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Anal dysplasia

Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
Rodolfo J Oviedo, Bruce M Dixon, Chase W Sofiak
INTRODUCTION: Rectal bleeding is the most common symptom of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This case investigates the efficacy of emergency surgery for FAP with total proctocolectomy end ileostomy for recurrent lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in an uninsured patient in a 266-bed community hospital. The optimal treatment for FAP with acute lower GI hemorrhage and hemodynamic compromise unresponsive to conservative management is unclear. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 41-year-old uninsured African American man with no past medical or family history presented to the emergency department with hematochezia lasting three days...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Alexander Kreuter, Christos Siorokos, Frank Oellig, Steffi Silling, Herbert Pfister, Ulrike Wieland
Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced anogenital lesions are very frequent in men who have sex with men (MSM) who are HIV-positive (HIV+). Anogenital warts (AGWs) are considered benign lesions caused by low-risk HPV-types, whereas anogenital dysplasias are potential cancer precursors associated with high-risk HPV-types. Both types of lesions can usually be distinguished clinically. Objective: To describe a case series of HIV+ MSM with typical AGW that harbored different grades of dysplasia...
July 27, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Shinichi Sameshima, Shinichiro Koketsu, Takashi Okuyama, Yawara Kubota, Yuko Ono, Tamaki Noie, Masatoshi Oya
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that nephrotic syndrome is associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) patients treated with mesalazine. Dysplasia associated with UC often develops into colorectal carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old man was referred to our hospital, complaining of diarrhea and bloody stool. Total colonoscopy (TC) was performed and total-type UC was diagnosed. After treatment with mesalazine for 5 years, a low-grade dysplasia (LGD) was detected in the rectum by histological analysis of a biopsy sample...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Wesley G Willeford, Luis Barroso, Jennifer Keller, Nora Fino, Laura H Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Persistent human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been strongly associated with anal squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma continues to increase in this population despite advances in HIV therapy. There are few studies describing the prevalence of anal cancer precursors, treatment outcomes, and associated factors among HIV-infected populations in the southern United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 355 HIV-infected patients from a Southern HIV clinic who were 18 years or older and had received at least one anal Pap smear...
August 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Wesley G Willeford, Laura H Bachmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Nathalie Willems, Agnès Libois, Marcel Nkuize, Francesco Feoli, Marc Delforge, Stéphane DeWit
OBJECTIVES: Over the last few decades, incidence of anal cancer among HIV-positive men has been on the rise. In this context, programmes of screening and treatment of anal dysplasia which is a precursor of anal cancer have been developed. The aim of our study was to describe the efficiency, side effects and outcome of anal dysplasia treatment in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive MSM who received treatment for anal dysplasia between May 2010 and February 2014 in the Saint-Pierre University Hospital, Brussels...
June 16, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Kavita Bisherwal, Deepika Pandhi, Archana Singal, Kiran Guleria, Kiran Mishra
BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal and cervical cancers and their precursors have increased in the past decades. Women with HIV and sexually transmitted infections are at a higher risk. Cervical human papilloma virus infection may serve as a reservoir and source of anal infection or vice versa. A higher incidence of anal cytological abnormality has been observed in patients with abnormal cervical cytology. OBJECTIVES: This cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence and associations of anal and cervical cytological abnormalities in a cohort of sexually active women using Papanicolaou smears...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
E Garne, A Vinkel Hansen, J Morris, S Jordan, K Klungsøyr, A Engeland, D Tucker, D S Thayer, G I Davies, A-M Nybo Andersen, H Dolk
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of maternal exposure to asthma medications on the risk of congenital anomalies. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of aggregated data from three cohort studies. SETTING: Linkage between healthcare databases and EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. POPULATION: 519 242 pregnancies in Norway (2004-2010), Wales (2000-2010) and Funen, Denmark (2000-2010). METHODS: Exposure defined as having at least one prescription for asthma medications issued (Wales) or dispensed (Norway, Denmark) from 91 days before to 91 days after the pregnancy start date...
September 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nasser Kakembo, Phyllis Kisa, Tamara Fitzgerald, Doruk Ozgediz, John Sekabira
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal polyps usually present with rectal bleeding and are associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. Evaluation and management in resource-poor areas present unique challenges. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This 15 year-old boy presented with 9 years of painless rectal bleeding and 2 years of a prolapsing rectal mass after passing stool. He had 3 nephews with similar symptoms. On clinical assessment and initial exam under anesthesia, an impression of a polyposis syndrome was made and a biopsy taken from the mass that revealed inflammatory polyps with no dysplasia...
May 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
R Saleeb, H Faragalla, G M Yousef, R Stewart, C J Streutker
INTRODUCTION: Previous publications have shown an increased incidence of various malignancies amongst renal transplant populations. The objective of this study was to analyze the rate and types of malignancies occurring in the St. Michael's Hospital renal transplant population and to determine whether our results were comparable to those previously published. METHODS: After approval by the hospital's research ethic board, review of the records and pathology of the 1584 patients in the renal transplant clinic database patients was performed...
April 2016: Urology Annals
Beth Cronin, Amy Bregar, Christine Luis, Steven Schechter, Paul Disilvestro, Latha Pisharodi, C James Sung, Christina Raker, Melissa Clark, Katina Robison
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology, high-risk anal HPV and biopsy proven anal dysplasia among women with a history of lower genital tract malignancy compared to those with dysplasia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014 at outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal dysplasia, or malignancy were recruited. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed...
June 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Yixin Chen, Zhenlei Liu, Jia Chen, Yuzhi Zuo, Sen Liu, Weisheng Chen, Gang Liu, Guixing Qiu, Philip F Giampietro, Nan Wu, Zhihong Wu
VACTERL association is a condition comprising multisystem congenital malformations, causing severe physical disability in affected individuals. It is typically defined by the concurrence of at least three of the following component features: vertebral anomalies (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac malformations (C), tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TE), renal dysplasia (R) and limb abnormalities (L). Vertebral anomaly is one of the most important and common defects that has been reported in approximately 60-95% of all VACTERL patients...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
A Nast, S Rosumeck, R Erdmann, C Dressler, R N Werner
Guidelines are systematically developed decision aids for specific medical conditions. The German Dermatological Society, together with the German Professional Association of Dermatologists, takes the lead in the development of the guidelines for dermatology in Germany. In addition to national guidelines, European and international guidelines also exist. In 2014 and 2015 German guidelines on the following topics were newly developed or updated: cutaneous larva migrans, anticoagulation during dermatosurgery, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoids, Mohs surgery, anal dysplasia, and anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients...
May 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Glen R Guerra, Cherng H Kong, Satish K Warrier, Andrew C Lynch, Alexander G Heriot, Samuel Y Ngan
AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015...
March 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Alexis M Koskan, Natalie LeBlanc, Isabella Rosa-Cunha
BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer is on the rise among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the increasing availability of screening, this study explored anal cancer screening awareness and behaviors among MSM infected with HIV. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 58 MSM infected with HIV. RESULTS: Other than 2 participants treated for anal cancer and 3 treated for precancerous anal lesions, the majority of participants had never heard of anal cancer...
January 2016: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Reem Khoury, Simon D Duek, Nidal Issa, Wisam Khoury
INTRODUCTION: Local excision is the treatment of choice for large benign rectal lesions. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is recommended. The excision of large lesions >4 cm has been previously described. We report our series of lesions >5 cm that have been excised via the transanal endoscopic microsurgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors, between the years 2002-2012, were identified. Patients with tumors greater than 5 cm consisted the study group...
May 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Sven-Petter Haugvik, Sigrid Groven, Johan Bondi, Torolf Vågan, Stig Ove Brynhildsvoll, Ole Christian Olsen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe feasibility, postoperative morbidity, and histological outcome of transanal minimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS) in patients with rectal adenoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients who underwent TAMIS at a single institution from December 2011 to December 2015 were retrospectively included in the study. Feasibility was based on tumor size, distance of tumor from the anal verge, operative time, and hospital stay. Thirty-day morbidity was defined by the revised Accordion Classification system...
July 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Hiroaki Ishii, Keisuke Hata, Junko Kishikawa, Hiroyuki Anzai, Kensuke Otani, Koji Yasuda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Junichiro Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Shinsuke Kazama, Hironori Yamaguchi, Soichiro Ishihara, Eiji Sunami, Joji Kitayama, Toshiaki Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of neoplasia after surgery has not been sufficiently evaluated in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), particularly in the Japanese population, and it is not clear whether surveillance endoscopy is effective in detecting dysplasia/cancer in the remnant rectum or pouch. The aims of this study were to assess and compare postoperative development of dysplasia/cancer in patients with UC who underwent ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative surveillance endoscopy...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Akiko Sasaki, Takeshi Nakajima, Hideto Egashira, Kotaro Takeda, Shinnosuke Tokoro, Chikamasa Ichita, Sakue Masuda, Haruki Uojima, Kazuya Koizumi, Takeshi Kinbara, Taku Sakamoto, Yutaka Saito, Makoto Kako
Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by human papilloma virus infection. Not all individuals develop persistent, progressive disease, but careful follow up is required with moderate-to-severe dysplasia to prevent progression to malignancy. Standard therapies include surgical treatments (trans-anal resection and trans-anal endoscopic microsurgery) and immunotherapeutic and topical methods (topical imiquimod); however, local recurrence remains a considerable problem. Here, we report a case with superficial CA of the anal canal, treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)...
February 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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