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Amy Tanner, Shannon Day
Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the relationship between training load, stress, illness episodes, and salivary biomarkers during a period of training and competition. Saliva samples were collected before (BASE), during an intensified training camp (CAMP), during an international competition period (COMP), and post competition recovery (REC) for analysis of cortisol, testosterone, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)...
September 1, 2017: Sports (Basel)
Kenichi Ogawa, Katsunori Yoshikawa, Fumio Matsuda, Yoshihiro Toya, Hiroshi Shimizu
Photoinhibition, or cell damage caused by excessively intense light is a major issue for the industrial use of cyanobacteria. To investigate the mechanism of responses to extreme high light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed using the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (PCC 6803) cultured under various light intensities. The culture profile data demonstrated that, in contrast to the slow cell growth observed under low light intensities (30 and 50 μmol m-2  s-1 ), maximal cell growth was observed under mid light conditions (300 and 1000 μmol m-2  s-1 )...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
André Alan Nahas, Mayara Ingrid de Sousa Lima, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hong Zhang, Chiajung Yeh, Zonglian Jin, Liwei Ding, Bryan Y Liu, Li Zhang, H Kathleen Dannelly
The human gut microbiota is an important environmental factor for human health with evolutionarily conserved roles in immunity, metabolism, development, and behavior of the host. Probiotic organisms are claimed to offer several functional properties including stimulation of immune system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a probiotic supplementation on adult volunteers who have contracted the common cold four or more times in the past year. This study is a single center, double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective trial...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Tie Zhang, Jian Chen, Chunguang Wang, Wanyu Shi, Dinggang Li
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Yinhuangerchen mixture (YM) on Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (AILT) induced by artificial infection and provide a scientific basis for its clinical application. A total of 200 chickens were challenged with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). At 72 h post-challenge, the chickens were treated with different doses of YM or the Chinese herbal medicine Houyanjing powder. The relative expression of ILTV, the pathological changes of trachea, and the number of SIgA-secreting cells were detected...
June 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Rafael Vieira Coelho, Scheila de Avila E Silva, Sergio Echeverrigaray, Ana Paula Longaray Delamare
This paper presents a prediction of Bacillus subtilis promoters using a Support Vector Machine system. In the literature, there is a lack of information on Gram-positive bacterial promoter sequences compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Promoter sequence identification is essential for studying gene expression. Initially, we collected the B. subtilis genome sequence from the NCBI database, and promoters were identified by their sigma factors in the DBTBS database. We then grouped the promoters according to 15 factors in 2 domains, corresponding to sigma 54 and sigma 70 of Gram-negative bacteria...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Nikolay A Shcherbina, Lyudmila A Vygivska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Vaginal protective systems function independently of other systemic mechanisms and impairments of local immune mechanisms of the vaginal mucosa are the cause of infectious disorders of the reproductive system The aim: To assess characteristics of local immunity in local inflammatory reactions in pregnant, depending on the implementation of intrauterine infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study comprised Group 1 of pregnant women with the presence of bacterial infections with and without implementation of IUI, Group 2 with the presence of viral infections with and without implementation of IUI, Group 3 with the presence of infections of combined polyetiological structure with and without implementation of IUI and control group included pregnant women with physiological pregnancy...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Xing Pan, Hong Ke, Xiaojuan Niu, Shan Li, Jun Lv, Longrui Pan
Vaccination is an increasingly important alternative approach to control Helicobacter pylori infection, since H. pylori resistance to previously efficacious antibiotic regimens is increased, and H. pylori eradication treatment for upper gastrointestinal diseases is becoming less successful. Fortunately, an efficient oral monovalent H. pylori vaccine has been developed. However, compared with monovalent vaccines, multivalent vaccines have the potential to induce more effective and comprehensive protection against H...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jun Hu, Lingli Chen, Wenyong Zheng, Min Shi, Liu Liu, Chunlin Xie, Xinkai Wang, Yaorong Niu, Qiliang Hou, Xiaofan Xu, Baoyang Xu, Yimei Tang, Shuyi Zhou, Yiqin Yan, Tao Yang, Libao Ma, Xianghua Yan
Increased intestinal epithelial barrier function damages caused by early weaning stress have adverse effects on swine health and feed utilization efficiency. Probiotics have emerged as the promising antibiotic alternatives used for intestinal barrier function damage prevention. Our previous data showed that Lactobacillus frumenti was identified as a predominant Lactobacillus in the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. However, whether the intestinal epithelial barrier function in piglets was regulated by L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Serena Giuntini, Matteo Stoppato, Maja Sedic, Monir Ejemel, Jessica R Pondish, Danielle Wisheart, Zachary A Schiller, William D Thomas, Eileen M Barry, Lisa A Cavacini, Mark S Klempner, Yang Wang
Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. ETEC infection of the host involves colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. CFA/I is one of the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs). The CFA/I adhesin subunit, CfaE, is required for ETEC adhesion to host intestinal cells...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
C Quin, M Estaki, D M Vollman, J A Barnett, S K Gill, D L Gibson
While probiotics are a multi-billion dollar industry, there is little evidence to show that supplementing infants provides any health benefits. We conducted an observational study where 35 of 86 participating mothers self-administered probiotics during breastfeeding, as well as directly to their infants. The primary objective was to determine if probiotic exposure influenced the infants' fecal microbiome while the secondary objective assessed associated changes to the mothers' breast milk immunity and infant health...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hye Suk Hwang, Sao Puth, Wenzhi Tan, Vivek Verma, Kwangjoon Jeong, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee
Norovirus causes acute and debilitating gastroenteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. We recently reported a recombinant GII. 4 P domain particle (Pd) vaccine adjuvanted with a flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, effectively promoting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the previous study, we found that sublingual (SL) immunization induced higher fecal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses while intranasal (IN) route provided higher amplitude of humoral and cellular immune responses in the systemic compartment...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Mark A Underwood, Robert L Beverly, Søren D Nielsen, David C Dallas
Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2 h post-ingestion were collected from 15 preterm (23⁻32 week gestational age (GA)) mother-infant pairs and from 8 term (38⁻40 week of GA) mother-infant pairs within 7⁻98 days postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG as well as peptidomics...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
Honggui Liu, Ran Yi, Chao Wang, Peng Zhao, Mingyue Zhang, Shiwen Xu, Jun Bao
To improve the overall welfare levels of sows and to reduce stress levels at late 35-day lactation, we selected targeted behavioral indicators that might be associated with stress. Therefore, we monitored and evaluated the adaptive capability of two different breeds of sows to the farrowing environment. In this study, Damin sows (Large White × Min pig sows, n = 20) and Large White sows (n = 20) were farrowed in individual pens. Saliva was collected and tested for cortisol density at -15 min, and then at +15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test conducted at 20, 27 and 34 d post-partum...
2018: PloS One
M Manuela Rosado, Alaitz Aranburu, Marco Scarsella, Simona Cascioli, Ezio Giorda, Federica Del Chierico, Stefano Levi Mortera, Eva Piano Mortari, Stefania Petrini, Lorenza Putignani, Rita Carsetti
The full development of the mammalian immune system occurs after birth upon exposure to non self-antigens. The gut is the first site of bacterial colonization where it is crucial to create the appropriate microenvironment able to balance effector or tolerogenic responses to external stimuli. It is a well-established fact that at mucosal sites bacteria play a key role in developing the immune system but we ignore how colonising bacteria impact the maturation of the spleen. Here we addressed this issue. Taking advantage of the fact that milk SIgA regulates bacterial colonization of the newborn intestine, we generated immunocompetent mice born either from IgA pro-efficient or IgA deficient females...
April 28, 2018: Immunology Letters
Molly Staley, Melinda G Conners, Katie Hall, Lance J Miller
As the animal welfare community strives to empirically assess how care and management practices can help maintain or even enhance welfare, the development of tools for non-invasively measuring physiological biomarkers is essential. Of the suite of physiological biomarkers, Immunoglobulin A (IgA), particularly the secretory form (Secretory IgA or SIgA), is at the forefront because of its crucial role in mucosal immunity and links to physical health, stress, and overall psychological well-being. While interpretation of SIgA values on short time scales is complex, long-term SIgA patterns are consistent: conditions that create chronic stress lead to suppression of SIgA...
April 26, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Anne-Sophie Garnier, Agnès Duveau, Julien Demiselle, Anne Croué, Jean-François Subra, Johnny Sayegh, Jean-François Augusto
IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most frequent primary glomerulonephritis, affects young patients and is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. Consequently, patients with IgAN constitute an important proportion of candidates for kidney transplantation. Several studies showed a significant risk of IgAN recurrence on kidney graft, but the risks factors for recurrence remain to be accurately evaluated. Indeed, early identification of at risk patients may allow the optimization of treatment and the reduction of recurrence rate on the graft...
2018: PloS One
R G LaGrandeur, M Singhal, F Bany-Mohammed, C Uy, R Koeppel, F Zaldivar, F Haddad, A Nalbandian, P Donovan, D M Cooper, M Aslam
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect novel mesenchymal stem cell peptides/biomarkers of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) of preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Participants included infants less than 32 weeks' gestational age or birth weight under 1500 grams who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within first 24 hours of life. TAF sample collection was performed at the time of the first clinically indicated routine suctioning...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Ji Wang, Tong Wu, Xiaobin Fang, Weihong Min, Zhennai Yang
A purified neutral exopolysaccharide (EPS) designated as EPS0142 was obtained from Lactobacillus plantarum JLK0142. EPS0142 consisted of glucose and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 2.13:1.06 and had a molecular weight of 1.34 × 105  Da. The FT-IR spectrum showed that EPS0142 had a typical polysaccharide absorption pattern. 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectra analysis showed the presence of N-acetylated sugar residues. EPS0142 had no toxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells and significantly improved their phagocytic activity and NO secretion in vitro...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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