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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709802/human-secretory-igm-emerges-from-plasma-cells-clonally-related-to-gut-memory-b-cells-and-targets-highly-diverse-commensals
#1
Giuliana Magri, Laura Comerma, Marc Pybus, Jordi Sintes, David Lligé, Daniel Segura-Garzón, Sabrina Bascones, Ada Yeste, Emilie K Grasset, Cindy Gutzeit, Mathieu Uzzan, Meera Ramanujam, Menno C van Zelm, Raquel Albero-González, Ivonne Vazquez, Mar Iglesias, Sergi Serrano, Lucía Márquez, Elena Mercade, Saurabh Mehandru, Andrea Cerutti
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) enhances host-microbiota symbiosis, whereas SIgM remains poorly understood. We found that gut IgM(+) plasma cells (PCs) were more abundant in humans than mice and clonally related to a large repertoire of memory IgM(+) B cells disseminated throughout the intestine but rare in systemic lymphoid organs. In addition to sharing a gut-specific gene signature with memory IgA(+) B cells, memory IgM(+) B cells were related to some IgA(+) clonotypes and switched to IgA in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent signals...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700735/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-casein-glycomacropeptide-maintains-internal-homeostasis-in-mice-with-experimental-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Yongbo Cui, Chenchen Zhu, Zhu Ming, Jiangming Cao, Yali Yan, Pei Zhao, Guangchang Pang, Zixin Deng, Yi Yao, Qingsen Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which food-derived casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) maintains internal homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa and to investigate the effects of CGMP on the intestinal mucosal immunological barrier and related signal transduction pathways. METHODS: In this study, a famoxadone (OXZ)-induced mouse experimental ulcerative colitis (UC) model was built. The experimental UC mice were intragastrically administered milk-derived CGMP for four consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685588/recent-advances-on-biodegradable-polymeric-carrier-based-mucosal-immunization-an-overview
#3
Lovedeep Kaur, Ankush Sharma, Awesh Kumar Yadav, Neeraj Mishra
Mucosal administration of vaccine is most prevalent way to induce desired immunity against various types of antigen and microbial in central and in addition, the peripheral blood in most external mucosal surface. Mucosal delivery of vaccine provides both humoral and cellular responses against mucosal infection. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganism, are one of the main region where infections are built up, also, thus have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa perfect site for vaccines application...
July 7, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662707/oral-symptoms-and-salivary-findings-in-oral-lichen-planus-oral-lichenoid-lesions-and-stomatitis
#4
Kristine Roen Larsen, Jeanne Duus Johansen, Jesper Reibel, Claus Zachariae, Kasper Rosing, Anne Marie Lynge Pedersen
BACKGROUND: To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher salivary concentration of total protein and sIgA than cases without contact allergy and healthy controls. METHODS: Forty-nine patients (42 women, aged 61.0 ± 10.3 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects underwent a standardised questionnaire on general and oral health, assessment of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing...
June 29, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653779/adrenal-maturation-nutritional-status-and-mucosal-immunity-in-bolivian-youth
#5
Carolyn R Hodges-Simeon, Sean P Prall, Aaron D Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J C Gaulin
OBJECTIVES: Humans-and several other apes-exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651382/assignment-of-sigma-factors-of-rna-polymerase-to-promoters-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#6
Hana Dostálová, Jiří Holátko, Tobias Busche, Lenka Rucká, Andrey Rapoport, Petr Halada, Jan Nešvera, Jörn Kalinowski, Miroslav Pátek
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial producer of various amino acids and other metabolites. The C. glutamicum genome encodes seven sigma subunits (factors) of RNA polymerase: the primary sigma factor SigA (σ(A)), the primary-like σ(B) and five alternative sigma factors (σ(C), σ(D), σ(E), σ(H) and σ(M)). We have developed in vitro and in vivo methods to assign particular sigma factors to individual promoters of different classes. In vitro transcription assays and measurements of promoter activity using the overexpression of a single sigma factor gene and the transcriptional fusion of the promoter to the gfpuv reporter gene enabled us to reliably define the sigma factor dependency of promoters...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648455/kinetic-modelling-and-meta-analysis-of-the-b-subtilis-siga-regulatory-network-during-spore-germination-and-outgrowth
#7
O Ramaniuk, M Černý, L Krásný, J Vohradský
This study describes the meta-analysis and kinetic modelling of gene expression control by sigma factor SigA of Bacillus subtilis during germination and outgrowth based on microarray data from 14 time points. The analysis computationally models the direct interaction among SigA, SigA-controlled sigma factor genes (sigM, sigH, sigD, sigX), and their target genes. Of the >800 known genes in the SigA regulon, as extracted from databases, 311 genes were analysed, and 190 were confirmed by the kinetic model as being controlled by SigA...
June 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645157/secretory-iga-response-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-the-upper-airways-and-the-link-with-chronic-lung-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Renan Mauch, Claudio Rossi, Talita Aiello, José Ribeiro, Antonio Ribeiro, Niels Høiby, Carlos Levy
We assessed the diagnostic ability of an ELISA test for measurement of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva to identify Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients with P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection and intermittent lung colonization. A total of 102 Brazilian CF patients and 53 healthy controls were included. Specific serum IgG response was used as a surrogate to distinguish CF patients according to their P. aeruginosa colonization/infection status. The rate of sIgA positivity was 87.1% in CF chronically infected patients (Median value = 181...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#9
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630108/inducing-mucosal-iga-a-challenge-for-vaccine-adjuvants-and-delivery-systems
#10
REVIEW
Prosper N Boyaka
Mucosal IgA or secretory IgA (SIgA) are structurally equipped to resist chemical degradation in the harsh environment of mucosal surfaces and enzymes of host or microbial origin. Production of SIgA is finely regulated, and distinct T-independent and T-dependent mechanisms orchestrate Ig α class switching and SIgA responses against commensal and pathogenic microbes. Most infectious pathogens enter the host via mucosal surfaces. To provide a first line of protection at these entry ports, vaccines are being developed to induce pathogen-specific SIgA in addition to systemic immunity achieved by injected vaccines...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625525/recombinant-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-clostridium-perfringens-toxoids-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-%C3%AE-1-gives-protection-against-clostridium-perfringens-in-rabbits
#11
Li Zhao, Zhihou Guo, Jiali Liu, Zi Wang, Ruichong Wang, Yijing Li, Li Wang, Yigang Xu, Lijie Tang, Xinyuan Qiao
The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622869/brucella-lipopolysaccharide-reinforced-salmonella-delivering-brucella-immunogens-protects-mice-against-virulent-challenge
#12
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
Intracellular pathogen Salmonella exhibits natural infection broadly analogous to Brucella, this phenomenon makes Salmonella a pragmatic choice for an anti-Brucella vaccine delivery platform. In this study we developed and formulated a combination of four attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium live vector strains delivering heterologous Brucella antigens (rBs), namely lumazine synthase, proline racemase subunit A, lipoprotein outer membrane protein-19, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. With an aim to develop a cross-protecting vaccine, Brucella pan-species conserved rBs were selected...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614533/effect-of-fluoride-on-salivary-immunoglobulins-and-sialic-acid
#13
Kadriye Görkem Ulu Güzel, Zuhal Kirzioğlu, Ali Kudret Adiloğlu, Münciye Semra Özay Ertürk
Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51) healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI) = 4] who lived in Isparta (2...
April 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611957/genetic-virulence-profile-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-danish-children-with-either-acute-or-persistent-diarrhea
#14
Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Anja Poulsen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Carsten Struve, Jørgen H Engberg, Alice Friis-Møller, Nadia Boisen, Rie Jønsson, Randi F Petersen, Andreas M Petersen, Karen A Krogfelt
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is frequently found in diarrheal stools worldwide. It has been associated with persistent diarrhea, weight loss, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries. A number of important EAEC virulence genes are identified; however, their roles in acute and persistent diarrhea have not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to identify specific EAEC virulence genes associated with duration and type of diarrhea in Danish children. We aimed to improve the current diagnostics of EAEC and enable targeting of strains with an expected severe disease course...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599261/secretory-immunoglobulin-purification-from-whey-by-chromatographic-techniques
#15
Alexander Matlschweiger, Hannah Engelmaier, Gottfried Himmler, Rainer Hahn
Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594235/live-attenuated-auxotrophic-mutant-of-salmonella-typhimurium-expressing-immunogenic-ha1-protein-enhances-immunity-and-protective-efficacy-against-h1n1-influenza-virus-infection
#16
Nitin Machindra Kamble, Kim Je Hyoung, John Hwa Lee
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (JOL912) as a live bacterial vaccine vector. MATERIALS & METHODS: The JOL912 engineered to deliver HA1 protein from influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1; PR8) virus was coined as JOL1635 and further evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy. RESULTS: The JOL1635 stably harbored the HA1 gene within pMMP65 plasmid with periplasmic expression and effective delivery of HA1 protein to RAW264...
June 8, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593178/association-of-toll-like-cell-receptors-tlr2-p-arg753gln-and-tlr4-p-asp299gly-polymorphisms-with-indicators-of-general-and-local-immunity-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#17
Yury A Tyurin, Anton F Shamsutdinov, Nikolay N Kalinin, Alsou A Sharifullina, Irina D Reshetnikova
A whole group of polymorphisms of genes involved in the formation of the epidermal barrier, immune responses, and their regulation is important in the formation of atopic phenotype. The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship of polymorphisms of genes of Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 with clinical and immunological parameters in atopic dermatitis patients in a "case-control" study. Polymorphisms of genes TLR2 (p.Arg753Gln) and TLR4 (Asp299Gly) were detected by PCR. Parameters of the state of innate and adaptive immunity were assessed by the level of local production of sIgA, cytokine profile of blood serum for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587925/siga-shigella-immune-complexes-interact-with-dectin-1-and-signr3-to-differentially-regulate-mouse-peyer-s-patch-and-mesenteric-lymph-node-dendritic-cell-s-responsiveness
#18
Josip Mikulic, Gilles Bioley, Blaise Corthésy
In addition to contributing to immune exclusion at mucosal surfaces, secretory IgA (SIgA) made of polymeric IgA and secretory component is able to selectively reenter via microfold cells into Peyer's patches (PPs) present along the intestine and to associate with dendritic cells (DCs) of the CD11c(+)CD11b(+)MHCII(+)F4/80(-)CD8(-)phenotype in the subepithelial dome region and the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). However, the nature of the receptor(s) for SIgA on murine PP and MLN DCs is unknown. We find that glycosylated secretory component moiety and polymeric IgA are both involved in the specific interaction with these cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585763/a-combinatorial-strategy-of-alternative-promoter-use-during-differentiation-of-a-heterocystous-cyanobacterium
#19
Alicia M Muro-Pastor, Manuel Brenes-Álvarez, Agustín Vioque
Heterocystous cyanobacteria such as Nostoc sp. are filamentous photosynthetic organisms that, in response to nitrogen deficiency, undergo a differentiation process transforming certain, semi-regularly spaced cells into heterocysts, devoted to nitrogen fixation. During transition to a nitrogen-fixing regime, growth of most vegetative cells in the filament is temporarily arrested due to nutritional deprivation, but developing heterocysts require intense transcriptional activity. Therefore, the coexistence of arrested vegetative cells and actively developing prospective heterocysts relies on the simultaneous operation of somewhat opposite transcriptional programs...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577529/the-effect-of-immunoregulation-of-streptococcus-lactis-l16-strain-upon-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#20
Maopeng Wang, Shengjie Gong, Shouwen Du, Yilong Zhu, Fengjun Rong, Rongrong Pan, Yang Di, Chang Li, Dayong Ren, Ningyi Jin
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes various infections in medical facilities. However, resistance to multiple drugs has made this infection difficult to manage. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to solve this worldwide public health problem. The Streptococcus lactis L16 strain was isolated from the fermented hot chili sauce. To explore whether it can be used as a protective agent against S. aureus infection, we designed a mouse model of S...
June 2, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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