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Md Mostafizur Rahman, Sanaz Khosravi, Kyung Hoon Chang, Sang-Min Lee
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin levels on growth performance, feed utilization, muscle pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity in juvenile rainbow trout. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (designed as AX0, AX50, AX75, and AX100). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (18.5 g/fish) for 10 weeks. Growth performance and muscle composition of fish were not affected by dietary astaxanthin levels. Total carotenoid concentration in the muscle of fish fed the AX50 diet was higher than that of fish fed the AX0 diet, but no significant differences were observed between these fish and those fed the AX75 and AX100 diets...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Kevin V Brix, Margaret S Tellis, Anne Crémazy, Chris M Wood
Single metal Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) have been developed for a number of metals and model organisms. While these BLMs improve our ability to regulate metals in the aquatic environment, in reality, organisms are often simultaneously exposed to metal mixtures. Recently, several attempts have been made to develop mixture BLMs (mBLMs). Some of these models assume competitive interactions between all metals, while others assume only metals with a similar mode of action (e.g., Na(+) or Ca(2+) antagonists) will competitively interact...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Milka Vrecl, Vlasta Jenčič
The aim of this preliminary research was to establish if there are intersex occurrences in wild freshwater fish in Slovenian rivers and streams. In the first study we evaluated all fish species of both sexes obtained from the river Ljubljanica from its source to mouth. In the second study we focused on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) males from 30 rivers and streams in different parts of Slovenia. The male gonads were histologically assessed for the presence of oocytes to determine the frequency and degree of intersex...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Michael J Ford, Andrew R Murdoch, Michael S Hughes, Todd R Seamons, Eric S LaHood
We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females...
2016: PloS One
Julie Mellery, Florian Geay, Douglas R Tocher, Patrick Kestemont, Cathy Debier, Xavier Rollin, Yvan Larondelle
Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet...
2016: PloS One
Claudio A Álvarez, Fernando A Gomez, Luis Mercado, Ramón Ramírez, Sergio H Marshall
Piscirickettsia salmonis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease called "salmon rickettsial syndrome". Attempts to control this disease have been unsuccessful, because existing vaccines have not achieved the expected effectiveness and the antibiotics used fail to completely eradicate the pathogen. This is in part the product of lack of scientific information that still lacks on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to overcome infected-cell responses and survive to induce a productive infection in macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Alfonso Prado-Cabrero, Stephen Beatty, Jim Stack, Alan Howard, John M Nolan
In our previous work we identified the presence of meso-zeaxanthin [(3R,3'S)-zeaxanthin] in trout flesh and skin (Nolan et al., 2014), but were not able to quantify this carotenoid with the method used at that time. In the present study, we developed a protocol that allows for the quantification of lutein and the three stereoisomers of zeaxanthin [(3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin and (3S,3'S)-zeaxanthin] in fish flesh. We tested this protocol in two species of farmed trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo Trutta), and we detected and quantified these carotenoids...
July 2016: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Ahmet Topal, Muhammed Atamanalp, Ertan Oruç, Hüseyin Serkan Erol
We investigated changes in nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, antioxidant responses and histopathological effects in the liver, gill and kidney tissues of rainbow trout exposed to nickel chloride (Ni). Two different concentrations (1 mg/L and 2 mg/L) were administrated to fish for 21 days. Tissues were taken from all fish for NFkB activity, histopathological examination and determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and of lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Christian Schlechtriem, Leonard Böhm, Rebecca Bebon, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The performance of aqueous exposure bioconcentration fish tests according to OECD 305 requires the possibility of preparing stable aqueous concentrations of the test substances. For highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log Kow > 5) testing via aqueous exposure may become increasingly difficult. A solid-phase desorption dosing system was developed to generate stable concentrations of HOCs without using solubilizing agents. The system was tested with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o-terphenyl (oTP), PCB 153, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA) (log Kow 5...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Many migratory traits are heritable, but there is a paucity of evidence identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation in alternative migratory tactics, or in linking variation in gene expression to migratory behaviors. To that end, we examined differential gene expression in the brain transcriptome between young steelhead trout that had undergone the smoltification process, and resident rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Sashin Creek, Alaska. Samples were sequenced from two time points: immediately before (at 20months of age) and during (2years of age) the presumed peak of smoltification...
September 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Ivan Kutyrev, Beth Cleveland, Timothy Leeds, Gregory D Wiens
Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp) is the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) which causes appreciable economic losses in rainbow trout aquaculture. We previously reported development of a genetic line, designated ARS-Fp-R that exhibits higher survival relative to a susceptible line, designated ARS-Fp-S, following either laboratory or natural on-farm challenge. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal kinetics of gene expression between experimentally-challenged ARS-Fp-R and ARS-Fp-S fish and the correlation between gene expression and pathogen load...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
E Kaczorek, J Szarek, M Mikiewicz, E Terech-Majewska, P Schulz, J Małaczewska, R Wójcik, A K Siwicki
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous substance produced on the kynurenine pathway which is primarily known for its neuroactive properties. Recently, it has been proven that KYNA is a selective ligand for G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 35), presented on immunocompetent cells such as T lymphocytes. This opens up new possibilities of its application as an immunostimulating substance in aquaculture. Thus far, no histopathological investigations in fish have been completed to evaluate influence of KYNA supplementation in feed...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Matteo Minghetti, Kristin Schirmer
The lumen of the fish intestine is a complex and dynamic environment. In order to understand the conditions affecting bioavailability and toxicity of citrate coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNP) and dissolved silver at the luminal enterocyte interface, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gut cells (RTgutGC) in media of contrasting composition: two protein and/or amino acid containing media as can be expected during digestion, and two protein-/amino acid-free media contrasting a low and a high chloride content as can be expected in the lumen of fish adapting to freshwater or seawater, respectively...
September 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Behnam Salimi, Kazem Abdi
Leeches have been reported to harbor several important fish pathogens, including spring viremia of carp virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and also may contain blood protozoa. In the present study, leeches were collected from water bodies located in Kurdistan province, Iran. The specimens were tested for IHNV, VHSV, and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) using the PCR method. The results showed that two different species of leeches, Hemiclepsis marginata and Hirudo medicinalis, were infected by IPNV among the seven species studied...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Sebastian Heger, Kerstin Bluhm, Julia Brendt, Philipp Mayer, Nico Anders, Andreas Schäffer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
Only few information on the potential toxic effectiveness of biofuels are available. Due to increasing worldwide demand for energy and fuels during the past decades, biofuels are considered as a promising alternative for fossil fuels in the transport sector. Hence, more information on their hazard potentials are required to understand the toxicological impact of biofuels on the environment. In the German Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass" design processes for economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly biofuels are investigated...
2016: PloS One
Li-Ming Xu, Jing-Zhuang Zhao, Miao Liu, Yong-Sheng Cao, Jia-Sheng Yin, Hong-Bai Liu, Tongyan Lu
Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a significant disease of farmed salmonids in China. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and viral protein VP2 of a Chinese infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolate ChRtm213 were co-expressed by a bacterial display technology. The library was subjected to three rounds of screening by flow cytometry (FCM) to select IPNV specific antibodies. Six antibody clones with different mean fluorescence intensities (MFI) were obtained by picking colonies at random...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
David Huyben, Aleksandar Vidakovic, Andreas Nyman, Markus Langeland, Torbjörn Lundh, Anders Kiessling
Yeast is a potential alternative to fish meal in diets for farmed fish, yet replacing more than 50 % of fish meal results in reduced fish growth. In a 4-week experiment, 15 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cannulated and fed three diets each week: 30 % fish meal as a control (FM); 60 % replacement of fish meal protein, on a digestible basis, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC); and 60 % replacement with Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae mix (WA). Blood was collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after feeding...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
E C Mateo, T Castro, V Sierralta, D R Mateo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Guo Hu, Wei Gu, Peng Sun, Qingli Bai, Bingqian Wang
Excessive accumulation of carcass fat in farm animals, including fish, has a significant impact on meat quality and on the cost of feeding. Similar to farmed animals and humans, the liver can be considered one of the most important organs involved in lipid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). RNA-seq based whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to liver tissue of rainbow trout with high and low carcass fat content in this study. In total 1,694 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, including many genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as L-FABP, adiponectin, PPAR-α, PPAR-β, and IGFBP1a...
2016: International Journal of Genomics
M Hajiahmadian, K Sarvi Moghanlou, N Agh, F Farrokhi Ardabili
Brood fish nutrition is an important factor susceptible to affect not only fecundity and gametogenesis but also gamete quality. In this study, we investigated the effects of altering dietary vegetable fatty acid content on semen quality (i.e. motility, density and seminal plasma composition), fertilizing ability and also blood testosterone (T) concentration in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed a commercial diet and ten formulated diets with similar proximate compositions but different levels of vegetable fatty acids (highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA): monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA); HUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); and HUFA: saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratios)...
September 21, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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