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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#1
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088253/integration-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-western-medicine-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#2
EDITORIAL
Wen-Jian Wang, Teng Zhang
Precision medicine has received growing recognition from clinicians, health systems, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as patients and policymakers, which will leave a major impact on the practice of medicine. Interestingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides personalized medical treatment based on the theory of TCM characterized by holistic concept and pattern differentiation. This, to some extent, is similar to the personalized medical treatment of precision medicine. In China, TCM as well as Western medicine (WM) plays an important role in healthcare...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088192/nucleotide-diversity-inflation-as-a-genome-wide-response-to-experimental-lifespan-extension-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Pawel Michalak, Lin Kang, Pernille M Sarup, Mads F Schou, Volker Loeschcke
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory predicts that antagonistically selected alleles, such as those with divergent pleiotropic effects in early and late life, may often reach intermediate population frequencies due to balancing selection, an elusive process when sought out empirically. Alternatively, genetic diversity may increase as a result of positive frequency-dependent selection and genetic purging in bottlenecked populations. RESULTS: While experimental evolution systems with directional phenotypic selection typically result in at least local heterozygosity loss, we report that selection for increased lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster leads to an extensive genome-wide increase of nucleotide diversity in the selected lines compared to replicate control lines, pronounced in regions with no or low recombination, such as chromosome 4 and centromere neighborhoods...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088156/path-integral-approach-to-the-wigner-representation-of-canonical-density-operators-for-discrete-systems-coupled-to-harmonic-baths
#4
Andrés Montoya-Castillo, David R Reichman
We derive a semi-analytical form for the Wigner transform for the canonical density operator of a discrete system coupled to a harmonic bath based on the path integral expansion of the Boltzmann factor. The introduction of this simple and controllable approach allows for the exact rendering of the canonical distribution and permits systematic convergence of static properties with respect to the number of path integral steps. In addition, the expressions derived here provide an exact and facile interface with quasi- and semi-classical dynamical methods, which enables the direct calculation of equilibrium time correlation functions within a wide array of approaches...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088154/vibrational-properties-of-anhydrous-and-partially-hydrated-uranyl-fluoride
#5
M C Kirkegaard, J Langford, J Steill, B Anderson, A Miskowiec
Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) is a hygroscopic powder with two main structural phases: an anhydrous crystal and a partially hydrated crystal of the same R3¯m symmetry. The formally closed-shell electron structure of anhydrous UO2F2 is amenable to density functional theory calculations. We use density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) to calculate the vibrational frequencies of the anhydrous crystal structure and employ complementary inelastic neutron scattering and temperature-dependent Raman scattering to validate those frequencies...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088143/fokker-planck-quantum-master-equation-for-mixed-quantum-semiclassical-dynamics
#6
Jin-Jin Ding, Yao Wang, Hou-Dao Zhang, Rui-Xue Xu, Xiao Zheng, YiJing Yan
We revisit Caldeira-Leggett's quantum master equation representing mixed quantum-classical theory, but with limited applications. Proposed is a Fokker-Planck quantum master equation theory, with a generic bi-exponential correlation function description on semiclassical Brownian oscillators' environments. The new theory has caustic terms that bridge between the quantum description on primary systems and the semiclassical or quasi-classical description on environments. Various parametrization schemes, both analytical and numerical, for the generic bi-exponential environment bath correlation functions are proposed and scrutinized...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088140/ring-polymer-molecular-dynamics-studies-on-the-rate-coefficient-of-the-abstraction-channel-of-hydrogen-plus-ethane-propane-and-dimethyl-ether
#7
Qingyong Meng, Jun Chen
To accurately compute the rates of the abstraction channels of hydrogen plus ethane (Et), propane (Pr), and dimethyl ether (DME), ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method is used in conjunction with the recently constructed local permutation invariant polynomial neural-networks potential energy surface of the parent H + CH4 system [Q. Meng et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 154312 (2016)]. For H + Et, one of the H atoms in CH4 of the parent system is replaced by a methyl group, while for the H + DME reaction, it is replaced by the methoxyl group...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087990/the-modification-of-onsager-reaction-field-and-its-application-on-spectral-parameters
#8
Xinyu Wang, Rina Dao, Jia Yao, De Peng, Haoran Li
Solvent polarity is an important solvent property. The Onsager's theory of reaction field was the most classic model to describe the solvent effects and was widely used in relating dielectric constant and other solvent polarity parameters. In this study, a modified semi-empirical reaction field was presented to relate electron transition energies or hyperfine coupling constants with the dielectric constants of solvents. In previous works, this relationship was well established by traditional Onsager reaction field for non-hydrogen bonding systems but failed for hydrogen bonding systems...
January 14, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#9
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087483/cell-number-per-spheroid-and-electrical-conductivity-of-nanowires-influence-the-function-of-silicon-nanowired-human-cardiac-spheroids
#10
Yu Tan, Dylan Richards, Robert C Coyle, Jenny Yao, Ruoyu Xu, Wenyu Gou, Hongjun Wang, Donald R Menick, Bozhi Tian, Ying Mei
: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) provide an unlimited cell source to treat cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide. However, current hiPSC-CMs retain an immature phenotype that leads to difficulties for integration with adult myocardium after transplantation. To address this, we recently utilized electrically conductive silicon nanowires (e-SiNWs) to facilitate self-assembly of hiPSC-CMs to form nanowired hiPSC cardiac spheroids...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086848/using-intervention-mapping-to-develop-the-parents-as-agents-of-change-pac-%C3%A2-intervention-for-managing-pediatric-obesity
#11
Geoff D C Ball, Aislin R Mushquash, Rachel A Keaschuk, Kathryn A Ambler, Amanda S Newton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric obesity has become increasingly prevalent over recent decades. In view of the psychosocial and physical health risks, and the high likelihood that children with obesity will grow to become adults with obesity, there is a clear need to develop evidence-based interventions that can be delivered in the health care system to optimize the health and well-being of children with obesity and their families. The aim of this paper is to describe the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a parent-based weight management intervention designed for parents of 8-12 year olds with obesity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086845/the-social-determinants-of-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-a-remote-region-of-papua-new-guinea
#12
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, David Plummer, Robert Dowi, Sinba Wamagi, Bisato Gula, Keyanato Siwaeya, Daniel Pelowa, Peter Siba, Jeffrey Warner
BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a diverse and culturally-rich country with severe infrastructural and health problems. Tuberculosis (TB) is widespread, and the number of cases with drug resistance is rising. Treatment adherence is known to be important for both effective treatment and limiting the emergence of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to construct a matrix of the factors that act as facilitators or barriers to TB treatment adherence in a remote region of PNG. METHODS: The study was based in the Balimo region of the Western Province...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#13
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086823/a-realist-review-of-the-partograph-when-and-how-does-it-work-for-labour-monitoring
#14
Carol Bedwell, Karen Levin, Celia Pett, Dame Tina Lavender
BACKGROUND: The partograph (or partogram) is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO), for monitoring labour wellbeing and progress. Concerns about limitations in the way the partograph is used in the clinical context and the potential impact on its effectiveness have led to this realist systematic review of partograph use. METHODS: This review aimed to answer two key questions, 1) What is it about the partograph that works (or does not work); for whom does it work; and in what circumstances? 2) What are the essential inputs required for the partograph to work? A comprehensive search strategy encompassed key databases; including papers of varying methodologies...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#15
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081099/high-order-external-cavity-modes-and-restabilization-of-a-laser-diode-subject-to-a-phase-conjugate-feedback
#16
Émeric Mercier, Lionel Weicker, Delphine Wolfersberger, Deborah M Kane, Marc Sciamanna
We experimentally report the sequence of bifurcations destabilizing and restabilizing a laser diode with phase-conjugate feedback when the feedback rate is increased. Specifically, we successively observe the initial steady state, undamped relaxation oscillations, quasi-periodicity, chaos, and oscillating solutions at harmonics up to 13 times the external cavity frequency but also the restabilization to a steady state. The experimental results are qualitatively well reproduced by a model that accounts for the time the light takes to penetrate the phase-conjugate mirror...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081080/optimal-measurements-for-resolution-beyond-the-rayleigh-limit
#17
J Rehacek, M Paúr, B Stoklasa, Z Hradil, L L Sánchez-Soto
We establish the conditions to attain the ultimate resolution predicted by quantum estimation theory for the case of two incoherent point sources using a linear imaging system. The solution is closely related to the spatial symmetries of the detection scheme. In particular, for real symmetric point spread functions, any complete set of projections with definite parity achieves the goal.
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081016/graphene-as-a-flexible-template-for-controlling-magnetic-interactions-between-metal-atoms
#18
Sungwoo Lee, Dongwook Kim, Alex W Robertson, Euijoon Yoon, Suklyun Hong, Jisoon Ihm, Jaejun Yu, Jamie H Warner, Gun-Do Lee
Metal-doped graphene produces magnetic moments that have potential application in spintronics. Here we use density function theory computational methods to show how the magnetic interaction between metal atoms doped in graphene can be controlled by the degree of flexure in a graphene membrane. Bending graphene by flexing causes the distance between two substitutional Fe atoms covalently bonded in graphene to gradually increase and these results in the magnetic moment disappearing at a critical strain value...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080181/conceptualizing-patient-empowerment-in-cancer-follow-up-by-combining-theory-and-qualitative-data
#19
Anna Thit Johnsen, Nanna Bjerg Eskildsen, Thora Grothe Thomsen, Mogens Grønvold, Lone Ross, Clara R Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Patient empowerment (PE) may be defined as the opportunity for patients to master issues important to their own health. The aim of this study was to conceptualize PE and how the concept manifests itself for cancer patients attending follow-up, in order to develop a relevant and sensitive questionnaire for this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A theoretical model of PE was made, based on Zimmerman's theory of psychological empowerment. Patients who were in follow-up after first line treatment for their cancer (n = 16) were interviewed about their experiences with follow-up...
January 12, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080110/spoken-words-can-make-the-invisible-visible-testing-the-involvement-of-low-level-visual-representations-in-spoken-word-processing
#20
Markus Ostarek, Falk Huettig
The notion that processing spoken (object) words involves activation of category-specific representations in visual cortex is a key prediction of modality-specific theories of representation that contrasts with theories assuming dedicated conceptual representational systems abstracted away from sensorimotor systems. In the present study, we investigated whether participants can detect otherwise invisible pictures of objects when they are presented with the corresponding spoken word shortly before the picture appears...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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