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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647853/are-podocytes-motile
#1
REVIEW
Nicole Endlich, Florian Siegerist, Karlhans Endlich
Podocytes, the postmitotic and highly branched epithelial cells of the glomerulus, play a pivotal role for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of chronic kidney disease. It has long been discussed whether podocytes in vivo are motile and can laterally migrate in a coordinated way along the capillaries until they reach the position of naked glomerular basement membrane often found in podocytopathies. Such motility would also be the prerequisite for the replacement of lost podocytes by progenitor cells...
June 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647678/methyl-jasmonate-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behaviour-in-mice
#2
Adaeze Adebesin, Olusegun A Adeoluwa, Anthony T Eduviere, Solomon Umukoro
Depression is a recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and impact negatively on the patients' social functions and quality of life. Studies have shown that i.p injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior in rodents via induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), an isolated compound from jasmine plant has gained reputation in aromatherapy for treatment of depression, nervousness and memory deficits. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of MJ on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647288/gap-junctions-pannexins-and-pain
#3
REVIEW
David C Spray, Menachem Hanani
Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels has been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646742/image-analysis-for-tsh-mrna-in-situ-hybridization-in-pituitary-glands-from-rats-with-thyroid-follicular-cell-hypertrophy-after-treatment-with-three-different-test-compounds
#4
Juergen Funk, Martin Ebeling, Thomas Singer, Christian Landes
The goal of this in situ hybridization and image analysis technique is to study the effects of new pharmacological/chemical entities on the thyroid and pituitary gland in rats, reveal the pathogenesis of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy and to retrospectively exclude the risk of thyroid tumor development in humans. In the present study, we describe the increase of thyroid-stimulating hormone- (TSH-) beta subunit mRNA in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland and the quantitative measurement of TSH mRNA positive cells from rats of three 4-week toxicity studies treated with three different test compounds inducing thyroid follicular cell and hepatocellular hypertrophy in rats...
June 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#5
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646272/rhesus-cochlear-and-vestibular-functions-are-preserved-after-inner-ear-injection-of-saline-volume-sufficient-for-gene-therapy-delivery
#6
Chenkai Dai, Mohamed Lehar, Daniel Q Sun, Lani Swarthout Rvt, John P Carey, Tim MacLachlan, Doug Brough, Hinrich Staecker, Alexandra M Della Santina, Timothy E Hullar, Charles C Della Santina
Sensorineural losses of hearing and vestibular sensation due to hair cell dysfunction are among the most common disabilities. Recent preclinical research demonstrates that treatment of the inner ear with a variety of compounds, including gene therapy agents, may elicit regeneration and/or repair of hair cells in animals exposed to ototoxic medications or other insults to the inner ear. Delivery of gene therapy may also offer a means for treatment of hereditary hearing loss. However, injection of a fluid volume sufficient to deliver an adequate dose of a pharmacologic agent could, in theory, cause inner ear trauma that compromises functional outcome...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645248/characterizing-the-reproductive-transcriptomic-correlates-of-acute-dehydration-in-males-in-the-desert-adapted-rodent-peromyscus-eremicus
#7
Lauren Kordonowy, Matthew MacManes
BACKGROUND: The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645186/igf-i-gene-therapy-in-aging-rats-modulates-hippocampal-genes-relevant-to-memory-function
#8
Joaquín Pardo, Martin C Abba, Ezequiel Lacunza, Olalekan M Ogundele, Isabel Paiva, Gustavo R Morel, Tiago F Outeiro, Rodolfo G Goya
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome...
June 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644985/depressive-like-behavior-is-elevated-among-offspring-of-parents-exposed-to-dim-light-at-night-prior-to-mating
#9
Yasmine M Cissé, Kathryn L G Russart, Randy J Nelson
Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) have steadily increased over the past 50 years. Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of depressive disorders and environmental influences are being increasingly recognized. The increase in depression rates has coincided with increased artificial nighttime lighting. Exposure to light at night (LAN) has been associated with increased depressive-like behavior in rodents and decreased mood in humans. However, relatively little is known on the multigenerational effects of dLAN on affect...
June 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644741/ras-signaling-regulates-stem-cells-and-amelogenesis-in-the-mouse-incisor
#10
X Zheng, A F Goodwin, H Tian, A H Jheon, O D Klein
The role of Ras signaling during tooth development is poorly understood. Ras proteins-which are activated by many upstream pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase cascades-signal through multiple effectors, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Here, we utilized the mouse incisor as a model to study how the MAPK and PI3K pathways regulate dental epithelial stem cells and amelogenesis. The rodent incisor-which grows continuously throughout the life of the animal due to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells-provides a model for the study of ectodermal organ renewal and regeneration...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643903/resolving-differences-between-animal-models-for-expedited-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#11
A Y Ibrahim, S Gudhimella, S N Pandruvada, S S Huja
OBJECTIVE: To highlight differences in commonly used animal models of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: A critical review of the literature on animal models has become increasingly important in the last decade as methods to increase the rate of tooth movement have been intensely sought. We provide a review focusing on the rodent and canine models for expedited OTM and describe the challenges in extrapolation of the results to the clinical practice of orthodontics...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#12
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#13
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641389/acute-tryptophan-depletion-the-first-method-validation-in-an-avian-species-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#14
Patrick Birkl, Joergen B Kjaer, William Szkotnicki, Paul Forsythe, Alexandra Harlander-Matauschek
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a valuable non-invasive nutritional tool in human and rodent research to study dysfunctions of the serotonergic system and related behavioral disorders. Serotonergic dysfunction is thought to be involved in the pathology of feather pecking behavior of laying hens, one of the most relevant welfare and production issues in modern intensive egg-production systems. ATD temporarily compromises the influx of tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier which reduces central availability of TRP, the substrate for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis...
June 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641377/paternal-care-in-biparental-rodents-intra-and-inter-individual-variation
#15
Wendy Saltzman, Breanna N Harris, Trynke R De Jong, Juan P Perea-Rodriguez, Nathan D Horrell, Meng Zhao, Jacob R Andrew
Parental care by fathers, although rare among mmmals, can be essential for the survival and normal development of offspring in biparental species. A growing body of research on biparental rodents has identified several developmental and experiential influences on paternal responsiveness. Some of these factors, such as pubertal maturation, interactions with pups, and cues from a pregnant mate, contribute to pronounced changes in paternal responsiveness across the course of the lifetime in individual males. Others, particularly intrauterine position during gestation and parental care received during postnatal development, can have long-term effects on paternal behavior and contribute to stable differences among individuals within a species...
June 21, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640917/human-hantavirus-infection-elicits-pronounced-redistribution-of-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-peripheral-blood-and-airways
#16
Saskia Scholz, Faezzah Baharom, Gregory Rankin, Kimia T Maleki, Shawon Gupta, Sindhu Vangeti, Jamshid Pourazar, Andrea Discacciati, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Niklas K Björkström, Johan Rasmuson, Magnus Evander, Anders Blomberg, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Jonas Klingström, Clas Ahlm, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640857/glucose-dysregulation-and-response-to-common-anti-diabetic-agents-in-the-fatzo-pco-mouse
#17
Richard G Peterson, Charles Van Jackson, Karen M Zimmerman, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, M Dodson Michael, Paul J Emmerson, Tamer Coskun
The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Given that obesity and its sequelae in humans are polygenic in nature and not associated with leptin signaling defects, the FATZO mouse may represent a more translatable rodent model for study of obesity and its associated metabolic disturbances...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638481/neonatal-heart-enriched-mir-708-promotes-proliferation-and-stress-resistance-of-cardiomyocytes-in-rodents
#18
Shengqiong Deng, Qian Zhao, Lixiao Zhen, Chuyi Zhang, Cuicui Liu, Guangxue Wang, Lin Zhang, Luer Bao, Ying Lu, Lingyu Meng, Jinhui Lü, Ping Yu, Xin Lin, Yuzhen Zhang, Yi-Han Chen, Huimin Fan, William C Cho, Zhongmin Liu, Zuoren Yu
Adult heart has limited potential for regeneration after pathological injury due to the limited cell proliferation of cardiomyocytes and the quiescent status of progenitor cells. As such, induction of cell-cycle reentry of cardiomyocytes is one of the key strategies for regeneration of damaged heart. In this study, a subset of miRNAs including miR-708 were identified to be much more abundant in the embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes than that in adult rodents. Overexpression of miR-708 promoted cellular proliferation of H9C2 cells or primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats or mice in vitro...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638119/neuroimmunology-and-neuroepigenetics-in-the-establishment-of-sex-differences-in-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Bridget M Nugent, Kathryn M Lenz
The study of sex differences in the brain is a topic of neuroscientific study that has broad reaching implications for culture, society and biomedical science. Recent research in rodent models has led to dramatic shifts in our views of the mechanisms underlying the sexual differentiation of the brain. These include the surprising discoveries of a role for immune cells and inflammatory mediators in brain masculinization and a role for epigenetic suppression in brain feminization. How and to what degree these findings will translate to human brain development will be questions of central importance in future research in this field...
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638105/high-efficacy-in-vitro-selection-procedure-for-generating-transgenic-parasites-of-plasmodium-berghei-using-an-antibiotic-toxic-to-rodent-hosts
#20
Akira Soga, Hironori Bando, Mami Ko-Ketsu, Hirono Masuda-Suganuma, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu, Shinya Fukumoto
The malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is one of the main rodent malaria models. A shortcoming of this model parasite is its low flexibility in genetic manipulation. As this parasite cannot be continuously propagated in cell cultures, in vivo drug selection procedures are necessary to isolate genetic mutants. Drugs harmful to rodents therefore cannot be used for drug selection, which restricts the range of genetic manipulation. In this study, we addressed this problem by establishing a novel in vitro culture drug selection method, which we used in combination with other established methods to successfully isolate genetically manipulated parasites...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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