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Rodent studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535566/the-analgesic-effects-of-celecoxib-on-the-formalin-induced-short-and-long-term-inflammatory-pain
#1
Ya-Qun Zhao, Hai-Yan Wang, Jun-Bin Yin, Yan Sun, Yong Wang, Jin-Chuan Liang, Xiao-Ju Guo, Ke Tang, Yu-Tong Wang
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib has long been used for reducing pain, in spite of moderate gastrointestinal side effects. In previous studies, it has been shown that celecoxib can inhibit formalin-induced spontaneous pain and secondary hyperalgesia. Injecting formalin into a rodent's hind paw not only induces acute pain behaviors, but also produces long-lasting hyperalgesia. Whether celecoxib can also have long-lasting effects is still unknown. Our results show that pretreatment with an intraperitoneal injection of celecoxib at one hour before formalin injection induced inhibition on the spontaneous flinch and licking behaviors in the second phase but not the first phase...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534852/effects-of-ketogenic-diets-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-evidence-from-animal-and-human-studies
#2
REVIEW
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533756/guinea-pig-oxygen-sensing-and-carotid-body-functional-properties
#3
Elvira Gonzalez-Obeso, Inmaculada Docio, Elena Olea, Angel Cogolludo, Ana Obeso, Asuncion Rocher, Angela Gomez-Niño
Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533752/protocatechuic-acid-a-phenolic-from-sansevieria-roxburghiana-leaves-suppresses-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-stimulating-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-oxidative-stress-and-inhibiting-inflammation
#4
Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ritu Khanra, Swarnalata Joardar, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycemia, impairment of redox status and establishment of inflammatory pathophysiology integrally play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of protocatechuic acid isolated from the Sansevieria roxburghiana rhizomes against DC employing rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by high fat diet + a low-single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). T2D rats exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high fasting blood glucose level...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533546/prostaglandin-e2-inhibits-matrix-mineralization-by-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-derived-osteoblasts-via-epac-dependent-camp-signaling
#5
Ali Mirsaidi, André N Tiaden, Peter J Richards
The osteoinductive properties of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its signaling pathways have led to suggestions that it may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for bone loss. However, the prominence of PGE2 as an inducer of bone formation is attributed primarily to findings from studies using rodent models. In the current study, we investigated the effects of PGE2 on human bone marrow stromal cell (hBMSC) lineage commitment and determined its mode of action. We demonstrated that PGE2 treatment of hBMSCs significantly altered the expression profile of several genes associated with osteoblast differentiation (RUNX2 and ALP) and maturation (BGLAP and MGP)...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533392/syringe-injectable-mesh-electronics-integrate-seamlessly-with-minimal-chronic-immune-response-in-the-brain
#6
Tao Zhou, Guosong Hong, Tian-Ming Fu, Xiao Yang, Thomas G Schuhmann, Robert D Viveros, Charles M Lieber
Implantation of electrical probes into the brain has been central to both neuroscience research and biomedical applications, although conventional probes induce gliosis in surrounding tissue. We recently reported ultraflexible open mesh electronics implanted into rodent brains by syringe injection that exhibit promising chronic tissue response and recording stability. Here we report time-dependent histology studies of the mesh electronics/brain-tissue interface obtained from sections perpendicular and parallel to probe long axis, as well as studies of conventional flexible thin-film probes...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532421/glutamate-excitotoxicity-induced-by-orally-administered-propionic-acid-a-short-chain-fatty-acid-can-be-ameliorated-by-bee-pollen
#7
Afaf El-Ansary, Huda S Al-Salem, Alqahtani Asma, Abeer Al-Dbass
BACKGROUND: Rodent models may guide investigations towards identifying either environmental neuro-toxicants or drugs with neuro-therapeutic effects. This work aims to study the therapeutic effects of bee pollen on brain glutamate excitotoxicity and the impaired glutamine-glutamate- gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) circuit induced by propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid, in rat pups. METHODS: Twenty-four young male Western Albino rats 3-4 weeks of age, and 45-60 g body weight were enrolled in the present study...
May 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#8
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531179/the-gingival-vein-as-a-minimally-traumatic-site-for-multiple-blood-sampling-in-guinea-pigs-and-hamsters
#9
Mariana Valotta Rodrigues, Simone Oliveira de Castro, Cynthia Zaccanini de Albuquerque, Vânia Gomes de Moura Mattaraia, Marcelo Larami Santoro
Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531172/experimental-evaluation-of-cryopreservative-solutions-to-maintain-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-infectivity-of-p-berghei-sporozoites
#10
Naresh Singh, Samantha J Barnes, Sandra Kennedy, John H Adams
The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is an excellent model organism for laboratory-based experimental evaluation of anti-malarial therapeutics prior to studies with human malaria parasites. The rodent model is especially important for evaluation of pre-erythrocytic (PE) stage therapies, especially as current efforts to develop new PE vaccines and drugs is limited by access to P. falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites. Developing a more effective method for cryopreservation of sporozoites would help improve access to sporozoites for laboratories lacking suitable insectary facilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530530/is-fish-oil-a-potential-treatment-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#11
Mark Anthony Yorek
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy affects about 50% of the diabetic population. The manifestations range from pain, numbness, paresthesia and ulceration in the extremities and it is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. Currently there is no effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy. With the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes and associated complications reaching epidemic levels there is a critical need for finding a treatment to preserve nerve function. INTRODUCTION: This article will review the potential for fish oil as a treatment for diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
May 22, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530125/pro-inflammatory-activation-of-primary-microglia-and-macrophages-increases-18%C3%A2-kda-translocator-protein-expression-in-rodents-but-not-humans
#12
David R Owen, Nehal Narayan, Lisa Wells, Luke Healy, Erica Smyth, Eugenii A Rabiner, Dylan Galloway, John B Williams, Joshua Lehr, Harpreet Mandhair, Laura An Peferoen, Peter C Taylor, Sandra Amor, Jack P Antel, Paul M Matthews, Craig S Moore
The 18kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) is the most commonly used tissue-specific marker of inflammation in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. It is expressed in myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages, and in rodent myeloid cells expression increases with cellular activation. We assessed the effect of myeloid cell activation on TSPO gene expression in both primary human and rodent microglia and macrophages in vitro, and also measured TSPO radioligand binding with (3)H-PBR28 in primary human macrophages...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529944/optimization-of-time-for-neural-stem-cells-transplantation-for-brain-stroke-in-rats
#13
Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Parisa Tabeshmehr, Khawaja Husnain Haider, Majidreza Farrokhi, Abdolhamid Shariat, Atena Amiri, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging data in terms of neurological outcome, stem cell based therapy for ischemic stroke in experimental models and human patients is still hampered by multiple as yet un-optimized variables, i.e., time of intervention, that significantly influence the prognosis. The aim of the present study was to delineate the optimum time for neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The NSCs were isolated from 14 days embryo rat ganglion eminence and were cultured in NSA medium (neurobasal medium, 2% B27, 1% N2, bFGF 10 ng/mL, EGF 20 ng/mL and 1% pen/strep)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529879/beyond-the-raccoon-roundworm-the-natural-history-of-non-raccoon-baylisascaris-species-in-the-new-world
#14
REVIEW
Sarah G H Sapp, Pooja Gupta, Melissa K Martin, Maureen H Murray, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Madeleine A Pfaff, Michael J Yabsley
A total of 10 species of Baylisascaris, a genus of ascaridoid nematodes, occur worldwide and 6 of them occur in the New World. Most of the Baylisascaris species have a similar life cycle with carnivorous mammals or marsupials serving as definitive hosts and a smaller prey host serving as paratenic (or intermediate) hosts. However, one species in rodents is unique in that it only has one host. Considerable research has been conducted on B. procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, as it is a well-known cause of severe to fatal neurologic disease in humans and many wildlife species...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529840/adoptive-cell-therapy-with-tregs-to-improve-transplant-outcomes-the-promise-and-the-stumbling-blocks
#15
Mohamed B Ezzelarab, Angus W Thomson
The contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) to the induction and maintenance of tolerance is well-recognized in rodents and may contribute to long-term human organ allograft survival. The therapeutic efficacy of adoptively-transferred Treg in promoting tolerance to organ allografts is well-recognized in mouse models. Early phase 1/2 clinical studies of Treg therapy have been conducted in patients with type-1 (autoimmune) diabetes and refractory Crohn's disease, and for inhibition of graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation with proven safety...
December 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528963/neuronal-activity-patterns-in-the-developing-barrel-cortex
#16
Heiko J Luhmann, Rustem Khazipov
The developing barrel cortex reveals a rich repertoire of neuronal activity patterns, which have been also found in other sensory neocortical areas and in other species including the somatosensory cortex of preterm human infants. The earliest stage is characterized by asynchronous, sparse single cell firing at low frequencies. During the second stage neurons show correlated firing, which is initially mediated by electrical synapses and subsequently transforms into network bursts depending on chemical synapses...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#17
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527957/streptozotocin-alters-glucose-transport-connexin-expression-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-functions-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#18
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sarika Singh
The study was undertaken to explore the cell specific streptozotocin (STZ) induced mechanistic alterations. STZ induced rodent model is a well established experimental model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in our previous studies we have established it as an in vitro screening model of AD by employing N2A neuronal cells. Therefore, STZ was selected in the present study to understand the STZ induced cell specific alterations by utilizing neuronal N2A and astrocytes C6 cells. Both neuronal and astrocyte cells were treated with STZ at 10, 50, 100 and 1000μM concentration for 48 h...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527907/behavioral-and-cognitive-impact-of-early-life-stress-insights-from-an-animal-model
#19
Hesong Liu, Fatin Atrooz, Ankita Salvi, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages...
May 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527690/testing-cognitive-functions-in-rodent-disease-models-present-pitfalls-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Heikki Tanila
Testing of cognitive functions in rodent disease models constitutes a substantial sector of behavioral neuroscience. It is most often needed in phenotyping genetically modified new rodent (usually mouse) lines or in preclinical testing of cognitive effects of new CNS drugs. This review concerns present pitfalls and future perspectives in this large field, with an emphasis on memory testing in CNS disease models and their preclinical drug testing. It is important to realize that no behavioral test is specific for a single cognitive domain...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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