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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236159/rapid-detection-of-sublethal-toxicity-using-locomotor-activity-of-rainbow-trout-juveniles
#1
Tomas Makaras, Gintaras Svecevičius, Nijolė Kazlauskienė, Danguolė Montvydienė
This study examined changes in locomotor activity of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles exposed to sublethal concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) (as a single pollutant) and landfill leachate (as an complex mixture of mainly organic compounds, including trace amounts of metals). Fish were first examined for baseline behavior patterns for 3 h to determine the appropriate duration of acclimation and the control level. The average velocity of fish was found to be the most informative among other endpoints throughout the 3 h long acclimation...
December 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190806/size-conditional-smolting-and-the-response-of-carmel-river-steelhead-to-two-decades-of-conservation-efforts
#3
Juan Lopez Arriaza, David A Boughton, Kevan Urquhart, Marc Mangel
Threshold effects are common in ecosystems and can generate counterintuitive outcomes in management interventions. A threshold effect proposed for steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is size-conditional smolting and marine survival. Steelhead are anadromous, maturing in the ocean but migrating to freshwater to spawn, where their offspring reside for one or more years before smolting-physiologically transforming to a saltwater form-and migrating to the ocean. In conditional smolting, juveniles transform only if growth exceeds a threshold body size prior to migration season, and subsequent marine survival correlates with size at ocean entry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188048/effects-of-cooking-techniques-on-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-content-of-farmed-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#4
Katrina Flaskerud, Michael Bukowski, Mikhail Golovko, LuAnn Johnson, Stephen Brose, Ashrifa Ali, Beth Cleveland, Matthew Picklo, Susan Raatz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples...
November 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160217/morphological-and-molecular-confirmation-of-myxobolus-cerebralis-myxospores-infecting-wild%C3%A2-caught-and-cultured-trout-in-north-carolina-se-usa
#5
Carlos F Ruiz, Jacob M Rash, Cova R Arias, Doug A Besler, Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Matthew R Womble, Jackson R Roberts, Micah B Warren, Candis L Ray, Stacey Lafrentz, Stephen A Bullard
We used microscopy and molecular biology to provide the first documentation of infections of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), the etiological agent of whirling disease, in trout (Salmonidae) from North Carolina (USA) river basins. A total of 1085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 696 brown trout Salmo trutta, and 319 brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from 43 localities across 9 river basins were screened. Myxospores were observed microscopically in pepsin-trypsin digested heads of rainbow and brown trout from the Watauga River Basin...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148587/experimental-infection-by-yersinia-ruckeri-o1-biotype-2-induces-brain-lesions-and-neurological-signs-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#6
H K Strøm, M Ohtani, B Nowak, T S Boutrup, B Jones, M K Raida, A M Bojesen
Pathological manifestations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following experimental waterborne infection with Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 2 (strain 07111224) were investigated. Rainbow trout were exposed to 8 × 10(7)  CFU/ml of Y. ruckeri by bath for 6 hr, and mortality was then monitored for 22 days post-infection (dpi). Organs were sampled at 3 dpi and also from moribund fish showing signs of severe systemic infection such as bleeding, exophthalmia or erratic swimming behaviour. Y. ruckeri was observed in the meninges and diencephalon of the brain, and lamina propria of olfactory organ at 3 dpi...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146445/interplay-between-daily-rhythmic-serum-mediated-bacterial-killing-activity-and-immune-defence-factors-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
Carlo C Lazado, Manuel Gesto, Lone Madsen, Alfred Jokumsen
Circadian rhythm is emerging as an important regulator of immune functions. However, there is a paucity of information on the influence of this biological phenomenon in the antimicrobial factors in teleost fish. This study investigated the dynamics and interplay of serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors throughout the light:dark (LD) cycle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The juvenile fish came from two different emergence time fractions (i.e., late and early) that were believed to exhibit behavioural and physiological differences...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137620/isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutation-in-vibrio-anguillarum-results-in-virulence-attenuation-and-immunoprotection-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Xiangyu Mou, Edward J Spinard, Shelby L Hillman, David R Nelson
BACKGROUND: Vibrio anguillarum is an extracellular bacterial pathogen that is a causative agent of vibriosis in finfish and crustaceans with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Mutations in central metabolism (glycolysis and the TCA cycle) of intracellular pathogens often result in attenuated virulence due to depletion of required metabolic intermediates; however, it was not known whether mutations in central metabolism would affect virulence in an extracellular pathogen such as V...
November 14, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126991/rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-adipose-tissue-undergoes-major-changes-in-immune-gene-expression-following-bacterial-infection-or-stimulation-with-pro-inflammatory-molecules
#9
Kimberly A Veenstra, Eakapol Wangkahart, Tiehui Wang, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
In mammals, visceral adipose is increasingly seen as playing an important role in immune function with numerous pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating proteins and peptides being identified in adipocytes. Adipose is also now known as a tissue that has an important role in the regulation of peritoneal immune responses. Despite this, only lately has consideration been given to visceral adipose as an important immune tissue in fish, especially in the context of intraperitoneal vaccination. The present study demonstrates that fish visceral adipose is capable of expressing a large range of immune molecules in response to stimulation with a live bacterium (A...
November 7, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121973/in-vitro-investigations-on-extracellular-proteins-secreted-by-aphanomyces-invadans-the-causative-agent-of-epizootic-ulcerative-syndrome
#10
Muhammad Majeed, Gokhlesh Kumar, Sarah Schlosser, Mansour El-Matbouli, Mona Saleh
BACKGROUND: Proteases produced by many microorganisms, including oomycetes, are crucial for their growth and development. They may also play a critical role in disease manifestation. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome is one of the most destructive fish diseases known. It is caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans and leads to mass mortalities of cultured and wild fish in many countries. The areas of concern are Australia, China, Japan, South and Southeast Asian countries and the USA. Extracellular proteases produced by this oomycete are believed to trigger EUS pathogenesis in fish...
November 9, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119793/a-comprehensive-approach-to-assess-feathermeal-as-an-alternative-protein-source-in-aquafeed
#11
Mohammad Sedigh Jasour, Liane Wagner, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Bodil K Larsen, Ines Greco, Vibeke Orlien, Karsten Olsen, Hanne T Rasmussen, Niels H Hjermitslev, Marianne Hammershøj, Anne J T Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard
The effect of partially replacing fishmeal in aquafeed with feathermeal (FTH) at three levels (0%: FTH0, 8%: FTH8, 24%: FTH24) and two extrusion temperatures (100 and 130 °C) were evaluated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with respect to growth performance, metabolism response, and oxidative status of the feed proteins. Multivariate data analyses revealed that FTH24 correlated positively with high levels of: oxidation products, amino acids (AA) racemization, glucogenic AAs level in liver, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR); and low AAs digestibility...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111472/assessment-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-activity-gene-expression-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-on-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-tissues-exposed-to-biopesticide
#12
Gonca Alak, Arzu Ucar, Veysel Parlak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Ismail Hakkı Taş, Doğukan Ölmez, Esat Mahmut Kocaman, Mustafa Yılgın, Muhammed Atamanalp, Telat Yanık
The goal of this study was to determinate toxicity mechanism of biopesticide with antioxidant enzymes parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)), transcriptional changes of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A), sod, cat, and gpx in liver and gill tissues of Oncorhynchus mykiss. For this aim, plant-based (natural pesticides, azadirachtin (AZA)) and synthetic pesticides (deltamethrin (DLM)) were exposed on the fish at different concentrations (0...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110354/landscape-features-along-migratory-routes-influence-adaptive-genomic-variation-in-anadromous-steelhead-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Steven J Micheletti, Amanda R Matala, Andrew P Matala, Shawn R Narum
Organisms typically show evidence of adaptation to features within their local environment. However, many species undergo long-distance dispersal or migration across larger geographical regions that consist of highly heterogeneous habitats. Therefore, selection may influence adaptive genetic variation associated with landscape features at residing sites and along migration routes in migratory species. We tested for genomic adaptation to landscape features at natal spawning sites and along migration paths to the ocean of anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110100/gills-as-morphological-biomarkers-in-extensive-and-intensive-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-1792-production-technologies
#14
Emilia Strzyżewska-Worotyńska, Józef Szarek, Izabella Babińska, Dominika Gulda
We investigated environmental impacts on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at fish farms with either extensive technology, in a flow-through system (FTS, n = 3), or intensive technology, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS, n = 3). All fish were fed the same rations. Fish were caught in spring and autumn (body mass, 501-750 g) from these six farms. We performed macroscopic (intact fish) and microscopic (gills stained with haematoxylin/eosin) examinations. Lesions were categorised based on the type and location of structural abnormalities...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109734/similar-genetic-architecture-with-shared-and-unique-quantitative-trait-loci-for-bacterial-cold-water-disease-resistance-in-two-rainbow-trout-breeding-populations
#15
Roger L Vallejo, Sixin Liu, Guangtu Gao, Breno O Fragomeni, Alvaro G Hernandez, Timothy D Leeds, James E Parsons, Kyle E Martin, Jason P Evenhuis, Timothy J Welch, Gregory D Wiens, Yniv Palti
Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. In previous studies, we identified moderate-large effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a 57 K SNP array and a reference genome assembly have enabled us to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that overcome several experimental limitations from our previous work. In the current study, we conducted GWAS for BCWD resistance in two rainbow trout breeding populations using two genotyping platforms, the 57 K Affymetrix SNP array and restriction-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103678/cytotoxic-activity-of-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Mathias Iturriaga, Marlen Brisa Espinoza, Matías Poblete-Morales, Carmen Gloria Feijoo, Ariel E Reyes, Alfredo Molina, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Juan Antonio Valdés
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), which cause significant worldwide losses in aquaculture. Juvenile rainbow trout are particularly susceptible to F. psychrophilum infection, the main external clinical signs of which are extensive necrotic myositis and ulcerative lesions. Despite the economic relevance of this pathogen in aquaculture, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying F. psychrophilum infection and pathogenesis...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101685/short-term-feed-and-light-deprivation-reduces-voluntary-activity-but-improves-swimming-performance-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#17
J R Khan, C C Lazado, C Methling, P V Skov
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (~ 180 g, 16 °C and < 5 kg m(-3)) that were feed deprived and kept in total darkness showed a significant increase in critical swimming speed (U crit) between 1 and 12 days of deprivation (from 3.35 to 4.46 body length (BL) s(-1)) with no increase in maximum metabolic rate (MMR). They also showed a significant decrease in the estimated metabolic rate at 0 BL s(-1) over 12 days which leads to a higher factorial aerobic metabolic scope at day 12 (9.38) compared to day 1 (6...
November 3, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100104/characterization-of-the-effects-of-binary-metal-mixtures-on-short-term-uptake-of-cd-pb-and-zn-by-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#18
Kevin V Brix, Margaret S Tellis, Anne Crémazy, Chris M Wood
Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) for individual metals improve our ability to regulate metals in the aquatic environment by considering the effects of water quality parameters (ionic composition, pH, DOC) on metal bioavailability. However, in natural aquatic systems, organisms are often simultaneously exposed to multiple metals and these interactions are not currently considered in BLMs or most environmental regulations. Recently, several different mixture BLMs (mBLMs) have been developed to begin assessing this issue...
October 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076524/invasive-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-preying-on-the-endangered-naked-characin-gymnocharacinus-bergii-at-its-thermal-limits
#19
S Quiroga, F Kacoliris, I García, H Povedano, M Velasco, S Zalba
The expansion of the invasive rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into the thermal headwaters of Valcheta Stream (Patagonia, Argentina) and new predation records on the endangered endemic naked characin Gymnocharacinus bergii are presented here. These findings are discussed in relation to the contemporary evolution and thermal refuges hypothesis. This study has immediate implications for the conservation of G. bergii.
October 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075454/restricted-gene-flow-between-resident-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-an-admixed-population-of-anadromous-steelhead
#20
Andrew P Matala, Brady Allen, Shawn R Narum, Elaine Harvey
The species Oncorhynchus mykiss is characterized by a complex life history that presents a significant challenge for population monitoring and conservation management. Many factors contribute to genetic variation in O. mykiss populations, including sympatry among migratory phenotypes, habitat heterogeneity, hatchery introgression, and immigration (stray) rates. The relative influences of these and other factors are contingent on characteristics of the local environment. The Rock Creek subbasin in the middle Columbia River has no history of hatchery supplementation and no dams or artificial barriers...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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