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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724973/alternatives-to-mineral-oil-adjuvants-in-vaccines-against-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida-in-rainbow-trout-offer-reductions-in-adverse-effects
#1
Kasper Rømer Villumsen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Dennis Christensen, Anders Miki Bojesen
In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as recipients, injection vaccines based on formalin-inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida were formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, the liposomal cationic adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) or with Freund's incomplete adjuvant and administered intraperitoneally...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723590/cardioprotective-mitochondrial-binding-by-hexokinase-i-is-induced-by-a-hyperoxic-acute-thermal-insult-in-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, Tyson James MacCormack
Due to the substantial photosynthetic biomass in their habitat, salmonids such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) can be subject to hyperoxia in addition to high temperatures associated with climate change. Both stressful conditions increase the incidence of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mitochondrial association of hexokinase has been shown to increase in the hearts of certain fish experiencing hypoxia in a putative cardioprotective response to oxidative stress. In this study, the mitochondrial association of hexokinase I (HKI) and markers of oxidative damage and metabolic stress were probed to elucidate the cardioprotective role of hexokinase in the rainbow trout...
July 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713788/microorganisms-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-oncorhynchus-mykiss-produce-antagonistic-substances-against-bacteria-contaminating-food-and-causing-disease-in-humans
#3
Olga Lobos, Andrea Barrera, Carlos Padilla
The objective was to analyse the antibacterial ability of members of the intestinal microbiota of Oncorhynchus mykiss specimens on several bacterial target strains that contaminate food and cause disease in humans. Bacterial colonies from an intestinal portion of the 20 specimens of O. mykiss were obtained in different culture media. Several of the colonies showed antibacterial action on different target strains. The bacterial species with the highest antagonistic capacity were Hafnia alvei and Lactococcus lactis and the more susceptible target strains were Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712589/exposure-to-a-contextually-neutral-stressor-potentiates-fear-conditioning-in-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#4
Brandon S Demuth, Maud C O Ferrari, Lynn P Weber, David M Janz, Douglas P Chivers
Organisms faced with stressors deploy a suite of adaptive responses in the form of behavioral, physiological and cognitive modifications to overcome the challenge. Interactive effects of these responses are known to influence learning and memory processes and facilitation is thought to be dependent, in part, upon contextual relevance of the stressor to the learning task. Predation is one such stressor for prey animals, and their ability to manage reliable information about predators is essential for adaptive antipredator strategies...
July 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711771/toxicity-of-organic-compounds-from-unresolved-complex-mixtures-ucms-to-primary-fish-hepatocytes
#5
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Steven J Rowland, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Many environmental matrices contaminated with organic pollutants derived from crude oil or degraded petroleum contain mixtures so complex that they are typically unresolved by conventional analytical techniques such as gas chromatography. The resulting chromatographic features have become known as 'humps' or unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). These UCMs often dominate the organic contaminants of polluted environmental samples: for example, in oil sands produced water up to 150mgL(-1) of 'naphthenic acids' appear as UCMs when examined by gas chromatography as the esters...
June 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697814/antiprotozoal-effects-of-metal-nanoparticles-against-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis
#6
Mona Saleh, Abdel-Azeem Abdel-Baki, Mohamed A Dkhil, Mansour El-Matbouli, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a widespread, ciliated protozoan ectoparasite of fish. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metal nanoparticles on the reproduction and infectivity of free-living stages of I. multifiliis. We determined that ~50% of theronts could be killed within 30 min of exposure to either 20 ng mL-1 gold, 10 ng mL-1 silver or 5 ng mL-1 zinc oxide nanoparticles. Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentration of 10 and 5 ng mL-1 killed 100 and 97% of theronts, respectively and inhibited reproduction of tomonts after 2 h exposure...
July 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696830/influence-of-temperature-on-the-efficacy-of-homologous-and-heterologous-dna-vaccines-against-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-pacific-herring
#7
Lucas M Hart, Niels Lorenzen, Katja Einer-Jensen, Maureen K Purcell, Paul K Hershberger
Homologous and heterologous (genogroup Ia) DNA vaccines against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (genogroup IVa) conferred partial protection in Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. Early protection at 2 weeks postvaccination (PV) was low and occurred only at an elevated temperature (12.6°C, 189 degree days), where the relative percent survival following viral exposure was similar for the two vaccines (IVa and Ia) and higher than that of negative controls at the same temperature. Late protection at 10 weeks PV was induced by both vaccines but was higher with the homologous vaccine at both 9...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691159/establishment-of-a-hepatocyte-line-for-studying-biosynthesis-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-from-a-marine-teleost-the-white-spotted-spinefoot-siganus-canaliculatus
#8
Y Liu, Q H Zhang, Y W Dong, C H You, S Q Wang, Y Q Li, Y Y Li
A hepatocyte line was established from the liver of white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus to study the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The cells from the line, designated S. canaliculatus hepatocyte line (SCHL), grew and multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)-F12 medium supplemented with 20 mM 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulphonic acid (HEPES), 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0·5% rainbow trout Oncorhychus mykiss serum at 28° C, showing an epithelial-like morphology and the normal chromosome number of 48 (2n) and have been subcultured for over 60 passages...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687361/combined-effects-of-diets-and-temperature-on-mitochondrial-function-growth-and-nutrient-efficiency-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#9
Jonathan C Eya, Rodrigue Yossa, Dayan Perera, Olasupo Okubajo, Ann Gannam
A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0...
July 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680591/evaluation-of-the-suitability-of-a-partially-defatted-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-l-larvae-meal-as-ingredient-for-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-diets
#10
M Renna, A Schiavone, F Gai, S Dabbou, C Lussiana, V Malfatto, M Prearo, M T Capucchio, I Biasato, E Biasibetti, M De Marco, A Brugiapaglia, I Zoccarato, L Gasco
BACKGROUND: Two trials were performed to evaluate a partially defatted Hermetia illucens (HI) larvae meal as potential feed ingredient in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) diets. In the first trial, 360 trout (178.9 ± 9.8 g of mean initial body weight) were randomly divided into three experimental groups (4 tanks/treatment, 30 fish/tank). The fish were fed for 78 days with isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets containing increasing levels of HI, on as fed basis: 0% (HI0, control diet), 25% (HI25) and 50% (HI50) of fish meal substitution, corresponding to dietary inclusion levels of 0, 20% and 40%...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678799/infection-experiments-with-novel-piscine-orthoreovirus-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-salmonids
#11
Helena Hauge, Niccolo Vendramin, Torunn Taksdal, Anne Berit Olsen, Øystein Wessel, Susie Sommer Mikkelsen, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Niels Jørgen Olesen, Maria Krudtaa Dahle
A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662488/transcriptional-response-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-b-cells-and-thrombocytes-following-in-vivo-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene
#12
Laura J Phalen, Bernd Köllner, Natacha S Hogan, Michael R van den Heuvel
Immune toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fishes has been frequently reported but the reasons for differential cell toxicity remains unclear. Rainbow trout were exposed in vivo with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or 100mg/kg of the immunotoxic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in corn oil. Leukocytes were harvested from head kidney, spleen and blood after 14days, the optimal time for B cell depletion found in a previous study. The mRNA expression of five cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and an intrinsic pathway apoptosis checkpoint (p53) in B cells and thrombocytes were examined...
July 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656586/psa-ncam-expression-in-the-teleost-optic-tectum-is-related-to-ecological-niche-and-use-of-vision-in-finding-food
#13
I Labak, V Pavić, M Zjalić, S Blažetić, B Viljetić, E Merdić, M Heffer
In this study, tangential migration and neuronal connectivity organization were analysed in the optic tectum of seven different teleosts through the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in response to ecological niche and use of vision. Reduced PSA-NCAM expression in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss optic tectum occurred in efferent layers, while in pike Esox lucius and zebrafish Danio rerio it occurred in afferent and efferent layers. Zander Sander lucioperca and European eel Anguilla anguilla had very low PSA-NCAM expression in all tectal layers except in the stratum marginale...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653588/positive-density-dependent-growth-supports-costs-sharing-hypothesis-and-population-density-sensing-in-a-manipulative-parasite
#14
Mikhail Gopko, Victor N Mikheev, Jouni Taskinen
Parasites manipulate their hosts' phenotype to increase their own fitness. Like any evolutionary adaptation, parasitic manipulations should be costly. Though it is difficult to measure costs of the manipulation directly, they can be evaluated using an indirect approach. For instance, theory suggests that as the parasite infrapopulation grows, the investment of individual parasites in host manipulation decreases, because of cost sharing. Another assumption is that in environments where manipulation does not pay off for the parasite, it can decrease its investment in the manipulation to save resources...
June 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646724/zinc-and-calcium-alter-the-relationship-between-mitochondrial-respiration-ros-and-membrane-potential-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-liver-mitochondria
#15
Mahmoud S Sharaf, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
At excess levels, zinc (Zn) disrupts mitochondrial functional integrity and induces oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. Although much is known about the modulation of Zn toxicity by calcium (Ca) in fish, their interactions at the mitochondrial level have scarcely been investigated. Here we assessed the individual and combined effects of Zn and Ca on the relationship between mitochondrial respiration, ROS and membrane potential (ΔΨmt) in rainbow trout liver mitochondria. We tested if cation uptake through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a prerequisite for Zn- and/or Ca-induced alteration of mitochondrial function...
August 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639694/rancidity-development-of-refrigerated-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fillets-comparative-effects-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-effects-of-lycopene
#16
Ali Ehsani, Mohammad Sedigh Jasour, Naser Agh, Mohammad Hashemi, Mahdi Khodadadi
BACKGROUND: The problem of lipid oxidation in fish during storage is well known and it is related to both temperature and storage time. Antioxidants could have a main role in limiting deteriorative effects of lipid oxidation in fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplement against postmortem addition of lycopene on deterioration of trout fillets during storage at 4±1°C for 12 days. RESULTS: At the end of feeding trial, no significant differences were observed among fatty acid composition of different dietary groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636253/estimation-of-vanadium-water-quality-benchmarks-for-the-protection-of-aquatic-life-with-relevance-to-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-using-species-sensitivity-distributions
#17
Stephanie Schiffer, Karsten Liber
Elevated vanadium (V) concentrations in oil sands coke, which is produced and stored on the site of some major Athabasca Oil Sands companies, could pose a risk to aquatic ecosystems in northern Alberta, Canada, depending on its future storage and utilization. In the present study, V toxicity was determined in reconstituted Athabasca River water to various freshwater organisms, including 2 midge species (Chironomus dilutus and Chironomus riparius; 4-d and 30- to 40-d exposures) and 2 freshwater fish species (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 28-d exposures) to facilitate estimation of water quality benchmarks...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634082/cytokine-modulation-by-stress-hormones-and-antagonist-specific-hormonal-inhibition-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-head-kidney-primary-cell-culture
#18
Ali Reza Khansari, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)...
June 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628243/using-ultrahigh-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-toxicity-identification-techniques-to-characterize-the-toxicity-of-oil-sands-process-affected-water-the-case-for-classical-naphthenic-acids
#19
Sarah A Hughes, Ashley Mahaffey, Bryon Shore, Josh Baker, Bruce Kilgour, Christine Brown, Kerry M Peru, John V Headley, Howard C Bailey
Previous assessments of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) toxicity were hampered by lack of high-resolution analytical analysis, use of non-standard toxicity methods, and variability between OSPW samples. We integrated ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry with a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) approach to quantitatively identify the primary cause of acute toxicity of OSPW to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The initial characterization of OSPW toxicity indicated that toxicity was associated with non-polar organic compounds, and toxicant(s) were further isolated within a range of discrete methanol fractions that were then subjected to Orbitrap mass spectrometry to evaluate the contribution of naphthenic acid (NA) fraction compounds to toxicity...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602736/effect-of-vitamin-c-on-innate-immune-responses-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-leukocytes
#20
Esther Leal, Carlos Zarza, Carolina Tafalla
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential micronutrient that influences a wide variety of physiological processes, including immunological functions. Although the positive effects of vitamin C supplementation on the immunological status of fish has been established in different species, the bases for these positive effects are still unknown. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of vitamin C on several innate immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocyte populations...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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