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Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T...
October 6, 2016: BMC Immunology
Karaffová V, Marcinková E, Bobíková K, Herich R, Revajová V, Stašová D, Kavuľová A, Levkutová M, Levkut M, Lauková A, Ševčíková Z, Levkut M
The protective effect of Enterococcus faecium EFAL41 on chicken's caecum in relation to the TLR (TLR4 and TLR21) activation and production of luminal IgA challenged with Campylobacter jejuni CCM6191 was assessed. The activation of MIF, IFN-β, MD-2 and CD14 was followed-up after bacterial infection. Day-old chicks (40) were divided into four groups (n = 10): control (C), E. faecium AL41 (EFAL41), C. jejuni (CJ) and combined E. faecium AL41+C. jejuni (EFAL41+CJ). Relative mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR21 and CD14 was upregulated in the probiotic strain and infected (combined) group on day 4 and 7 post infection (p...
October 3, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Mingliang Jin, Yimin Zhu, Dongyan Shao, Ke Zhao, Chunlan Xu, Qi Li, Hui Yang, Qingsheng Huang, Junling Shi
The intestinal mucosal barriers play essential roles not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also the innate defense against most intestinal pathogens. In the present study, polysaccharide from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum was given via oral administration to rats (100mg/kg body weight, 21days) to investigate its effects on intestinal barrier functions, including the mechanical barrier, immunological barrier and biological barrier function. It was found that the polysaccharide administration could significantly up-regulate the expression of occludin, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in ileum, markedly improve the levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-4, and decrease the level of diamine oxidase (DAO) in serum...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anna-Karin E Palm, Ove Wattle, Torbjörn Lundström, Eva Wattrang
This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de Barros, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Maria Emília Rabelo Andrade, Marco Antonio Sundfeld da Gama, Fernando Cesar Ferraz Lopes, Éricka Lorenna de Sales E Souza, Flaviano Dos Santos Martins, Sued Eustáquio Mendes Miranda, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
Mucositis is the most common side effect due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It refers to the inflammation of intestinal mucous membranes, and it is associated with complications such as diarrhea, weight loss, and increased intestinal permeability (IP). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched butter on intestinal damage and inflammatory response after 24 h of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis. Mice were divided into four groups: CTL; CLA; 5-FU, and CLA 5-FU, and they were fed for 31 days...
September 28, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Jumpei Sasabe, Yurika Miyoshi, Seth Rakoff-Nahoum, Ting Zhang, Masashi Mita, Brigid M Davis, Kenji Hamase, Matthew K Waldor
L-Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins synthesized in ribosomes in all kingdoms of life, but d-amino acids (d-aa) have important non-ribosome-based functions(1). Mammals synthesize d-Ser and d-Asp, primarily in the central nervous system, where d-Ser is critical for neurotransmission(2). Bacteria synthesize a largely distinct set of d-aa, which become integral components of the cell wall and are also released as free d-aa(3,4). However, the impact of free microbial d-aa on host physiology at the host-microbial interface has not been explored...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Wen-Ko Chou, Chang-Hsin Chen, Christine N Vuong, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Suryakant D Waghela, Waithaka Mwangi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Luc R Berghman
Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Hossein Hosseini Nave, Shahla Mansouri, Majid Taati Moghadam, Mohammad Moradi
BACKGROUND: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolates cause dysentery in humans. Several virulence factors associated with EIEC pathogenesis have been characterized. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is a PCR-based method that has been used for genotyping bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of virulence factor genes in EIEC isolates from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, Iran, as well as the genetic relationships between these isolates...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Ma Concepción Peña-Juárez, Rafael Campos-Rodríguez, Marycarmen Godínez-Victoria, Teresita Rocío Cruz-Hernández, Humberto Reyna-Garfias, Reyna Elizabeth Barbosa-Cabrera, Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano
Secretory IgA (SIgA) has a pivotal role in gut homeostasis, which can be disturbed by stress. SIgA is formed by IgA-dimers (associated by the J-chain) and the secretory component, a protein derivative of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Given the gut immuno-modulatory properties of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), the aim of this study was to compare, after bLf treatment followed by acute stress, the IgA response and IgA-associated parameters in proximal versus distal small intestine. Male BALB/c mice (n = 6) were orally treated with bLf (50, 500, and 5000 μg) for 7 days, then stressed by immobilization for 1 h, and sacrificed...
October 2016: Immunological Investigations
Shuai Jia, Wangdong Zhang, Xuefen Tan, Wanhong He, Wenhui Wang
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are the major effector cells of mucosal immunity, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) ASCs are also associated with mucosal immunity. This study aimed to explore the distribution of these 2 ASC populations in the palatine tonsils of Bactrian camels of different ages. Eighteen Bactrian camels were divided into the following three age groups: pubertal (3-5 years), middle-aged (6-16 years) and old (17-20 years). SIgA and IgG ASCs within different sites of the palatine tonsils were observed through histological and immunohistochemical techniques, and their densities were analyzed using statistical methods...
September 8, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Lei Wang, Xiaohuan Wang, Kuo Bi, Ximeng Sun, Jing Yang, Yuan Gu, Jingjing Huang, Bin Zhan, Xinping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies showed that Trichinella spiralis paramyosin (TsPmy) is an immunomodulatory protein that inhibits complement C1q and C8/C9 to evade host complement attack. Vaccination with recombinant TsPmy protein induced protective immunity against T. spiralis larval challenge. Due to the difficulty in producing TsPmy as a soluble recombinant protein, we prepared a DNA vaccine as an alternative approach in order to elicit a robust immunity against Trichinella infection...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yan Liang, Guoqiang Zhao, Lin Tang, Junjun Zhang, Tianfang Li, Zhangsuo Liu
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common type of primary glomerulonephritis, characterized by mesangial deposition of pathogenic IgA and the injury to mesangial cells. Our previous studies indicate that secretory IgA (SIgA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN, and miR-16 is involved in destructive process in mesangial cells mediated by the SIgA from IgAN patients. Our current study aimed to study the role of miRNAs in the effect of SIgA from IgAN patients on mesangial cells. MicroRNA microarray and cytokines assay were performed to obtain the differential microRNAs expression profile in human renal mesangial cells stimulated by SIgA from IgAN patients (P-SIgA) with the cells treated by SIgA from healthy subjects (N-SgA) as control...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Joanna Orysiak, Konrad Witek, Agnieszka Zembron-Lacny, Barbara Morawin, Jadwiga Malczewska-Lenczowska, Dariusz Sitkowski
The aim of this study was to examine upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and their associations with resting saliva and blood immune and endocrine parameters in ice hockey players. Twenty-seven participants (age 16.5 ± 0.5 years) completed the 24-week study period. The counts/concentrations of immune and endocrine markers were compared between healthy-prone athletes (≤2 episodes of URTI during the study period) and illness-prone athletes (≥3 episodes of URTI) and between the URTI state (when athletes had infections) and the healthy state (the time without URTI)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
E B Katinas, G V Lavrenova, E Yu Glukhova, L R Kucherova
The objective of the present work was to elaborate a scheme for the effective combined treatment ofinflammation of the rhinosinusotubal area including the local administration of roncoleukin and cyclopheron without antibiotics. The study included 82 patients (27 men and 55 women) at the age from 25 to 55 years presenting with acute inflammation ofroncoleukin and cycloferon. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 was comprised of 39 patients dominated by those with the clinical picture of sinusitis whereas group 2 contained 43 patients in whom symptoms of catarrhal otitis media prevailed...
2016: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
John E Butler, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Nancy Wertz, Xiuzhu Sun, Marek Sinkora, David L Francis
The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Gayeon Won, Atul A Chaudhari, John Hwa Lee
PURPOSE: Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) ghost vaccine candidate was recently constructed. In this study, we evaluated various prime-boost vaccination strategies using the candidate strain to optimize immunity and protection efficacy against fowl typhoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chickens were divided into five groups designated as group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally primed and boosted), group C (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly), group D (primed and boosted intramuscularly), and group E (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally)...
July 2016: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Maureen Groer, Terri Ashmeade, Allyson Duffy, Shannon Morse, Judy Zaritt
OBJECTIVE: To describe difference in cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (CCGFs) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the breast milk of mothers who gave birth preterm and maternal or infant characteristics related to these immune components. DESIGN: A prospective, repeated-measures, one-group design. SETTING: Data were collected at an 82-bed NICU in West Central Florida. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-six very-low-birth-weight infants weighing less than 1,500 g and their mothers...
September 2016: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Vikram Virdi, Paloma Juarez, Ann Depicker
BACKGROUND: Antibodies for human clinical applications are predominantly produced in mammalian expression systems, with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells being the gold standard. CHO cells are ideal for the manufacturing of the IgG class of antibodies, but not for the production of complex antibodies like secretory IgAs (SIgAs) and IgMs, which remain unavailable for clinical use. In contrast, plant seeds and leaves hold the promise to produce SIgAs, IgMs and similar complex antibody formats to scalable amounts...
December 23, 2015: Human Antibodies
Frédéric Huet, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Sebastian Tims, Umberto Simeoni, Gérard Beley, Christoph Savagner, Yvan Vandenplas, Jonathan O'B Hourihane
OBJECTIVE: Fermented formulae (FERM) and a specific mixture of 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS; 9:1) have a potential beneficial effect on gastrointestinal function and microbiota development in infants. The present study assessed the safety and tolerance of the combination of partly fermented infant milk formulae and scGOS/lcFOS compared with either 1 feature, in healthy term infants. METHODS: Four hundred thirty-two infants were enrolled before 28 days of age and followed up to 17 weeks of age and assigned to 1 of the 4 groups: (i) formula with scGOS/lcFOS, (ii) scGOS/lcFOS + 15% FERM, (iii) scGOS/lcFOS + 50% FERM, or (iv) 50% fermented formula (50% FERM)...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Orlando Santillán, Miguel A Ramírez-Romero, Luis Lozano, Alberto Checa, Sergio M Encarnación, Guillermo Dávila
Sigma factors are RNA polymerase subunits engaged in promoter recognition and DNA strand separation during transcription initiation in bacteria. Primary sigma factors are responsible for the expression of housekeeping genes and are essential for survival. RpoD, the primary sigma factor of Escherichia coli, a γ-proteobacteria, recognizes consensus promoter sequences highly similar to those of some α-proteobacteria species. Despite this resemblance, RpoD is unable to sustain transcription from most of the α-proteobacterial promoters tested so far...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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