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Rodent studies

Xingyong Chen, Xu Zhang, Ting Chen, Xiulong Jiang, Xiaosong Wang, Huixin Lei, Yinzhou Wang
Angiogenesis after ischemic stroke contributes to the restoration of blood supply in the ischemic zone. Strategies to improve angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery after stroke. Growing evidence shows that proteasome inhibitors enhance angioneurogenesis and induces a long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia in rodents' models. We have previously reported that inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular mass peptide 2 (LMP2) offers a strong neuroprotection in ischemic stroke rats...
April 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hamid Safi, Sare Safi, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamid Ahmadieh
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a primary cause of visual impairment worldwide. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with ophthalmoscopically nonvisible neurovascular damage that progresses before the first clinical signs of DR appear. Reduction of the inner neuroretinal layer thickness on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT), reduced contrast sensitivity primarily at low spatial frequencies, abnormal results in color vision and microperimetry tests, and a prolonged implicit time recorded by multifocal electroretinography have been proposed for detection of early functional and nonvisible structural neuroretinal changes...
April 18, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Hong-Fa Yan, Zhao-Yu Liu, Zhi-Ang Guan, Chuang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying obesity and anti-obesity processes have garnered remarkable attention as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Our prior work has shown the healing efficacy of iron reduction therapies for hepatic steatosis in a rodent model of diabetes and obesity. In this study, we investigated how iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) affected adipocyte dysfunction in the epididymal adipose tissues of ob/ob mice. METHODS: Male ob/ob mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated or DFO-treated group...
April 2018: Endocrine Connections
Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole, Lucio G Costa
BACKGROUND: Escalating prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in recent decades has triggered increasing efforts in understanding roles played by environmental risk factors as a way to address this widespread public health concern. Several epidemiological studies show associations between developmental exposure to traffic-related air pollution and increased ASD risk. In rodent models, a limited number of studies have shown that developmental exposure to ambient ultrafine particulates or diesel exhaust (DE) can result in behavioral phenotypes consistent with mild ASD...
April 20, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Asnakech Alemu, Wondmagegn Tamiru, Teshome Nedi, Workineh Shibeshi
Background: Pain and inflammation are the major health problems commonly treated with traditional remedies mainly using medicinal plants. Leonotis ocymifolia is one of such medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine of Ethiopia. However, the plant has not been scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the 80% methanol leaves extract of Leonotis ocymifolia using rodent models. Method: The central and peripheral analgesic effect of the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels was evaluated using hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing rodent models, whereas carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma methods were used to screen anti-inflammatory effect of the extract at the same dose levels...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Richard Peffer, Matthew LeBaron, Michael Battalora, Werner Bomann, Christoph Werner, Manoj Aggarwal, Rocky Rowe, Helen Tinwell
Methods for investigating the Mode of Action (MoA) for rodent liver tumors via constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation are outlined here, based on current scientific knowledge about CAR and feedback from regulatory agencies globally. The key events (i.e., CAR activation, altered gene expression, cell proliferation, altered foci and increased adenomas/carcinomas) can be demonstrated by measuring a combination of key events and associative events that are markers for the key events. For crop protection products, a primary dataset typically should include a short-term study in the species/strain that showed the tumor response at dose levels that bracket the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic dose levels...
April 16, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Robin N Groen, Nicolien C de Clercq, Max Nieuwdorp, H J Rogier Hoenders, Albert K Groen
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic comorbidities. However, the mechanisms through which metabolic and psychiatric disorders are connected remain unclear. Pre-clinical studies in rodents indicate that the bidirectional signaling between the intestine and the brain, the so-called microbiome-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the regulation of both metabolism and behavior. The gut microbiome produces a vast number of metabolites that may be transported into the host and play a part in homeostatic control of metabolism as well as brain function...
April 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
G Schiavo, F Bertolini, V J Utzeri, A Ribani, C Geraci, L Santoro, C Óvilo, A I Fernández, M Gallo, L Fontanesi
Casertana is an endangered autochthonous pig breed (raised in south-central Italy) that is considered to be the descendant of the influential Neapolitan pig population that was used to improve British breeds in the 19th century. Casertana pigs are characterized by a typical, almost complete, hairless phenotype, even though a few Casertana pigs are normal haired. In this work, using Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip data, we carried out a genome-wide association study and an FST analysis with this breed by comparing animals showing the classical hairless phenotype (n = 81) versus pigs classified as haired (n = 15)...
April 19, 2018: Animal Genetics
Heng Guo, Qian Chen, Weizhi Qi, Xingxing Chen, Lei Xi
Brain imaging is an important technique in cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, we designed a stereotaxic-apparatus-compatible photoacoustic microscope for studies of rat cortical hemodynamics. Compared with existing OR-PAM systems, the probe owns feature of fast, light, and miniature. In this microscope, we integrated a miniaturized ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 10 MHz to detect photoacoustic signals and a two-dimensional (2D) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) scanner to achieve raster scanning of the optical focus...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Kathleen M Munley, Nikki M Rendon, Gregory E Demas
Aggression is an essential social behavior that promotes survival and reproductive fitness across animal systems. While research on the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this complex behavior has traditionally focused on the classic neuroendocrine model, in which circulating gonadal steroids are transported to the brain and directly mediate neural circuits relevant to aggression, recent studies have suggested that this paradigm is oversimplified. Work on seasonal mammals that exhibit territorial aggression outside of the breeding season, such as Siberian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus ), has been particularly useful in elucidating alternate mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cloé Charpentier, Ronald Chan, Emmeline Salameh, Khaly Mbodji, Aito Ueno, Moïse Coëffier, Charlène Guérin, Subrata Ghosh, Guillaume Savoye, Rachel Marion-Letellier
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) occurred in genetically predisposed people exposed to environmental triggers. Diet has long been suspected to contribute to the development of IBD. Supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) protects against intestinal inflammation in rodent models while clinical trials showed no benefits. We hypothesized that intervention timing is crucial and dietary fatty acid pattern may influence intestinal environment to modify inflammation genesis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an α v β 3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Luziane da C Borges, Raimundo Negrão-Neto, Sônia Pamplona, Luanna Fernandes, Mayra Barros, Enéas Fontes-Júnior, Cristiane Maia, Consuelo Y Yoshioka E Silva, Milton Nascimento da Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the antiinflammatory/antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract derived from the leaves of Phyllanthus brasiliensis (HEPB) in rodents. A new arylnaphthalene lignan glycoside, 5- O -β-d-glucopyranosyljusticidin B, together with six known lignans, were isolated from HEPB. 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HRMS were used to elucidate the structure of the new compound. HEPB toxicity and antinociceptive activity were evaluated through acute oral toxicity and formalin models in mice, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Susan L Perkins
A wide array of vertebrates can serve as the intermediate hosts to malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida), such as birds, lizards, and several groups of mammals, including primates, bats, rodents, and ungulates. The latter group of hosts has not been intensively studied since early descriptions of a small set of taxa were published, but new reports of these parasites in both expected and new hosts have recently been published. A new paper reports the presence of Plasmodium odocoilei in farmed white-tailed deer in Florida, particularly in animals less than 1 year old, and provides evidence that the parasites may contribute to mortality in fawns...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Nina Xiaoyan Li, Stacey Brown, Tim Kowalski, Margaret Wu, Liming Yang, Ge Dai, Aleksandr Petrov, Yuyan Ding, Tamara Dlugos, H Blair Woods, Liangsu Wang, Mark Erion, Robert Sherwin, David E Kelley
Insulin-induced hypoglycemia in diabetes is associated with impaired glucagon secretion. Here we tested whether stimulation of GPR119, a G-protein coupled receptor expressed in pancreatic islet as well as enteroendocrine cells, and previously shown to stimulate insulin and incretin secretion might enhance glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia. In the study, GPR119 agonists were applied to isolated islets or perfused pancreata perfusions to assess insulin and glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia or hyperglycemic conditions...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes
Yan Zhou, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Addictive diseases, including addiction to alcohol pose massive public health costs. Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease, caused by both the direct effects induced by drugs and persistent neuroadaptations at several (molecular, cellular and behavioral) levels. These drug-type specific neuro-adaptations are brought on largely by the reinforcing effects of drugs on the central nervous system and environment, including stress. Results from animal experiments have demonstrated important interactions between alcohol and the stress responsive systems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Yijun Chai, Leli Yang, Hang Zheng, Wuyou Wang, Hualin Fu, Min He, Xiangming Huang, Zhicai Zuo, Ya Wang, Suizhong Cao, Haifeng Liu, Xiaoping Ma, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most commonly identified microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in livestock, birds, rodents, reptiles, companion animals, even wastewater. However, there is no information available on occurrence of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks. The aim of the present study was to determine the genotypes, molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks, and assess the zoonotic potential. RESULTS: A total of 279 fecal specimens were collected from chipmunks from seven pet shops and one breeding facility in Sichuan province, China...
April 18, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Victoria Luine, Peter Serrano, Maya Frankfurt
Rapid, neurosteroid-like effects of estrogens on memory consolidation during recognition memory tasks in both male and female rodents are described. We discuss how these mnemonic changes are related to rapid estrogenic effects on dendritic spine density, the distribution of spine types and the expression of PSD95 and GluA2 within spines in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, two areas critical for learning and memory. Overall, these data lead to the conclusion that estrogens are capable of exerting rapid and potent influences on memory and spine morphology in both sexes...
April 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Andreas Zeller, Stefan Pfuhler, Silvio Albertini, Frank Bringezu, Andreas Czich, Yasmin Dietz, Rolf Fautz, Nicola J Hewitt, Annette Kirst, Peter Kasper
Genotoxicity testing is an important part of standard safety testing strategies. Animal studies have always been a key component, either as a mandatory part of the regulatory test battery, or to follow-up questionable in vitro findings. The strengths and weaknesses of in vivo assays is a continuous matter of debate, including their capacity to predict (human) carcinogenicity. We have therefore analysed the sensitivity of five routinely used in vivo tests to determine, in addition to other aspects, which tests or combination of tests best identify 73 chemicals classified as IARC Group 1 and 2A carcinogens...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Eef Dries, Demetrio J Santiago, Guillaume Gilbert, Ilse Lenaerts, Bert Vandenberk, Chandan K Nagaraju, Daniel M Johnson, Patricia Holemans, H Llewelyn Roderick, Niall Macquaide, Piet Claus, Karin R Sipido
Aims: In ventricular myocytes from humans and large mammals, the transverse and axial tubular system (TATS) network is less extensive than in rodents with consequently a greater proportion of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) not coupled to this membrane system. TATS remodeling in heart failure (HF) and after myocardial infarction (MI) increases the fraction of non-coupled RyR. Here we investigate whether this remodeling alters the activity of coupled and non-coupled RyR sub-populations through changes in local signaling...
April 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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