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Ying Li, Xuemin Zheng, Min Gong, Jianning Zhang
The challenge of effectively delivering therapeutic agents to the brain has created an entire field of active research devoted to overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) and efficiently delivering drugs to the brain. Angiopep-2 can trigger transcytosis and traverse the BBB by recognizing low-density lipoprotein related protein-1 (LRP-1) expressed on the brain capillary endothelial cells. Here, we designed a novel strategy for the delivery of drugs to the brain. The novel drug delivery system was a combination of a receptor-targeting ligand, such as low-density lipoprotein related protein 1, and a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiao-Juan Wang, Yin-Ping Gao, Nan-Nan Lu, Wei-Shuo Li, Ji-Fang Xu, Xiao-Ying Ying, Gang Wu, Mei-Hua Liao, Chao Tan, Ling-Xiao Shao, Ying-Mei Lu, Chen Zhang, Kohji Fukunaga, Feng Han, Yong-Zhong Du
Clinical treatment for vascular dementia still remains a challenge mainly due to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Here, a micelle based on polysialic acid (PSA) which is a hydrophilic and endogenous carbohydrate polymer, was designed to deliver calmodulin antagonist for therapy of vascular dementia. PSA was firstly chemically conjugated with octadecylamine (ODA), and the obtained PSA-ODA copolymer could self-assemble into micelle in aqueous solution with a 120.0 μg/mL critical micelle concentration. The calmodulin antagonist loaded PSA-ODA micelle, featuring sustained drug release behaviour over a period of 72 h with 3...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kazumi Kawata, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Transcytosis is a mechanism for the transcellular transport of biomolecules. Analysis of transcytosis is frequently performed in cells with distinct polarity, such as brain endothelial cells. However, in cells without evident polarity, analysis of transcytosis has not been performed. Here, we describe a method for analyzing transcytosis of a CCN family protein through chondrocytic cells having no apparent polarity.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Grace Woodruff, Sol M Reyna, Mariah Dunlap, Rik Van Der Kant, Julia A Callender, Jessica E Young, Elizabeth A Roberts, Lawrence S B Goldstein
We investigated early phenotypes caused by familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD) mutations in isogenic human iPSC-derived neurons. Analysis of neurons carrying fAD PS1 or APP mutations introduced using genome editing technology at the endogenous loci revealed that fAD mutant neurons had previously unreported defects in the recycling state of endocytosis and soma-to-axon transcytosis of APP and lipoproteins. The endocytosis reduction could be rescued through treatment with a β-secretase inhibitor. Our data suggest that accumulation of β-CTFs of APP, but not Aβ, slow vesicle formation from an endocytic recycling compartment marked by the transcytotic GTPase Rab11...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Xueqin Zhao, Ting Shang, Xiaodan Zhang, Ting Ye, Dajin Wang, Lei Rei
Delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge of brain disease treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles are actively being developed as drug carriers due to magnetic targeting and subsequently reduced off-target effects. In this paper, we developed a magnetic SiO2@Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based carrier bound to cell-penetrating peptide Tat (SiO2@Fe3O4(-Tat)) and studied its fates in accessing BBB. SiO2@Fe3O4-Tat nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited suitable magnetism and good biocompatibility...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Dakai Mu, Eloise Hudry, Bradley T Hyman, Casey A Maguire, Servio H Ramirez
Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Ana Magalhaes, Inês Matias, Inês Palmela, Maria Alexandra Brito, Sérgio Dias
Cholesterol has been identified as a causative factor in numerous pathologies including atherosclerosis and cancer. One of the frequent effects of elevated cholesterol levels in humans is the compromise of endothelial function due to activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. While the mechanisms involved in endothelial activation by cholesterol during an inflammatory response are well established, less is known about the mechanisms by which cholesterol may affect endothelial barrier function, which were the subject of the present study...
2016: PloS One
Yu-Lin Su, Kuan-Ting Chen, Yu-Chen Sheu, Shuo-Yuan Sung, Ru-Siou Hsu, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Shang-Hsiu Hu
Delivery of drug and energy within responsive carriers that effectively target and accumulate in cancer cells promises to mitigate side effects and to enhance the uniquely therapeutic efficacy demanded for personalized medicine. To achieve this goal, however, these carriers, which are usually piled up at the periphery of tumors near the blood vessel, must simultaneously overcome the challenges associated with low tumor penetration and the transport of sufficient cargos to deep tumors to eradicate whole cancer cells...
October 3, 2016: ACS Nano
D Male, R Gromnicova, C McQuaid
Gold nanoparticles with a core size of 2nm covalently coated with glycans to maintain solubility, targeting molecules for brain endothelium, and cargo molecules hold great potential for delivery of therapies into the CNS. They have low toxicity, pass through brain endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and move rapidly through the brain parenchyma. Within minutes of infusion the nanoparticles can be detected in neurons and glia. These nanoparticles are relatively easy to synthesize in association with their surface ligands...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
D Carradori, A Gaudin, D Brambilla, K Andrieux
Drug delivery to the brain is a challenge because of the many mechanisms that protect the brain from the entry of foreign substances. Numerous molecules which could be active against brain disorders are not clinically useful due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles can be used to deliver these drugs to the brain. Encapsulation within colloidal systems can allow the passage of nontransportable drugs across this barrier by masking their physicochemical properties. It should be noted that the status of the blood-brain barrier is different depending on the brain disease...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
G Fullstone, S Nyberg, X Tian, G Battaglia
Designing nanoparticles that effectively enter the central nervous system (CNS) rapidly and without alteration is one of the major challenges in the use of nanotechnology for the brain. In this chapter, we explore the process of transcytosis, a receptor-mediated transport pathway that permits endogenous macromolecules to enter the CNS by crossing the blood-brain barrier. Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier involves a number of distinct stages, including receptor binding, endocytosis into a transport vesicle, trafficking of the vesicle to the opposite side of the cell, and finally exocytosis and release of cargo...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
Chia-Wei Su, Ching-Shu Yen, Chih-Sheng Chiang, Chin-Hao Hsu, San-Yuan Chen
A DOX-loaded polysaccharide-lecithin reverse micelles triglyceride-based oral delivery nanocarrier (D-PL/TG NPs) conjugated with (i) RGD peptide for targeting to β1 integrin of M cells and (ii) Lyp-1 peptide for targeting to the p32 receptor of MDA-MB-231 cells is used to investigate the multistage continuous targeting capabilities of these peptide-conjugated nanocarriers (GLD-PL/TG NPs) for tumor therapy. Variations in the targeting efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties are investigated by quantitatively controlling the surface density of different peptides on the nanoparticles...
September 16, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Gregory W Thomas, Leonard T Rael, Melissa Hausburg, Elizabeth D Frederick, Edward Brody, David Bar-Or
It has long been appreciated that the microtubule network plays a critical role in endothelial cell function. Chemical inhibition of tubulin polymerization has been shown to drastically increases endothelial permeability via interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, stabilization of microtubules significantly decreases vascular permeability. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the low molecular weight fraction of commercial 5% human serum albumin (LMWF5A) alters endothelial cell cytoskeletal dynamics and function...
September 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Fadhel Alomar, Jaipaul Singh, Hee-Seong Jang, George J Rozanzki, Chun Hong Shao, Babu J Padanilam, William G Mayhan, Keshore R Bidasee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelial cell-mediated vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles is impaired in individuals with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). This defect compromises haemodynamics and can lead to hypoxia, microbleeds, inflammation and exaggerated ischaemia-reperfusion injuries. The molecular causes for dysregulation of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (cECs) in T1D remains poorly defined. This study tests the hypothesis that cECs dysregulation in T1D is triggered by increased generation of the mitochondrial toxin, methylglyoxal, by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arterioles (cSMCs)...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Haiyan Fu, Douglas M McCarty
The abundant vasculature of the CNS provides a compelling route of administration for the delivery of gene therapy vectors if the limitations imposed by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) can be overcome. There are two general approaches to transporting viral vectors across the BBB: either by transient disruption of brain microvasculature endothelial tight junctions, or through the use of receptor-mediated transcytosis. Advances in BBB disruption have led to pre-clinical success for both global and localized gene delivery, while therapies based on receptor-mediated transcytosis have recently advanced to phase I clinical trials in humans...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Christoph Englert, Anne-Kristin Trützschler, Martin Raasch, Tanja Bus, Philipp Borchers, Alexander S Mosig, Anja Traeger, Ulrich S Schubert
The targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system represents one of the major challenges in pharmaceutical formulations since it is strictly limited through the highly selective blood-brain barrier (BBB). l-Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide and well-known antioxidant, has been studied in the last years as potential candidate to facilitate the receptor-mediated transcytosis of nanocarriers. We thus tested whether GSH decoration of a positively charged polymer, poly(ethylene imine), with this vector enables the transport of genetic material and, simultaneously, the passage through the BBB...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Dan Shang, Tao Peng, Shanmiao Gou, Yiqing Li, Heshui Wu, Chunyou Wang, Zhiyong Yang
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), an inflammatory mediator, has been reported to destroy cell-cell junctions, resulting in vascular endothelial hyperpermeability. Here, we report that HMGB1 increases the endothelial transcytosis of albumin. In mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs), HMGB1 at a concentration of 500 ng/ml or less did not harm cell-cell junctions but rapidly induced endothelial hyperpermeability to (125)I-albumin. HMGB1 induced an increase in (125)I-albumin and AlexaFluor 488-labeled albumin internalization in endocytosis assays...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Hersom, Hans Christian Helms, Natasia Pretzer, Charlotte Goldeman, Andreas I Jensen, Gregory Severin, Morten S Nielsen, René Holm, Birger Brodin
Receptor-mediated transcytosis of the transferrin receptor has been suggested as a potential transport system to deliver therapeutic molecules into the brain. Recent studies have however shown that therapeutic antibodies, which have been reported to cross the brain endothelium, reach greater brain exposure when the affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor is lowered. The lower affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor facilitates the dissociation from the receptor within the endosomal compartments, which may indicate that the receptor itself does not necessarily move across the endothelial cells by transcytosis...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Imre Mäger, Axel H Meyer, Jinghuan Li, Martin Lenter, Tobias Hildebrandt, German Leparc, Matthew J A Wood
Efficient transcytosis across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is an important strategy for accessing drug targets within the central nervous system (CNS). Despite extensive research the number of studies reporting successful delivery of macromolecules or macromolecular complexes to the CNS has remained very low. In order to expand current research it is important to know which receptors are selective and abundant on the BBB so that novel CNS-targeting antibodies or other ligands could be developed, targeting those receptors for transcytosis...
August 22, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Chanettee Chanthick, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Rattanaporn Kiatbumrung, Sa-Nga Pattanakitsakul, Visith Thongboonkerd
Vascular leakage is a life-threatening complication of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Previously, association between "paracellular" endothelial hyperpermeability and plasma leakage had been extensively investigated. However, whether "transcellular" endothelial leakage is involved in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) remained unknown. We thus investigated effects of DENV (serotype 2) infection on transcellular transport of albumin, the main oncotic plasma protein, through human endothelial cell monolayer by Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence imaging, and fluorometry...
2016: Scientific Reports
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