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N Shahi, S K Mallik, M Sahoo, S Chandra, A K Singh
"Warm water lactococcosis" in farm-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in the northern Himalayan region of India, caused by bacterium Lactococcus garvieae is described in this study. Nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the organs of haemorrhagic septicaemia rainbow trout and were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification. Cell surface characteristics and virulence of the bacterial isolates are also described. All the nine bacterial isolates had homogenous biochemical characteristics and were Gram-positive, short chains forming (two to eight cells long), α-haemolytic, non-motile ovoid cocci...
February 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S J Poynter, A Monjo, S J DeWitte-Orr
Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a family of five surface receptors whose functions in mammals are associated with innate immunity; however, their role in fish immunity requires further elucidation. The present study identifies, performs sequence analysis, and constitutive transcript expression analysis for three SR-A family members, SCARA3, SCARA4 an SCARA5, from rainbow trout. This work will provide a basis for future studies on SR-A function and their role in innate immunity in this economically important fish...
February 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Eric Duchaud, Tatiana Rochat, Christophe Habib, Paul Barbier, Valentin Loux, Cyprien Guérin, Inger Dalsgaard, Lone Madsen, Hanne Nilsen, Krister Sundell, Tom Wiklund, Nicole Strepparava, Thomas Wahli, Greta Caburlotto, Amedeo Manfrin, Gregory D Wiens, Erina Fujiwara-Nagata, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Jean-François Bernardet, Pierre Nicolas
Flavobacterium psychrophilum , the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10) infecting farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Charles B Yackulic, Josh Korman, Michael D Yard, Maria Dzul
Introduced species are frequently implicated in declines of native species. In many cases, however, evidence linking introduced species to native declines is weak. Failure to make strong inferences regarding the role of introduced species can hamper attempts to predict population viability and delay effective management responses. For many species, mark-recapture analysis is the more rigorous form of demographic analysis. However, to our knowledge, there are no mark-recapture models that allow for joint modeling of interacting species...
February 21, 2018: Ecology
John O Onukwufor, Chris M Wood
In the context of the osmorespiratory compromise, hypoxia and temperature have been little studied relative to exercise, and diffusive water flux rates (as assessed by 3 H 2 O efflux) have received almost no attention. We investigated the effects of fish size, hypoxia, exercise and acute temperature increase on diffusive water flux rates and net sodium loss rates in juvenile rainbow trout. Trout weighing 13-50 g were used to determine the effects of fish size under normoxia. Thereafter 25-50 g trout were selected to assess the effects of different hypoxia levels (3...
February 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation...
2018: PloS One
Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Mahyar Yasari, Seyed Saeed Mirzargar, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini
The aim of the present study was to investigate anesthetic efficacy of myrcene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along with the fish biochemical response to anesthesia in comparison with eugenol. In the first experiment, 240 fish were stocked in 12 tanks and acclimatized to experimental conditions for 2 weeks. Then, the fish of each tank were subjected to one concentration of either eugenol (12, 20, 30, 50, 80, and 130 μL/L) or myrcene (100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μL/L) concentrations. Induction time of and recovery time from anesthesia were recorded for each fish separately...
February 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoping He, Aimee Lee S Houde, Bryan D Neff, Daniel D Heath
Non-native species may be introduced either intentionally or unintentionally, and their impact can range from benign to highly disruptive. Non-native salmonids were introduced into Lake Ontario, Canada, to provide recreational fishing opportunities; however, the establishment of those species has been proposed as a significant barrier to the reintroduction of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) due to intense interspecific competition. In this study, we compared population differences of Atlantic salmon in transcriptome response to interspecific competition...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Y Zhang, T M Healy, W Vandersteen, P M Schulte, A P Farrell
This study compared parr from three strains of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to examine intraspecific variation in metabolic traits, hypoxia tolerance and upper thermal tolerance in this species. At the strain level, variation in absolute aerobic scope (AAS), critical oxygen level (O2crit ), incipient lethal oxygen saturation (ILOS) and critical thermal maximum (CTmax ) generally exhibited consistent differences among the strains, suggesting the possibility of functional associations among these traits...
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Irene Soleto, Uwe Fischer, Carolina Tafalla, Aitor G Granja
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, being key modulators in the initiation of specific responses. Although teleost fish present the main elements of a fully developed adaptive immune system, not many studies have focused on identifying specific DC subsets in teleost species. Previous work from our group identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin a DC subpopulation co-expressing CD8α and major histocompatibility complex II β on the cell surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Laura M Langan, Silvia Arossa, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
In vitro models are emerging tools for reducing reliance on traditional toxicity tests, especially in areas where information is sparse. For studies of fish, this is especially important for extrahepatic organs, such as the intestine, which, until recently, have been largely overlooked in favour of the liver or gill. Considering the importance of dietary uptake of contaminants, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine-derived cell line RTgutGC was cultured, to test its suitability as a high-throughput in vitro model...
February 2018: Mutation Research
Ankur Jamwal, Danielle Lemire, Melissa Driessnack, Mohammad Naderi, Som Niyogi
The present study investigated the interactive effects of dietary cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on the tissue-specific (liver, kidney, and muscle) accumulation of these two elements, hepatic oxidative stress response, and morphometrics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during chronic exposure. Fish were exposed to elevated dietary Cd (45 μg g-1 dry wt.), and medium (10 μg g-1 dry wt.) or high (45 μg g-1 dry wt.) dietary selenium (added as selenomethionine), both alone and in combination, for 30 days...
February 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Valérie Cornet, Abderrahim Ouaach, S N M Mandiki, Enora Flamion, Aline Ferain, Mélusine Van Larebeke, Benjamin Lemaire, Felipe E Reyes López, Lluis Tort, Yvan Larondelle, Patrick Kestemont
Nutrition is crucial to grow healthy fish particularly in a context of pollution, overcrowding and pathogen risks. Nowadays, the search for food components able to improve fish health is increasingly developing. Here, the influence of four dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) on the sensitivity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles to environmentally realistic cadmium (Cd, 0...
February 1, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nathaniel J Clark, Benjamin J Shaw, Richard D Handy
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are known for their antibacterial properties and are used in a growing number of nano-enabled products, with inevitable concerns for releases to the environment. Nanoparticles may also be antigenic and toxic to the haematopoietic system, but the immunotoxic effect of Ag NPs on non-target species such as fishes is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of Ag NP exposure via the water on the haematopoietic system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine whether or not the hazard from Ag NPs was different from that of AgNO3...
January 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Julita Stadnicka-Michalak, Frederik T Weiss, Melanie Fischer, Katrin Tanneberger, Kristin Schirmer
Permanent fish cell lines constitute a promising complement or substitute for fish in the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We demonstrate the potential of a set of cell lines originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to aid in the prediction of chemical bioaccumulation in fish, using benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as model chemical. We selected three cell lines from different tissues to more fully account for whole body biotransformation in vivo: the RTL-W1 cell line representing the liver as major site of biotransformation; and the RTgill-W1 (gill) and RTgutGC (intestine) cell lines as important environment-organism interfaces, which likely influence chemical uptake...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Michael Brannen, Kathleen M Gilmour
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to acid-base challenges activate branchial mechanisms for the excretion of acid-base equivalents. Current models of branchial acid-base excretion in freshwater rainbow trout propose two main ionocyte types; the peanut lectin agglutinin-positive (PNA+) mitochondrion-rich cell or ionocyte is believed to secrete HCO3- in exchange for Cl-, whereas H+ secretion is thought to occur across PNA- ionocytes in exchange for Na+ Both HCO3- and H+ are supplied by intracellular hydration of CO2 catalyzed by cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CAc)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
John A Frew, Jacob T Brown, Patrick N Fitzsimmons, Alex D Hoffman, Martin Sadilek, Christian E Grue, John W Nichols
Studies were conducted to determine the distribution and elimination of imidacloprid (IMI) in rainbow trout. Animals were injected with a low (47.6 μg/kg), medium (117.5 μg/kg) or high (232.7 μg/kg) dose directly into the bloodstream and allowed to depurate. The fish were then sampled to characterize the loss of IMI from plasma and its appearance in expired water (all dose groups) and urine (medium dose only). In vitro biotransformation of IMI was evaluated using trout liver S9 fractions. Mean total clearance (CLT) values determined by non-compartmental analysis of plasma time-course data were 21...
January 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Viviana Lazzarotto, Françoise Médale, Laurence Larroquet, Geneviève Corraze
The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7°C. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RT-qPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17°C...
2018: PloS One
F Chatigny, D B Groman, S A Martinson, E D Stevens
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were infiltrated with either saline or lidocaine adjacent to the dorsal fin to assess histopathological changes. Infiltration was done as if it were being used as a local anaesthetic. Tissue lesions and associated tissue healing were examined over a period of 30 days. Most changes occurred at the cranial site of where the solution was first infiltrated. The infiltration of a dose of 10 mg kg-1 of lidocaine appears to have damaged the skeletal muscle and connective tissues more than a similar volume of saline, especially during the first 15 days...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Lucie Gerber, Frank B Jensen, Steffen S Madsen
Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthases (Nos) is an inhibitor of ion transporter activity and a modulator of epithelial ion transport in fish but little is known on changes in the Nos/NO system during osmotic stress. We hypothesized that the Nos/NO system responds to salinity changes as an integrated part of the acclimation process. Expression and localization of nos1/Nos1 and nos2/Nos2 were investigated in gill, kidney and intestine of FW- and SW-transferred trout using qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, along with expressional changes of major ion transporters in the gill...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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