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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821298/efficacy-of-a-polyvalent-immersion-vaccine-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-and-evaluation-of-immune-response-to-vaccination-in-rainbow-trout-fry-onchorynchus-mykiss-l
#1
R Hoare, T P H Ngo, K L Bartie, A Adams
Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks...
August 18, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815790/evaluation-of-wastewater-treatment-by-ozonation-for-reducing-the-toxicity-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-to-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
Nicholas Maya, Jaden Evans, Deniz Nasuhoglu, Siavash Isazadeh, Viviane Yargeau, Chris D Metcalfe
While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805256/effects-of-euthanasia-methods-on-stable-carbon-%C3%AE-13-c-value-and-nitrogen-%C3%AE-15-n-value-isotopic-composition-of-fry-and-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#3
Sarah Nahon, Sarah Séité, Joanna Kolasinski, Pierre Aguirre, Inge Geurden
RATIONALE: Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of fish tissues are now commonly used in ecological studies but mostly require the sacrifice of the animal. Ethical considerations recommend the use of anesthetics for tissue sampling. This study examines how anesthetics affect stable isotope ratios of fish compared with other euthanasia methods. METHODS: Rainbow trout fry and juveniles were sacrificed using ice-freezing (as this common method used to kill fish does not affect natural isotopic ratios), electronarcosis or an overdose of chemical anesthetics (2-phenoxyethanol, benzocaine and clove oil)...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802989/do-polyethylene-microplastic-beads-alter-the-intestinal-uptake-of-ag-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-analysis-of-the-mp-vector-effect-using-in%C3%A2-vitro-gut-sacs
#4
Farhan R Khan, David Boyle, Elisabeth Chang, Nicolas R Bury
Microplastic (MP) vector effects have been well described in the literature but surprisingly little is in known about the impact of MPs on the intestinal uptake of contaminants. The present study aimed to determine whether the intestinal fate of Ag was affected by the presence of polyethylene MP beads. Ag (added as (110m)Ag) was introduced into the lumen of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) anterior/mid-intestine gut sac preparations as Ag only, Ag and MPs (co-exposure) and Ag-incubated MPs (where Ag was adsorbed to the MP)...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802653/in-vitro-interactions-of-malachite-green-and-leucomalachite-green-with-hepatic-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-systems-in-the-rainbow-trout-onchorhyncus-mykiss
#5
Carlo Nebbia, Flavia Girolami, Monica Carletti, Laura Gasco, Ivo Zoccarato, Alessandra Giuliano Albo
Malachite green (MG) has been widely used in aquaculture to treat a number of microbial and parasitic diseases. It is currently banned in the EU because of the high cytotoxicity and carcinogenic activity, which is also shared by leucomalachite green (LMG), a reduced MG metabolite that can persist in fish tissues for months. There is scant information about the ability of either compound to interact with drug metabolizing enzymes in fish. Therefore we evaluated the in vitro effects of MG and LMG (25, 50 and 100μM) on some DMEs and glutathione (GSH) content in rainbow trout liver subfractions...
August 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800114/fatty-acid-profile-is-modulated-by-dietary-resveratrol-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
Claudia Torno, Stefanie Staats, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
To produce fish of a high quality that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) and simultaneously generate more sustainable aquaculture, the combined use of phytochemicals and vegetable oils in fish feed seems to be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) potentially induces endogenous fatty acid synthesis, resulting in elevated n-3 FA levels in fish. RV putatively influences ∆6-desaturase, the key enzyme in FA metabolism, and serves as a ligand for PPARα, a transcription factor regulating β-oxidation. Rainbow trout (36...
August 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797475/long-term-hypoxia-exposure-alters-the-cardiorespiratory-physiology-of-steelhead-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-but-does-not-affect-their-upper-thermal-tolerance
#7
Roman Motyka, Tommy Norin, Lene H Petersen, Duane B Huggett, A Kurt Gamperl
It has been suggested that exposure to high temperature or hypoxia may confer tolerance to the other oxygen-limited stressor (i.e., 'cross-tolerance'). Thus, we investigated if chronic hypoxia-acclimation (>3 months at 40% air saturation) improved the steelhead trout's critical thermal maximum (CTMax), or affected key physiological variables that could impact upper thermal tolerance. Neither CTMax (24.7 vs. 25.3°C) itself, nor oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ), haematocrit, blood haemoglobin concentration, or heart rate differed between hypoxia- and normoxia-acclimated trout when acutely warmed...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795283/effects-of-epinephrine-exposure-on-contractile-performance-of-compact-and-spongy-myocardium-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-during-hypoxia
#8
Jordan C Roberts, Douglas A Syme
Hypoxia results in elevated circulating epinephrine for many fish species, and this is likely important for maintaining cardiac function. The aims of this study were to assess how hypoxia impacts contractile responses of ventricular compact and spongy myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to assess how and if epinephrine may protect myocardial performance from a depressive effect of hypoxia. Work output and maximum contraction rate of isolated preparations of spongy and compact ventricular myocardium from rainbow trout were measured...
August 9, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792275/subacute-toxicity-effects-of-deltamethrin-on-oxidative-stress-markers-in-rainbow-trout
#9
Antonia Concetta Elia, Federica Giorda, Nicole Pacini, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Tommaso Scanzio, Marino Prearo
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is considered extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. We evaluated the effect of subacute doses (0.033, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) of deltamethrin on micronucleus frequency and oxidative stress markers in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 d after intracoelomic injection. No genotoxic damage was recorded, as no specimen showed a micronucleus number above the physiological range. Deltamethrin exposure elicited a transient reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and a persistent decrease in glutathione reductase activity...
September 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780446/biochemical-responses-to-cadmium-exposure-in-oncorhynchus-mykiss-erythrocytes
#10
Patrick Orlando, Sonia Silvestri, Enea Ferlizza, Giulia Andreani, Emilio Carpenè, Giancarlo Falcioni, Luca Tiano, Gloria Isani
Cd is known for its carcinogenic effects, however its mechanism of toxicity and in particular its ability to promote oxidative stress is debated. In fact, although it is considered a redox-inactive metal, at high concentration Cd was shown to promote indirectly oxidative stress. In this study we investigated metal accumulation in ex vivo exposed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) erythrocytes and Cd dose-dependent effect in terms of RBC viability, cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS levels as well as its effects on mitochondrial membrane depolarization, hemoglobin stability and precipitation...
August 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769117/species-specific-anaesthetics-for-fish-anaesthesia-and-euthanasia
#11
Gareth D Readman, Stewart F Owen, Toby G Knowles, Joanna C Murrell
There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768660/regulation-of-energy-metabolism-during-social-interactions-in-rainbow-trout-a-role-for-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#12
Kathleen M Gilmour, Paul M Craig, Rashpal S Dhillon, Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which subordinate fish typically experience fasting and high circulating cortisol levels, resulting in low growth rates. The present study investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating metabolic adjustments associated with social status in rainbow trout. After 3 d of social interaction, liver AMPK activity in subordinate trout was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham (fish handled in the same fashion as paired fish but held individually) trout...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766473/freshwater-mussels-anodonta-anatina-reduce-transmission-of-a-common-fish-trematode-eye-fluke-diplostomum-pseudospathaceum
#13
M Gopko, E Mironova, A Pasternak, V Mikheev, J Taskinen
Recent results suggest that bivalves can play an important role in restraining the spread of various aquatic infections. However, the ability of mussels to remove free-living stages of macroparasites and reduce their transmission is still understudied, especially for freshwater ecosystems. We investigated the influence of the common freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) on the transmission of a trematode (eye fluke, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum), which frequently infects fish in farms and natural habitats. In our experiments, mussels caused a significant decrease (P < 0·001) in the abundance of trematode free-living stages, from 6520 to 1770 cercariae L-1 on average (about 4-fold in 2 h)...
August 2, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762176/a-salty-landscape-of-fear-responses-of-fish-and-zooplankton-to-freshwater-salinization-and-predatory-stress
#14
William D Hintz, Rick A Relyea
Predator-prey relationships are altered by anthropogenic contaminants. Road salt is a widespread contaminant among freshwater ecosystems, yet a relatively understudied subject in community ecology. Unknown is whether road salt salinization interacts with predatory stress to influence the growth, behavior, or reproduction of freshwater organisms. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zooplankton (Daphnia pulex), we exposed them to variable levels of road salt (NaCl) crossed with the presence or absence of alarm cues or kairomones...
July 31, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760747/significant-synteny-and-co-localization-of-ecologically-relevant-quantitative-trait-loci-within-and-across-species-of-salmonid-fishes
#15
Arne Jacobs, Robyn Womack, Mel Chen, Karim Gharbi, Kathryn Elmer
The organization of functional regions within genomes has important implications for evolutionary potential. Considerable research effort has gone toward identifying the genomic basis of phenotypic traits of interest through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Less research has assessed the arrangement of QTL in the genome within and across species. To investigate the distribution, extent of co-localization, and the synteny of QTL for ecologically relevant traits, we used a comparative genomic mapping approach within and across a range of salmonid species...
July 31, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757198/dissecting-the-immune-pathways-stimulated-following-injection-vaccination-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-against-enteric-redmouth-disease-erm
#16
Eakapol Wangkahart, Christopher J Secombes, Tiehui Wang
Enteric redmouth disease (ERM or yersiniosis) is one of the most important diseases of salmonids and leads to significant economic losses. It is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri but can be controlled by bacterin vaccination. The first commercial ERM vaccine was licenced in 1976 and is one of the most significant and successful health practices within the aquaculture industry. Although ERM vaccination provides complete protection, knowledge of the host immune response to the vaccine and the molecular mechanisms that underpin the protection elicited is limited...
July 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745835/infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-ipnv-serotype-sp-is-prevalent-in-turkish-rainbow-trout-farms
#17
A G Büyükekiz, S Altun, E F Hansen, I B Satıcıoğlu, M Duman, T Markussen, E Rimstad
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a common pathogen of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Turkey. We found that 455 of 1,676 sample pools tested were IPNV positive. Positive samples were found in all geographical regions where sampling was conducted. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of VP2 from 30 isolates representing all regions showed that the viruses were highly similar in sequence and grouped within Genogroup 5 (serotype Sp-A2). No correlations between sequences, sampling sites or geographical origins were identified...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745820/recovery-of-bacillus-mycoides-b-%C3%A2-pseudomycoides-and-aeromonas-hydrophila-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-with-gill-disease
#18
P Orozova, I Sirakov, D A Austin, B Austin
During a 3-month period from June to the end of August 2016, ~5% mortalities were observed in a farm with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and one farm of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Bulgaria. The disease was manifested by gill ulcers/rot, asphyxiation and bloody ascites. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the internal organs of all the diseased fish. Bacillus mycoides or B. pseudomycoides were recovered from the gill lesions on diseased carp and rainbow trout, respectively, with identification achieved by conventional phenotyping and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741850/no-evidence-for-ecological-segregation-protecting-native-trout-from-invasive-hybridization
#19
Ryan P Kovach, Clint C Muhlfeld, Robert Al-Chokhachy, Stephen J Amish, Jeffrey L Kershner, Robb F Leary, Winsor H Lowe, Gordon Luikart, Phil Matson, David A Schmetterling, Bradley B Shepard, Peter A H Westley, Diane Whited, Andrew Whiteley, Fred W Allendorf
We appreciate the comments of Young et al. (2017) on our recent paper (Muhlfeld et al., 2017) concerning spatiotemporal dynamics of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncoryhnchus clarkii lewisi; WCT) and introduced coastal rainbow trout (O. mykiss irideus; RBT). Nevertheless, we believe there is no evidence for "ecological segregation" protecting WCT from invasive RBT. Here we consider their three major arguments for ecological segregation and find their conclusions invalid. This article is protected by copyright...
July 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741794/ecological-segregation-moderates-a-climactic-conclusion-to-trout-hybridization
#20
Michael K Young, Daniel J Isaak, Kevin S McKelvey, Taylor M Wilcox, Matthew R Campbell, Matthew P Corsi, Dona L Horan, Michael K Schwartz
Invasive hybridization, in which an introduced species may introgressively hybridize with a native taxon and threaten its persistence, is prominently featured in the conservation literature. One of the most frequently cited examples of this phenomenon involves interactions between native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi and introduced rainbow trout O. mykiss in a portion of the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains (Allendorf & Leary, 1988). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
July 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
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