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Long lasting rabies immunization

Vilma Marešová
Vaccination in the Czech lands has a long history; it begun during the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1803 by vaccination against smallpox, and in the late 19th century by vaccination against rabies. In the second half of the 20th century, the basic vaccination included also other vaccines. Thanks to paediatricians, vaccination coverage of children was so high that in addition to the immunity of individuals the collective immunity was also significant. The incidence of infectious diseases has dropped significantly...
2015: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Lei Shuai, Na Feng, Xijun Wang, Jinying Ge, Zhiyuan Wen, Weiye Chen, Lide Qin, Xianzhu Xia, Zhigao Bu
Oral immunization in free-roaming dogs is one of the most practical approaches to prevent rabies for developing countries. The safe, efficient and long-lasting protective oral rabies vaccine for dogs is highly sought. In this study, rabies virus (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain wild-type (rERA) and a genetically modified type (rERAG333E) containing a mutation from arginine to glutamic acid at residue 333 of glycoprotein (G333E) were generated by reverse genetic. The recombinant virus rERAG333E retained growth properties of similar to the parent strain rERA in BHK-21 cell culture...
September 2015: Antiviral Research
Philippe Gautret, Philippe Parola
Most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites and occur in adults who are commonly migrants. The incidence of injuries to travelers caused by potentially rabid animals is approximately 0.4 % per month of stay. Dogs account for 51 % of cases, but nonhuman primates are the leading animals responsible for injuries in travelers returning from Southeast Asia. Travel to Southeast Asia, India and North Africa, young age, and traveling for tourism are risk factors for potential exposure. More than 70 % of travelers are not immunized prior to departing and do not receive adequate care when injured...
March 2014: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Manoj K Mittal
There is overwhelming evidence that the 4-dose vaccine schedule as part of postexposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies for previously unvaccinated persons, as recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States in 2009, is safe and effective. When used appropriately with timely wound care and administration of human rabies immune globulin, the administration of 4 doses of vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 is likely to induce an adequate,long-lasting antibody response that is able to neutralize rabies virus and prevent disease in exposed patients...
October 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Haradanahalli S Ravish, Jayanthi Srikanth, Doddabele Hanumanthaiah Ashwath Narayana, Rachana Annadani, Veena Vijayashankar, Malatesh Undi
Animal bites in humans are a public health problem. Children are the most frequently exposed, representing 50% of human exposures in canine rabies infected areas. Pre-exposure vaccination using cell culture vaccines is a safe and effective method of preventing rabies among children in these highly endemic regions. The development of immunological memory after pre exposure vaccination has established long lasting immunity against rabies in humans. The present study assessed the safety of Purified Chick Embryo cell Rabies Vaccine (Vaxirab N) administered as a three-dose intradermal pre-exposure regimen on days 0, 7, and 21 in healthy volunteered children of 5-10 y age group from an urban poor locality in Bangalore, India...
September 2013: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Keith Schutsky, Dana Curtis, Emily K Bongiorno, Darryll A Barkhouse, Rhonda B Kean, Bernhard Dietzschold, D Craig Hooper, Milosz Faber
A single intramuscular application of the live but not UV-inactivated recombinant rabies virus (RABV) variant TriGAS in mice induces the robust and sustained production of RABV-neutralizing antibodies that correlate with long-term protection against challenge with an otherwise lethal dose of the wild-type RABV. To obtain insight into the mechanism by which live TriGAS induces long-lasting protective immunity, quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of muscle tissue, draining lymph nodes, spleen, spinal cord, and brain at different times after TriGAS inoculation revealed the presence of significant copy numbers of RABV-specific RNA in muscle, lymph node, and to a lesser extent, spleen for several days postinfection...
February 2013: Journal of Virology
Philippe Gautret, Philippe Parola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review sought to describe the recent findings on the epidemiology of rabies exposure and rabies cases in travelers and to discuss possible cost-saving measures that could be used to increase pretravel vaccination coverage in travelers. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of global data, most cases of rabies in travelers are associated with dog bites, occur in adults who are commonly migrants, and are not necessarily associated with long-term travel...
October 2012: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jinying Ge, Xijun Wang, Lihong Tao, Zhiyuan Wen, Na Feng, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Chinglai Yang, Hualan Chen, Zhigao Bu
Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, has shown promise as a vaccine vector for mammals. Here, we generated a recombinant avirulent NDV La Sota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against rabies. The recombinant virus, rL-RVG, retained its high-growth property in chicken eggs, with titers of up to 10⁹·⁸ 50% egg infective doses (EID₅₀)/ml of allantoic fluid...
August 2011: Journal of Virology
Ana Pinheiro, Dennis Lanning, Paulo C Alves, Rose G Mage, Katherine L Knight, Wessel van der Loo, Pedro J Esteves
The rabbit has long been a model for studies of the immune system. Work using rabbits contributed both to the battle against infectious diseases such as rabies and syphilis, and to our knowledge, of antibodies' structure, function, and regulated expression. With the description of rabbit Ig allotypes, the discovery of different gene segments encoding immunoglobulins became possible. This challenged the "one gene-one protein" dogma. The observation that rabbit allotypic specificities of the variable regions were present on IgM and IgG molecules also led to the hypothesis of Ig class switching...
July 2011: Immunogenetics
Zélie Lardon, Laurence Watier, Audrey Brunet, Claire Bernède, Maryvonne Goudal, Laurent Dacheux, Yolande Rotivel, Didier Guillemot, Hervé Bourhy
BACKGROUND: Imported cases threaten rabies reemergence in rabies-free areas. During 2000-2005, five dog and one human rabies cases were imported into France, a rabies-free country since 2001. The Summer 2004 event led to unprecedented media warnings by the French Public Health Director. We investigated medical practice evolution following the official elimination of rabies in 2001; impact of subsequent episodic rabies importations and national newspaper coverage on demand for and delivery of antirabies prophylaxis; regular transmission of epidemiological developments within the French Antirabies Medical Center (ARMC) network; and ARMC discussions on indications of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP)...
2010: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A S Turmelle, F R Jackson, D Green, G F McCracken, C E Rupprecht
Bats are natural reservoirs for the majority of lyssaviruses globally, and are unique among mammals in having exceptional sociality and longevity. Given these facets, and the recognized status of bats as reservoirs for rabies viruses (RABVs) in the Americas, individual bats may experience repeated exposure to RABV during their lifetime. Nevertheless, little information exists with regard to within-host infection dynamics and the role of immunological memory that may result from abortive RABV infection in bats...
September 2010: Journal of General Virology
Jiling Ren, Luguo Sun, Liang Yang, Hua Wang, Min Wan, Peiyin Zhang, Hongtao Yu, Yan Guo, Yongli Yu, Liying Wang
In order to develop novel canine CpG ODNs as adjuvant for rabies vaccine of dog use, a panel of CpG ODNs containing different CpG motifs was designed and screened for their ability to induce the proliferation of canine splenocytes. Three AACGTT motif-containing CpG ODNs, designated as YW07, YW08 and YW09, respectively, were outshined with stronger ability to activate canine immune cells. The CpG ODNs were tested for their adjuvant activity for rabies vaccine in mice and dogs. It was found that YW07 could facilitate the rabies vaccine to induce more vigorous and long-lasting specific antibody response in mice and dogs, respectively...
March 11, 2010: Vaccine
Luc B S Gelinck, Cornelia M Jol-van der Zijde, Anja M Jansen-Hoogendijk, Daniëlle M C Brinkman, Jaap T van Dissel, Maarten J D van Tol, Frank P Kroon
DESIGN: Rabies vaccine was used as a T-cell-dependent neoantigen to investigate several aspects of the primary and booster immune response in vivo in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: Study participants received rabies vaccination twice, within a 3-month interval. Serum samples were taken before and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after both vaccinations and 1 and 5 years after the primary vaccination. Antirabies antibodies [immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)] were determined; antibody avidity was measured after both vaccinations...
November 27, 2009: AIDS
Tadeusz Frymus, Diane Addie, Sándor Belák, Corine Boucraut-Baralon, Herman Egberink, Tim Gruffydd-Jones, Katrin Hartmann, Margaret J Hosie, Albert Lloret, Hans Lutz, Fulvio Marsilio, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Alan D Radford, Etienne Thiry, Uwe Truyen, Marian C Horzinek
OVERVIEW: Rabies virus belongs to the genus Lyssavirus, together with European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2. In clinical practice, rabies virus is easily inactivated by detergent-based disinfectants. INFECTION: Rabid animals are the only source of infection. Virus is shed in the saliva some days before the onset of clinical signs and transmitted through a bite or a scratch to the skin or mucous membranes. The average incubation period in cats is 2 months, but may vary from 2 weeks to several months, or even years...
July 2009: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
P Khawplod, H Wilde, C Sriaroon, P Chomchey, T Kamolthum, V Sitprija
Pre-exposure rabies vaccination is recommended fortravellers to endemic countries and forselected populations in highly endemic regions. It consists of three injections administered over 3-4 weeks. Travellers often ignore or do not have enough time to receive a complete course prior to departure or leave with only one or two injections. In this study, the secondary antibody response in volunteers who received one or three injections within one week is evaluated. Results are compared to the recommended three injection regimen when administered with two booster vaccinations on days 0 and 3 one year later...
2008: Developments in Biologicals
David Brown, John J Featherstone, Anthony R Fooks, Sharmeen Gettner, Elizabeth Lloyd, Martin Schweiger
A retrospective cohort study of current rabies antibody titres from adults who received pre-exposure immunisation administered intradermally between 1994 and 2005, examining the decay in titre over time relative to the interval since last dose, and the total dose received. Participants receiving at least 0.6 ml total dose intradermally of vaccine over at least two clinic visits and all with three clinic visits, were shown to have an adequate titre with measurable levels of antibody indicating sero-conversion above 0...
July 23, 2008: Vaccine
Shoufeng Zhang, Ye Liu, Anthony R Fooks, Fei Zhang, Rongliang Hu
Rabies is a reemerging and fatal infectious disease in Asia mainly caused by exposure to rabid dogs. Prevention of dog rabies would be the most effective way to stop rabies transmission to humans. However, vaccinating stray dogs in urban and rural areas using conventional vaccines is always difficult and is not cost-effective for use in most areas including China. Further to previous studies from our laboratory, we developed a bait containing the recombinant rabies vaccine and performed a non-parenteral trial in dogs...
January 17, 2008: Vaccine
R L Hu, Y Liu, S F Zhang, F Zhang, A R Fooks
During the past decade, human rabies caused by cats has ranked the second highest in China. Several recombinant rabies vaccines have been developed for dogs. However, seldom have these vaccines been assessed or used in cats. In this trial, we report the experimental immunization of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP, in cats. Thirty cats were inoculated with the recombinant vaccine intramuscularly, orally and intranasally, respectively. Safety and efficacy studies were undertaken using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test and evaluated...
July 20, 2007: Vaccine
E Tesoro Cruz, R Hernández González, R Alonso Morales, A Aguilar-Setién
A DNA vaccine, using a pCl-neo plasmid encoding the glycoprotein gene of a Mexican isolate of rabies virus, was developed to induce long-lasting protective immunity against rabies virus in dogs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the intranasal (IN) vaccination route in mice and dogs. Mice and dogs were immunized via the intramuscular (IM) and IN routes. Mice received 50 microg of DNA vaccine, a booster on day 30, using the same doses and routes, and on day 90 they were challenged. Dogs received 100 microg of DNA vaccine, with a booster on day 180, and immune responses were studied on day 210...
2006: Developments in Biologicals
K Suwansrinon, H Wilde, M Benjavongkulchai, U Banjongkasaena, S Lertjarutorn, S Boonchang, R Suttisri, P Khowplod, S Daviratanasilpa, V Sitprija
Physicians dealing with potential rabies exposures and travel medicine are frequently asked how long previous pre- or post-exposure rabies vaccination induced immunity persists. We therefore carried out a prospective study on 118 rabies vaccine recipients who had received pre- or post-exposure regimens with tissue culture rabies vaccines by intramuscular or intradermal schedules 5-21 years previously. Rabies neutralizing antibody was detectable in the sera of all subjects on day 0. They then received one intradermal 0...
May 1, 2006: Vaccine
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