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Vaccines and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052311/readapting-the-adaptive-immune-response-therapeutic-strategies-for-atherosclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Andrew P Sage, Ziad Mallat
Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past 3 decades, but significant need still remains to reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages, and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development...
January 4, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049587/response-to-active-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-mortality-in-incident-dialysis-patients
#2
Emanuel Zitt, Hildegard Hafner-Giessauf, Birgitta Wimmer, Alexander Herr, Sabine Horn, Claudia Friedl, Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr, Reinhard Kramar, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Karl Lhotta
All patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or on renal replacement therapy should receive active hepatitis B vaccination. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination and all-cause, cardiovascular or infection-related mortality in incident dialysis patients starting dialysis between 2001 and 2008 (n=426) in two Austrian dialysis centers. Vaccination response was defined as follows: absent anti-HBs antibody titer or a titer <10IU/L was classified as non-response, seroconversion (SC) was defined as a titer ⩾10IU/L, and seroprotection (SP) as a titer ⩾100IU/L...
December 31, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998044/primary-care-screening-and-management-of-comorbidity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-ontario-canada
#3
Jessica Widdifield, Noah M Ivers, Sasha Bernatsky, R Liisa Jaakkimainen, Claire Bombardier, J Carter Thorne, Vandana Ahluwalia, J Michael Paterson, Jacqueline Young, Laura Wing, Karen Tu
OBJECTIVE: Quality measurement for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients has largely focused on care provided by rheumatologists. Our aim was to develop and assess quality measures related to the screening and management of comorbidity in RA patients in primary care. METHODS: We used the primary care Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database in Ontario, Canada. We harmonized Canadian general population and RA clinical recommendations to develop and assess screening, process, and outcome measures...
December 20, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959626/the-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease
#4
Laura Baseler, Daniel S Chertow, Karl M Johnson, Heinz Feldmann, David M Morens
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control...
December 7, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910739/overview-on-therapeutic-applications-of-microparticulate-drug-delivery-systems
#5
Swarna Bale, Amit Khurana, A Shiva Shankar Reddy, Mandip Singh, Chandraiah Godugu
Research in novel drug delivery systems is being explored competitively in order to attain maximum therapeutic effect while minimizing the adverse effects. Despite several advancements in pharmaceutical formulations, one of the major challenges still persisting is sustained drug release. Microencapsulation enacts as an intelligent approach with a strong therapeutic impact and is in demand globally in medical technology due to its specific and attractive properties, including biocompatibility, stability, target specificity, uniform encapsulation, better compliance, and controlled and sustained release patterns that are responsible for diminishing the toxicity and dosage frequency...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893465/accelerated-resolution-of-inflammation-underlies-sex-differences-in-inflammatory-responses-in-humans
#6
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D'Acquisto, Romain A Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease occurs at lower incidence in premenopausal females compared with age-matched males. This variation may be linked to sex differences in inflammation. We prospectively investigated whether inflammation and components of the inflammatory response are altered in females compared with males. METHODS: We performed 2 clinical studies in healthy volunteers. In 12 men and 12 women, we assessed systemic inflammatory markers and vascular function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849185/a-new-rhesus-macaque-karyotype-based-on-human-rhesus-synteny
#7
Nichole M Owen, Helen J Lawce, Susan B Olson
Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), because of their similarity to humans, are often used to study complex neurobiology and anatomy, cardiovascular disease, and in vaccine development. While the rhesus genome is studied on its own by primatologists, the grand majority of rhesus macaque research is done with the intention of extrapolating the findings to human diseases and traits. As such, it makes sense that the rhesus genome and karyotype be arranged based on homology to human chromosomes in an effort to ease the comparisons between the two, and aide in interpreting data generated using rhesus macaque model systems...
2016: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754273/sy-17-3-role-of-cmv-induced-t-cell-senescence-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Jong-Chan Youn
Immunosenescence, defined as the age-associated dysregulation and dysfunction of the immune system, is characterized by impaired protective immunity and decreased efficacy of vaccines. Immunosenescence affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, the most notable changes are in T cell immunity and include thymic involution, the collapse of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, an imbalance in T cell populations, and the clonal expansion of senescent T cells. An increasing number of immunological, clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system and T cell immunosenescence especially...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747531/rituximab-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Marc D Cohen, Edward Keystone
Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed at the CD20 molecule on the surfaces of some but not all B cells. It depletes almost all peripheral B cells, but other niches of B cells are variably depleted, including synovium. Its mechanism of action in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is only partially understood. Rituximab was efficacious in clinical trials of patients with RA, including those who are methotrexate naïve, those with an incomplete response to methotrexate, and those with an incomplete response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
December 2015: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737653/human-puumala-hantavirus-infection-in-northern-sweden-increased-seroprevalence-and-association-to-risk-and-health-factors
#10
Kristina Bergstedt Oscarsson, Alette Brorstad, Maria Baudin, Anne Lindberg, Annika Forssén, Magnus Evander, Marie Eriksson, Clas Ahlm
BACKGROUND: The rodent borne Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in central and northern Europe. The number of cases has increased and northern Sweden has experienced large outbreaks in 1998 and 2006-2007 which raised questions regarding the level of immunity in the human population. METHODS: A randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years from northern Sweden were invited during 2009 to participate in a WHO project for monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686519/influenza-vaccine-as-a-coronary-intervention-for-prevention-of-myocardial-infarction
#11
REVIEW
C Raina MacIntyre, Abela Mahimbo, Aye M Moa, Michelle Barnes
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Influenza is one of the leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality globally, and evidence is accumulating that it can precipitate acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This is thought to be due to a range of factors including inflammatory release of cytokines, disruption of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombogenesis, which may acutely occlude a coronary artery. There is a large body of observational and clinical trial evidence that shows that influenza vaccine protects against AMI...
December 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660378/influenza-vaccination-and-risk-of-hospitalization-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#12
Hamid Mohseni, Amit Kiran, Reza Khorshidi, Kazem Rahimi
AIMS: Evidence supporting yearly influenza vaccination in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) is limited, consequently leading to inconsistent guideline recommendations. We aimed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination on the risk of hospitalization in HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used linked primary and secondary health records in England between 1990 and 2013. Using a self-controlled case series design with conditional Poisson regression, we estimated the incidence rate ratio (IRR, 95% CI) of the number of hospitalizations in a year following vaccination with an adjacent vaccination-free year in the same individuals...
September 22, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643270/sy-17-3-role-of-cmv-induced-t-cell-senescence-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Jong-Chan Youn
Immunosenescence, defined as the age-associated dysregulation and dysfunction of the immune system, is characterized by impaired protective immunity and decreased efficacy of vaccines. Immunosenescence affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, the most notable changes are in T cell immunity and include thymic involution, the collapse of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, an imbalance in T cell populations, and the clonal expansion of senescent T cells. An increasing number of immunological, clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that persistent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system and T cell immunosenescence especially...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639826/peptide-based-vaccination-against-opn-integrin-binding-sites-does-not-improve-cardio-metabolic-disease-in-mice
#14
Nicole G Grün, Karin Strohmeier, Veronica Moreno-Viedma, Marie Le Bras, Christine Landlinger, Karina Zeyda, Bettina Wanko, Lukas Leitner, Günther Staffler, Maximilian Zeyda, Thomas M Stulnig
Obesity causes insulin resistance via a chronic low-grade inflammation. This inflammation is characterized by elevated pro-inflammatory markers and macrophage accumulation in the adipose tissue (AT). AT inflammation is a key factor causing insulin resistance and thus type 2 diabetes, both linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Osteopontin (OPN), a well-known inflammatory cytokine, is involved in obesity-linked complications including AT inflammation, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and CVD. During inflammation, OPN is proteolytically cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases or thrombin leading to increased OPN activity...
September 14, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526428/-cmv-infection-in-elderly
#15
REVIEW
Dorota Pytka, Bożena Czarkowska-Pączek
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects approximately 40-90% of the world population. The infection is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent persons. However, it may have negative impact on physiological status or accompanying diseases especially in the elderly. In particular, increasing number of data suggests that persistent infection with CMV is associated with accelerated aging of the immune system accompanying by the decrease in the number of naïve T cells, the increase in in the number of late-differentiated T cells, and reduced TCD4/ TCD8 ratio...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486733/metapneumovirus-infections-and-respiratory-complications
#16
Susanna Esposito, Maria Vincenza Mastrolia
Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are the most common illnesses experienced by people of all ages worldwide. In 2001, a new respiratory pathogen called human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was identified in respiratory secretions. hMPV is an RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, and it has been isolated on every continent and from individuals of all ages. hMPV causes 7 to 19% of all cases of ARTIs in both hospitalized and outpatient children, and the rate of detection in adults is approximately 3%. Symptoms of hMPV infection range from a mild cold to a severe disease requiring a ventilator and cardiovascular support...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459900/flu-vaccination-reduces-hospital-admissions-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-people-with-diabetes-study-shows
#17
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439376/disparities-in-hiv-clinic-care-across-europe-findings-from-the-eurosida-clinic-survey
#18
Jeffrey V Lazarus, Kamilla Grønborg Laut, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Lars Peters, Margaret Johnson, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Irina Khromova, Linos Vandekerckhove, Katarzyna Maciejewska, Roxana Radoi, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Amanda Mocroft
BACKGROUND: Although advances in HIV medicine have yielded increasingly better treatment outcomes in recent years, HIV-positive people with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) still face complex health challenges. The EuroSIDA Study Group surveyed its clinics to explore regional differences in clinic services. METHODS: The EuroSIDA study is a prospective observational cohort study that began enrolling patients in 1994. In early 2014, we conducted a 59-item survey of the 98 then-active EuroSIDA clinics...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389630/vaccine-strategies-for-lowering-ldl-by-immunization-against-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9
#19
Bryce Chackerian, Alan Remaley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: mAbs targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have the potential to become groundbreaking therapies for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, one major drawback of mAb-based therapy for a chronic condition like dyslipidemia is its relatively high cost. This review summarizes two recent studies describing novel vaccine approaches for lowering LDL-cholesterol by active immunization against PCSK9. RECENT FINDINGS: PCSK9 is a plasma protein secreted by the liver that controls cholesterol homeostasis by enhancing endosomal and lysosomal degradation of the LDL receptor...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371959/the-neonatal-research-network-history-since-2003-future-directions-and-challenges
#20
Rosemary D Higgins, Seetha Shankaran
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neontal Research Network (NRN) was established in 1986 in response to the need for rigorous studies to guide care and management of sick and premature newborns. The network is comprise of clinical centers that perform clinical protocols to investigate the safety and efficay of treatment and management strategies for newborn infants as well as a data cordinating center. Infrastructure is set up for observational and interventional studies as well as neurodevelopmental follow-up of patients...
October 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
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