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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156614/a-loop-all-fiber-current-sensor-based-on-single-polarization-single-mode-couplers
#1
Hao Zhang, Junzhen Jiang, Yu Zhang, Huaixi Chen, Na Zhao, Lingyan Lin, Yishen Qiu
Low current sensitivity and insufficient system stability are two key problems in all-fiber current sensor (AFCS) studies. In order to solve the two problems, a novel AFCS combining single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) couplers and a loop structure is presented in this paper with a design that incorporates the advantages of both SPSM couplers and a loop structure. SPSM couplers are shown to simplify the AFCS system and reduce the risk of interference, and the loop structure can enhance the current sensitivity...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155905/adsorption-of-three-domain-antifreeze-proteins-on-ice-a-study-using-lgmmas-theory-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#2
Juan Ignacio Lopez Ortiz, Paola Torres, Evelina Quiroga, Claudio F Narambuena, Antonio J Ramirez-Pastor
In the present work, the adsorption of three-domain antifreeze proteins on ice is studied by combining a statistical thermodynamics based theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The three-domain protein is modeled by a trimer, and the ice surface is represented by a lattice of adsorption sites. The statistical theory, obtained from the exact partition function of non-interacting trimers adsorbed in one dimension and its extension to two dimensions, includes the configuration of the molecule in the adsorbed state, and allows the existence of multiple adsorption states for the protein...
November 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155892/derivation-and-application-of-an-analytical-rock-displacement-solution-on-rectangular-cavern-wall-using-the-inverse-mapping-method
#3
Mingzhong Gao, Bin Yu, Zhiqiang Qiu, Xiangang Yin, Shengwei Li, Qiang Liu
Rectangular caverns are increasingly used in underground engineering projects, the failure mechanism of rectangular cavern wall rock is significantly different as a result of the cross-sectional shape and variations in wall stress distributions. However, the conventional computational method always results in a long-winded computational process and multiple displacement solutions of internal rectangular wall rock. This paper uses a Laurent series complex method to obtain a mapping function expression based on complex variable function theory and conformal transformation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155814/optimal-synaptic-signaling-connectome-for-locomotory-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-design-minimizing-energy-cost
#4
Franciszek Rakowski, Jan Karbowski
The detailed knowledge of C. elegans connectome for 3 decades has not contributed dramatically to our understanding of worm's behavior. One of main reasons for this situation has been the lack of data on the type of synaptic signaling between particular neurons in the worm's connectome. The aim of this study was to determine synaptic polarities for each connection in a small pre-motor circuit controlling locomotion. Even in this compact network of just 7 neurons the space of all possible patterns of connection types (excitation vs...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155609/using-neural-networks-to-predict-hfacs-unsafe-acts-from-the-pre-conditions-of-unsafe-acts
#5
Don Harris, Wen-Chin Li
HFACS (Human Factors Analysis and Classification System) is based upon Reason's (1990; 1997) organizational model of human error which suggests that there is a 'one to many' mapping of condition tokens (HFACS level 2 psychological precursors) to unsafe act tokens (HFACS level 1 error and violations). Using accident data derived from 523 military aircraft accidents, the relationship between HFACS level 2 pre-conditions and level 1 unsafe acts was modelled using an artificial Neural Network (NN). This allowed an empirical model to be developed congruent with the underlying theory of HFACS...
November 18, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155593/dynamical-density-functional-theory-for-the-evaporation-of-droplets-of-nanoparticle-suspension
#6
Christopher Chalmers, Roger Smith, Andrew J Archer
We develop a lattice gas model for the drying of droplets of a nanoparticle suspension on a planar surface, using dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) to describe the time evolution of the solvent and nanoparticle density profiles. The DDFT assumes a diffusive dynamics but does not include the advective hydrodynamics of the solvent, so the model is relevant to highly viscous or near to equilibrium systems. Nonetheless, we see an equivalent of the coffee-ring stain effect, but in the present model it occurs for thermodynamic rather the fluid-mechanical reasons...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155588/determination-of-equilibrium-constant-and-relative-brightness-in-fret-fcs-by-including-the-third-order-correlations
#7
Lingyi Meng, Shanshan He, Xin Sheng Zhao
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) encodes the information of the equilibrium constant (K), the relative fluorescence brightness of fluorophore (Q), and the forward and backward reaction rate constants (k+ and k-) on a physical or chemical relaxation. However, it has been a long-standing problem to completely resolve the FCS data to get the thermodynamic and kinetic information. Recently, we have solved the problem for fluorescence auto-correlation spectroscopy (FACS). Here, we extend the method to fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), which appears when FCS is coupled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155414/quasiparticles-in-condensed-matter-systems
#8
Peter Woelfle
Quasiparticles are a powerful concept of condensed matter quantum theory. In this review the appearence and the properties of quasiparticles are presented in a unifying perspective. The principles behind the existence of quasiparticle excitations in both quantum disordered and ordered phases of fermionic and bosonic systems are discussed . The lifetime of quasiparticles is considered in particular near a continuous classical or quantum phase transition, when the nature of quasiparticles on both sides of a transition into an ordered state changes...
November 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154847/behavioural-informatics-for-improving-water-hygiene-practice-based-on-iot-environment
#9
Yang Fu, Wenyan Wu
The development of Internet of Things (IoT) and latest Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have changed the nature of healthcare monitoring and health behaviour intervention in many applications. Water hygiene and water conservation behaviour intervention as important influence factors to human health are gaining much attentions for improving sustained sanitation practice. Based on face-to-face delivery, typical behaviour intervention method is costly and hardly to provide all day access to personalised intervention guidance and feedbacks...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154647/lability-in-the-parent-s-hostility-and-warmth-toward-their-adolescent-linkages-to-youth-delinquency-and-substance-use
#10
Melissa A Lippold, Andrea Hussong, Gregory M Fosco, Nilam Ram
According to family systems and life course theories, periods of intense change, such as early adolescence, can disrupt stable family systems, leading to changes in family relationships. In this longitudinal study, we investigate 2 types of change in parental hostility and warmth toward their children during early adolescence (Grades 6 to 8)-developmental trends (linear declines) and lability (within-person fluctuations around developmental trends)-and their linkages to youth substance use and delinquency in Grade 9 (N = 618)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154622/how-does-not-left-become-right-electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-dynamic-conflict-bound-negation-processing-account
#11
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154501/challenges-to-laser-assisted-drug-delivery-applying-theory-to-clinical-practice
#12
Omer Ibrahim, Emily Wenande, Sara Hogan, Kenneth A Arndt, Merete Haedersdal, Jeffrey S Dover
BACKGROUND: The percutaneous penetration of topically applied compounds can be enhanced using external chemical or physical sources and thus laser-assisted drug delivery is a burgeoning area of interest within the field of dermatology. OBJECTIVES: This article briefly discusses the mechanism of laser-assisted drug delivery and expands upon the challenges and safety issues that may arise in the clinical implementation of this modality. RESULTS: The existing literature demonstrates that investigators and clinicians in dermatology have successfully delivered anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, and anti-oxidative medications transdermally for the treatment of a variety of conditions including scarring, photoageing, and cutaneous neoplasia...
November 20, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154432/proposal-for-heart-failure-progression-based-on-the-chloride-theory-worsening-heart-failure-with-increased-vs-non-increased-serum-chloride-concentration
#13
Hajime Kataoka
AIMS: Chloride (Cl) is an established key electrolyte for the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recent studies have shown the serum Cl as a key electrolyte for the regulation of body fluid distribution in heart failure (HF) patients. The clinical differences of worsening HF status according to the changes in serum Cl concentration are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 47 chronic HF patients were analysed. Upon worsening HF, each patient exhibited at least two HF-related signs...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154007/public-responses-to-water-reuse-understanding-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
H M Smith, S Brouwer, P Jeffrey, J Frijns
Over the years, much research has attempted to unpack what drives public responses to water reuse, using a variety of approaches. A large amount of this work was captured by an initial review that covered research undertaken up to the early 2000s (Hartley, 2006). This paper showcases post-millennium evidence and thinking around public responses to water reuse, and highlights the novel insights and shifts in emphasis that have occurred in the field. Our analysis is structured around four broad, and highly interrelated, strands of thinking: 1) work focused on identifying the range of factors that influence public reactions to the concept of water reuse, and broadly looking for associations between different factors; 2) more specific approaches rooted in the socio-psychological modelling techniques; 3) work with a particular focus on understanding the influences of trust, risk perceptions and affective (emotional) reactions; and 4) work utilising social constructivist perspectives and socio-technical systems theory to frame responses to water reuse...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153961/welcoming-expertise-bereaved-parents-perceptions-of-the-parent-healthcare-provider-relationship-when-a-critically-ill-child-is-admitted-to-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#15
Ashleigh E Butler, Beverley Copnell, Helen Hall
BACKGROUND: Entering the paediatric intensive care unit with a critically ill child is a stressful experience for parents. In addition to fearing for their child's well-being, parents must navigate both a challenging environment and numerous new relationships with healthcare staff. How parents form relationships with staff and how they perceive both their own and the healthcare providers' roles in this early stage of their paediatric intensive care journey is currently unknown. PURPOSE: This paper explores bereaved parents' perceptions of their role and their relationships with healthcare providers when their child is admitted to the intensive care unit, as part of a larger study exploring their experiences when their child dies in intensive care...
November 15, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152886/a-contrast-based-computational-model-of-surprise-and-its-applications
#16
Luis Macedo, Amílcar Cardoso
We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#17
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152633/conformational-collapse-of-spherical-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-brushes-under-the-constraint-of-bound-micelles
#18
Peng-Wei Zhu, Luguang Chen
In this paper, we investigate the micelle (charge)-constrained collapse of a spherical poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brush. The system is an example of the transition of a short-length neutral polymer from a stretched state to a folded state under the constraint of long-range electrostatic repulsion. The collapsed state is described as an anisotropic globule comprising a cascade of rod-like or hairpin bundles. A critical aggregation number of bound micelles is obtained to distinguish the charge-induced deformation of the globule, which provides a guideline to characterize globule dimensions under different strengths of electrostatic interaction...
November 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152034/orientation-dependent-work-function-modification-using-substituted-pyrene-based-acceptors
#19
O T Hofmann, H Glowatzki, C Bürker, G M Rangger, B Bröker, J Niederhausen, T Hosokai, I Salzmann, R-P Blum, R Rieger, A Vollmer, P Rajput, A Gerlach, K Müllen, F Schreiber, E Zojer, N Koch, S Duhm
The adsorption of molecular acceptors is a viable method for tuning the work function of metal electrodes. This, in turn, enables adjusting charge injection barriers between the electrode and organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate the potential of pyrene-tetraone (PyT) and its derivatives dibromopyrene-tetraone (Br-PyT) and dinitropyrene-tetraone (NO2-PyT) for modifying the electronic properties of Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. The systems are investigated by complementary theoretical and experimental approaches, including photoelectron spectroscopy, the X-ray standing wave technique, and density functional theory simulations...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152033/role-of-metal-lattice-expansion-and-molecular-%C3%AF-conjugation-for-the-magnetic-hardening-at-cu-organics-interfaces
#20
Lorena Martín-Olivera, Dmitry G Shchukin, Gilberto Teobaldi
Magnetic hardening and generation of room-temperature ferromagnetism at the interface between originally nonmagnetic transition metals and π-conjugated organics is understood to be promoted by interplay between interfacial charge transfer and relaxation-induced distortion of the metal lattice. The relative importance of the two contributions for magnetic hardening of the metal remains unquantified. Here, we disentangle their role via density functional theory simulation of several models of interfaces between Cu and polymers of different steric hindrance, π-conjugation, and electron-accepting properties: polyethylene, polyacetylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyurethane...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
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