiological state like pregnancy. The Mexican College of Rheumatology aimed to create clinical practice guidelines that included the majority of the manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, and also incorporated guidelines in controversial situations like vaccination and the perioperative period...
May 4, 2018: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704370/evaluation-of-healthy-fit-a-community-health-worker-model-to-address-hispanic-health-disparities
#3
Louis D Brown, Denise Vasquez, Jennifer J Salinas, Xiaohui Tang, Hector Balcázar
INTRODUCTION: Hispanics in the United States have disproportionately high rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes and poorer access to preventive health services. Healthy Fit uses community health workers to extend public health department infrastructure and address Hispanic health disparities related to cardiovascular disease and access to preventive health services. We evaluated the effectiveness of Healthy Fit in 1) reaching Hispanic Americans facing health disparities, and 2) helping participants access preventive health services and make behavior changes to improve heart health...
April 26, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686881/mortality-in-coeliac-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study-from-a-single-centre-in-southern-derbyshire-uk
#4
Geoffrey K T Holmes, Andrew Muirhead
Objective: With the advent of screening tests, it was hypothesised that milder cases of coeliac disease coming to diagnosis might have reduced risk of mortality. An earlier publication did not support this view. We have re-examined this issue employing a larger number of patients followed for a further 8 years. Design: Patients with coeliac disease from Southern Derbyshire, UK, were followed prospectively from 1978 to 2014 and included those diagnosed by biopsy and serology...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681616/progress-in-preventive-therapy-for-cancer-a-reminiscence-and-personal-viewpoint
#5
REVIEW
Jack Cuzick
Prophylactic drug treatment with aspirin, statins and anti-hypertensive agents has had a major impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease and is now well established. Progress in therapeutic cancer prevention has been much slower; only recently have effective agents been clearly established. Breast cancer has led the way and endocrine agents used to treat it-notably tamoxifen and the aromatase inhibitors-have now been shown to have a substantial preventive effect as well. However, these agents carry some toxicity and thus identifying high-risk women who are likely to benefit most is a key priority...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622165/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-associations-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-adults
#6
REVIEW
Kelsey S Ivey, Kathryn M Edwards, H Keipp Talbot
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is historically known for causing respiratory illness in young children, but the appreciation of its impact on older adults is growing. Studies have shown that hospitalization for respiratory illness due to RSV is complicated by cardiovascular events in 14% to 22% of adult patients, including worsening congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, and arrhythmias. Additionally, underlying cardiovascular disease is associated with hospitalization in 45% to 63% of adults with confirmed RSV...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609210/does-sle-care-provided-in-a-lupus-clinic-result-in-higher-quality-of-care-than-general-rheumatology-clinic
#7
Shilpa Arora, Ailda Nika, Laura Trupin, Hrudya Abraham, Joel Block, Winston Sequeira, Jinoos Yazdany, Meenakshi Jolly
PURPOSE: We compared the quality of care received by SLE patients in two settings within the same academic institution (Lupus Clinic, LC and General Rheumatology Clinic, GRC) using validated SLE quality measures (QM). METHODS: 150 consenting, consecutive SLE patients receiving longitudinal care at Rush University GRC (73) and subspecialty LC (77) were recruited. An updated QM survey and retrospective medical chart review was used for evaluation of each QM. The overall and individual (20) QM performance was calculated and compared between two groups...
April 2, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588316/regulatory-cd4-t-cells-recognize-mhc-ii-restricted-peptide-epitopes-of-apolipoprotein-b
#8
Takayuki Kimura, Kouji Kobiyama, Holger Winkels, Kevin Tse, Jacqueline Miller, Melanie Vassallo, Dennis Wolf, Christian Ryden, Marco Orecchioni, Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Marc K Jenkins, Eddie A James, William W Kwok, David B Hanna, Robert C Kaplan, Howard D Strickler, Helen G Durkin, Seble G Kassaye, Roksana Karim, Phyllis C Tien, Alan L Landay, Stephen J Gange, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Klaus Ley
Background -CD4+ T cells play an important role in atherosclerosis, but their antigen specificity is poorly understood. Immunization with apolipoprotein B (ApoB, core protein of low density lipoprotein) is known to be atheroprotective in animal models. Here, we report on a human APOB peptide, p18, that is sequence-identical in mouse ApoB and binds to both mouse and human MHC-II. Methods -We constructed p18-tetramers to detect human and mouse APOB-specific T cells and assayed their phenotype by flow cytometry including CD4 lineage transcription factors, intracellular cytokines, and TCR activation...
March 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557200/new-therapies-versus-first-generation-biologic-drugs-in-psoriasis-a-review-of-adverse-events-and-their-management
#9
J M Carrascosa, E Del-Alcazar
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. This review covers injection site reactions, infections, cardiovascular events, demyelinating disorders, tumours, class effects secondary adverse events, immunogenicity, safety in pregnancy and vaccines efficacy...
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548604/effect-of-influenza-vaccine-on-tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-tweak-in-older-adults
#10
Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi, Min Ouyang, Marzieh Keshtkarjahromi, Samah Almed, Huifen Li, Jeremy D Walston, Rebeca Rios, Sean X Leng
Influenza immunization is recommended for older adults annually, and has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effects. TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), an inflammatory mediator implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases, could be a mechanism for such effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of influenza vaccine on TWEAK levels. Older persons over 70 years of age were recruited during 2007-2008 influenza season and immunized with the standard dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine...
April 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498010/therapeutic-oligonucleotides-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-insights-for-the-internist
#11
Domenico Girelli, Fabiana Busti, Giacomo Marchi, Nicola Martinelli, Oliviero Olivieri
The idea of using small RNA fragments (oligonucleotides) for therapeutic purposes dates back to the 1990s, following the landmark discoveries on the mechanisms of gene silencing and RNA-interference (RNA-i). However, the first applications in medicine were hampered by difficulties in chemical stabilization and efficient delivery to target tissues. Recent advances in chemical manipulation of oligonucleotides have, at least partially, bypassed such obstacles. In particular, conjugation with ligands for specific receptors allows the selective uptake of oligonucleotides by critical cells (e...
April 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487091/cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-and-its-inhibitors
#12
Sudichhya Shrestha, Ben J Wu, Liam Guiney, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
Most of the cholesterol in plasma is in an esterified form that is generated in potentially cardioprotective HDLs. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates bidirectional transfers of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs) between plasma lipoproteins. Because CE originates in HDLs and TG enters the plasma as a component of VLDLs, activity of CETP results in a net mass transfer of CE from HDLs to VLDLs and LDLs, and of TG from VLDLs to LDLs and HDLs. As inhibition of CETP activity increases the concentration of HDL-cholesterol and decreases the concentration of VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, it has the potential to reduce atherosclerotic CVD...
May 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438483/statin-use-and-risks-of-influenza-related-outcomes-among-older-adults-receiving-standard-dose-or-high-dose-influenza-vaccines-through-medicare-during-2010-2015
#13
Hector S Izurieta, Yoganand Chillarige, Jeffrey A Kelman, Richard Forshee, Yandong Qiang, Michael Wernecke, Jill M Ferdinands, Yun Lu, Yuqin Wei, Wenjie Xu, Michael Lu, Alicia Fry, Douglas Pratt, David K Shay
Background: Statins are used to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggest that statin use may be associated with an increased influenza risk among influenza vaccinees. We used Medicare data to evaluate associations between statins and risks of influenza-related encounters among vaccinees. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged >65 years who received high-dose (HD) or standard-dose (SD) influenza vaccines at pharmacies from 2010-11 through 2014-15...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374886/-some-reflections-on-evidenced-based-medicine-precision-medicine-and-big-data-based-research
#14
J L Tang, L M Li
Evidence-based medicine remains the best paradigm for medical practice. However, evidence alone is not decisions; decisions must also consider resources available and the values of people. Evidence shows that most of those treated with blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, glucose-lowering and anti-cancer drugs do not benefit from preventing severe complications such as cardiovascular events and deaths. This implies that diagnosis and treatment in modern medicine in many circumstances is imprecise...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341869/a-report-of-the-24th-annual-congress-on-women-s-health-workshop-on-transforming-women-s-health-from-research-to-practice
#15
Jennifer L Plank-Bazinet, Annie Sampson, Susan G Kornstein, Gregory G Germino, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Stephen E Gilman, Cora Lee Wetherington, Nakela Cook, Terri L Cornelison, Lisa Begg, Janine Austin Clayton
Sex and gender are critical contributors to overall health and disease, and considering both in research informs the development of prevention strategies and treatment interventions for both men and women. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health sponsored a preconference workshop on this topic at the 24th Annual Women's Health Congress, which was held in Crystal City, VA, in April 2016. The workshop featured presentations by NIH intramural and extramural scientists who presented data on a variety of topics including polycystic kidney disease, vaccine protection, depression, drug addiction, and cardiovascular disease...
January 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297858/capturing-the-chance-for-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-the-hospital-setting
#17
Francesco Di Nardo, Giovanna Elisa Calabrò, Carolina Ianuale, Andrea Poscia, Elena Azzolini, Massimo Volpe, Chiara de Waure
INTRODUCTION: Because of the relevant burden of pneumococcal diseases, newborns, people at risk and elderly are recommended vaccination but coverage is still low for problems in catching them. This study evaluates the proportion of eligible patients seen at hospital level in the view of assessing its potential role in vaccination campaigns. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of discharge data of all patients over 49 years of age admitted between 2011 and 2013 to "A...
October 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276298/development-of-a-pharmacy-technician-driven-program-to-improve-vaccination-rates-at-an-academic-medical-center
#18
John D Hill, Sammuel V Anderegg, Rick J Couldry
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal disease contribute substantially to the burden of preventable disease in the United States. Despite quality measures tied to immunization rates, health systems have struggled to achieve these targets in the inpatient setting. Pharmacy departments have had success through implementation of pharmacist standing order programs (SOP); however, these initiatives are labor-intensive and have not resulted in 100% immunization rates. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a pilot utilizing pharmacy technician interventions, in combination with a nursing SOP, to improve vaccination rates of hospitalized patients for influenza and pneumococcal disease...
October 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224679/a-review-on-sle-and-malignancy
#19
REVIEW
May Y Choi, Kelsey Flood, Sasha Bernatsky, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Ann E Clarke
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and immune complex deposition. It predominantly affects young and middle-aged women. While improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of SLE have altered prognosis, morbidity and mortality rates remain higher than the general population. In addition to renal injury, cardiovascular disease, and infection, malignancy is known to be a significant cause of death in this population...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221893/cardioprotective-effect-of-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej Ciszewski
Due to the wide interaction between the respiratory and the circulatory systems, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review summarizes the results of recent studies and meta-analyses demonstrating that in this group of high-risk patients both vaccinations have potentially beneficial properties. However, in the era of Evidence Base Medicine, there is still a lack of randomized prospective clinical trials, especially those evaluating the effect of pneumococcal vaccination...
January 4, 2018: Vaccine
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