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Izzet Burcin Saticioglu, Muhammed Duman, Soner Altun
Aquaculture has become an important candidate as an animal protein source through its growth over the last decade. Based upon a report from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it is the fastest growing sector of the food industry, yet the pathogenicity of many biological agents involved in aquaculture is still unknown. In this study, we isolated Pantoe agglomerans from diseased rainbow trout on several occasions and also attempted to determine their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, including antimicrobial resistance, of four bacterial isolates...
April 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
S Sciuto, M Prearo, R Desiato, C Bulfon, E A V Burioli, G Esposito, C Guglielmetti, L Dell'atti, G Ru, D Volpatti, P L Acutis, F Martucci
Fish consumption is the principal source of intake of organochlorinated compounds in humans. Compared with other types of foods of animal origin, fish contain the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, all of which are classified as highly toxic organochlorine compounds. Currently, lakes and fish farms in northern Italy are not regularly monitored for PCBs and dioxins in areas contaminated by industrial sources, partially because of the high costs of traditional analytical methods that limit the number of samples to be analyzed...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Mark R Christie, Gordon G McNickle, Rod A French, Michael S Blouin
The maintenance of diverse life history strategies within and among species remains a fundamental question in ecology and evolutionary biology. By using a near-complete 16-year pedigree of 12,579 winter-run steelhead ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) from the Hood River, Oregon, we examined the continued maintenance of two life history traits: the number of lifetime spawning events (semelparous vs. iteroparous) and age at first spawning (2-5 years). We found that repeat-spawning fish had more than 2.5 times the lifetime reproductive success of single-spawning fish...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Clinton J Moran, Shannon P Gerry, Matthew W O'Neill, Caroline L Rzucidlo, Alice C Gibb
Morphological streamlining is often associated with physiological advantages for steady swimming in fishes. Though most commonly studied in pelagic fishes streamlining also occurs in fishes that occupy high flow environments. Before the installation of dams and water diversions, bonytail (Cyprinidae, Gila elegans ), a fish endemic to the Colorado River (USA), regularly experienced massive, seasonal flooding events. Individuals of G. elegans display morphological characteristics that may facilitate swimming in high-flow conditions, including a narrow caudal peduncle and a high aspect-ratio caudal fin...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nuno Sousa, Maria João Moreira, Cristina Saraiva, José M M M de Almeida
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) (SS) and Salmon trout ( Onconrhynchus mykiss ) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR...
April 5, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Kannimuthu Dhamotharan, Niccolò Vendramin, Turhan Markussen, Øystein Wessel, Argelia Cuenca, Ingvild B Nyman, Anne Berit Olsen, Torstein Tengs, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV-1) causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Recently, a novel PRV (formerly PRV-Om, here called PRV-3), was found in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with HSMI-like disease. PRV is considered to be an emerging pathogen in farmed salmonids. In this study, molecular and antigenic characterization of PRV-3 was performed. Erythrocytes are the main target cells for PRV, and blood samples that were collected from experimentally challenged fish were used as source of virus...
April 2, 2018: Viruses
Ebrahim Lari, Sarah J Bogart, Greg G Pyle
The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of the olfactory system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to detect three trace metals, cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni), using electro-olfactography (EOG). The olfactory response to all three metals was measured at either 10-6  M or at a concentration established by Alberta Environment and Parks (AEP) as the criterion for the protection of aquatic life. Results of the present study demonstrated that the olfactory system of rainbow trout can detect all three metals (i...
March 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Jong Hun Lee, Jin Woo Han, Jin Hwan Byun, Won Mi Lee, Min Ho Kim, Wen Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) influencing cellular growth and differentiation is recognized to promote wound healing by stimulating tissue repair. Although PDRN can be extracted from human placentas, PDRN medications have recently been extracted from the semen of trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) and salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta ). The present study was designed to evaluate the wound healing effects of O. keta -derived PDRN for injection (Rejuvenex) and PDRN cream (Rejuvenex Cream) in comparison with those of O...
March 2018: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Jesse T Trushenski, Matthew P Aardsma, Kelli J Barry, James D Bowker, Christopher J Jackson, Michelle Jakaitis, Rebecca L McClure, Artur N Rombenso
Until recently, use of antibiotics to enhance terrestrial animal growth performance was a common, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved, but controversial practice. There are no FDA-approved production claims for antibiotic drug use in fish, but it is a common misconception that antibiotics are widely used for this purpose in U.S. aquaculture. Antibiotics are not thought to be effective growth promoters in fish, but there is little quantitative data available to address whether there are growth-promoting effects that might incentivize use of antibiotics in this way, despite legal prohibitions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Mohammadmehdi Saberioon, Petr Císař, Laurent Labbé, Pavel Souček, Pablo Pelissier, Thierry Kerneis
The main aim of this study was to develop a new objective method for evaluating the impacts of different diets on the live fish skin using image-based features. In total, one-hundred and sixty rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were fed either a fish-meal based diet (80 fish) or a 100% plant-based diet (80 fish) and photographed using consumer-grade digital camera. Twenty-three colour features and four texture features were extracted. Four different classification methods were used to evaluate fish diets including Random forest (RF), Support vector machine (SVM), Logistic regression (LR) and k -Nearest neighbours ( k -NN)...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
Luciano V Chiaramonte, David Burbank, Roberta Scott, Jesse T Trushenski
Myxobolus cerebralis (Mc) is a myxozoan parasite causing whirling disease in hatchery- and natural-origin salmonids. To minimize spread of this parasite and the incidence of its associated disease, fish health professionals routinely screen fish for Mc before stocking or moving the fish to Mc-free waters. Sample collection for Mc traditionally entails lethal sampling of cranial tissue followed by pepsin-trypsin digest (PTD) and screening of the sample for mature myxobolid myxospores (PTD method); however, nonlethal sampling methods would be advantageous in some circumstances, such as when dealing with rare or otherwise valuable fish...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Stephen D Atkinson, Sascha L Hallett, Jerri L Bartholomew
Genotypes of the myxosporean parasite Ceratonova shasta are defined by the number of ATC repeats in the parasite's ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 1. These genotypes correlate with specific salmonid fish hosts. We observed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with mixtures of genotypes II and III, and assumed that this was a consequence of fish having an aggregate infection from multiple individual parasites. We hypothesized that although multiple ITS copies are present within a parasite spore, the DNA sequences of these copies are identical, and thus individual C...
March 27, 2018: Parasitology
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Mariana Teles, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai, Lluís Tort, Camino Fierro-Castro
The immunostimulatory effects of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract were evaluated in rainbow trout through changes in expression profile of genes involved in innate immune and antioxidant response, hematology and stress indicators. The concentrations of R. tomentosa at 10 and 100 μg per fish were administrated by intraperitoneal injection, alone or in combination with LPS. After 6 h of administrtion, the gene expression was measured in head kidney, spleen, and intestine. Results indicated that R. tomentosa exerted immunostimulatory effects by inducing the expression of il10, saa, hepcidin, and sod in head kidney and the expression of il10, tgfβ, and inos in intestine...
March 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shawna L Semple, Shathi Eshaque, Kazuhiro Fujiki, Cynthia Tang, Leslie Mitchell, Niels C Bols, Brian Dixon
Rainbow trout chemokine 2 (CK-2) is currently the only known CC chemokine to have a mucin stalk. Further analysis of the mucin stalk region revealed a second, related CC chemokine sequence, denoted here as CK-2.1. This second sequence was determined to be an allele of CK-2 following genomic PCR analysis on several outbred individuals. Furthermore, in both in vivo and in vitro trials, CK-2 and CK-2.1 were both present, but appeared to have differential tissue expression in both control and PHA stimulated samples...
April 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Hamid Salari Joo, Mohammad Reza Kalbassi, Seyed Ali Johari
Hematological and histopathological toxicities of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) to rainbow trout were assessed in three water salinities: 0.4 ppt (low salinity), 6 ± 0.3 ppt (moderate salinity), and 12 ± 0.2 ppt (high salinity). The concentrations of Ag-NPs in the low salinity were 0.032, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 ppm, and in the moderate and high salinities were 3.2, 10, 32, and 100 ppm. The results indicated a concentration-dependently increased (thrombocyte, monocyte, and large lymphocyte) and decreased (neutrophil and small lymphocyte) white blood cell count in the Ag-NP treatments in the low salinity than the other ones in the moderate and high salinities...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cristina Velasco, Sara Comesaña, Marta Conde-Sieira, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
We hypothesized that the presence of specific fatty acids modulate lipid metabolism in fish liver through changes in the phosphorylation status of proteins involved in cell signaling (Akt and mTOR) and cellular energy sensing (AMPK), and transcription factors (CREB and FoxO1). Therefore, we evaluated in pools of rainbow trout livers incubated for 3 h and 6 h at 15 °C in modified Hanks' medium containing 100 or 500 μM oleate or octanoate, the response of these proteins. Our data confirm, for the first time in fish, that treatment of rainbow trout liver with oleate or octanoate resulted in the modulation of phosphorylation status of proteins involved in cell signaling (increased Akt and mTOR) and energy sensing (decreased AMPK), and in transcription factors (decreased CREB and increased FoxO1)...
March 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Takafumi Ito, Jun Kurita, Koh-Ichiro Mori, Helle Frank Skall, Niels Lorenzen, Niccolò Vendramin, Nikolaj Gedsted Andersen, Katja Einer-Jensen, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Four major genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), which have been isolated from many marine and freshwater fish species, are known to differ in virulence. While fast and low-cost genotyping systems based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed for typing of VHSV virulence, there is a need for supplementing the knowledge. In particular, 2 field isolates from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in sea-reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Sweden, SE-SVA-14 and SE-SVA-1033 (both genotype Ib), have yielded contradictory reactions...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Leonardo J Magnoni, Ep Eding, Isabelle Leguen, Patrick Prunet, Inge Geurden, Rodrigo O A Ozório, Johan W Schrama
Oxygen limitation and dietary imbalances are key aspects influencing feed intake (FI) and growth performance in cultured fish. This study investigated the combined effects of hypoxia and dietary electrolyte balance on the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line. Fish were fed ad libitum two experimental diets: electrolyte-balanced or -imbalanced diets (DEB 200 or 700 mEq kg-1 , respectively) and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (7.9 or 4...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ayako Casanova-Nakayama, Elena Wernicke von Siebenthal, Christian Kropf, Elisabeth Oldenberg, Helmut Segner
Genomic actions of estrogens in vertebrates are exerted via two intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, which show cell- and tissue-specific expression profiles. Mammalian immune cells express ERs and are responsive to estrogens. More recently, evidence became available that ERs are also present in the immune organs and cells of teleost fish, suggesting that the immunomodulatory function of estrogens has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. For a better understanding of the sensitivity and the responsiveness of the fish immune system to estrogens, more insight is needed on the abundance of ERs in the fish immune system, the cellular ratios of the ER subtypes, and their autoregulation by estrogens...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daniel Joseph Kostyniuk, Brett Matthew Culbert, Jan Alexander Mennigen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which socially subordinate fish display characteristic traits, including reduced growth rates and altered glucose metabolism. These effects are, in part, mediated by chronically elevated cortisol levels and/or reduced feeding. To determine the effects of social status on lipid metabolism, trout were held in pairs for 4 d, following which organismal and liver-specific indices of lipid metabolism were measured. At the organismal level, circulating triglycerides were elevated in dominant trout, whereas subordinate trout exhibited elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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