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Rodent studies

Elżbieta Lorenc-Koci, Anna Czarnecka, Kinga Kamińska, Joanna Knutelska, Małgorzata Zygmunt, Magdalena Dudek
BACKGROUND: Interaction between dopaminergic and nitrergic neurotransmission in the brain plays a crucial role in the control of motor function and in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic denervation of the striatum leads to disturbances in the nitrergic system in the basal ganglia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that addition of a low dose of the nitric oxide donor molsidomine to l-DOPA therapy improves dopaminergic neurotransmission in the denervated nigrostriatal system and weakens dyskinesias in rodent models of the disease...
September 28, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Alissa J Brown, Douglas H Deutschman, Jessica Braswell, Dana McLaughlin
Granivorous animals may prefer to predate or cache seed of certain plant species over others. Multiple studies have documented preference for larger, non-native seed by granivores. To accomplish this, researchers have traditionally used indirect inference by relating patterns of seed removal to the species composition of the granivorous animal community. To measure seed removal, researchers present seed to granivorous animals in the field using equipment intended to exclude certain animal taxa while permitting access to others...
2016: PloS One
Ruyi Huang, Serapio M Baca, Jason W Worrell, Xingquan Liu, Yeji Seo, James C Leiter, Daniel C Lu
Respiration is produced and controlled by well-characterized brainstem nuclei, but the contributions of spinal circuits to respiratory control and modulation remain under investigation. Many respiratory studies are conducted in in vitro preparations (e.g., brainstem slice) obtained from neonatal rodents. While informative, these studies do not fully recapitulate the complex afferent and efferent neural circuits that are likely to be involved in eupnea (i.e., quiet breathing). To begin to investigate spinal contributions to respiration, we electrically stimulated the cervical spinal cord during unassisted respiration in anesthetized, intact mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Rüdiger Hardeland
Dynamic aspects of melatonin's actions merit increasing future attention. This concerns particularly entirely different effects in senescent, weakened oscillators and in dysregulated oscillators of cancer cells that may be epigenetically blocked. This is especially obvious in the case of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) which is upregulated by melatonin in aged tissues, but strongly downregulated in several cancer cells. These findings are not at all controversial, but are explained on the basis of divergent changes in weakened and dysregulated oscillators...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Amanda McGuire, Kaitlyn Miedema, Joseph R Fauver, Amber Rico, Tawfik Aboellail, Sandra L Quackenbush, Ann Hawkinson, Tony Schountz
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
K T Desai, F Patel, P B Patel, S Nayak, N B Patel, R K Bansal
BACKGROUND: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. METHODS: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joceline S Liu, Matthew I Bury, Natalie J Fuller, Renea M Sturm, Nida Ahmad, Arun K Sharma
Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Tongzhi Wu, Cong Xie, Hang Wu, Karen L Jones, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner
In rodents, metformin slows intestinal glucose absorption, potentially increasing exposure of the distal gut to glucose to enhance postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. We evaluated the effects of metformin on serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG, a marker of glucose absorption) and plasma total GLP-1 concentrations during a standardised intraduodenal infusion of glucose and 3-OMG in patients with type 2 diabetes. 12 patients, treated with metformin 850 mg bd or placebo each for 7 days in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design (14 days 'washout' between treatments), were evaluated on days 5 or 8 of each treatment (6 each)...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Juan Pablo Amaya, Juan I Areta, Veronica S Valentinuzzi, Emmanuel Zufiaurre
The underground environment poses particular communication challenges for subterranean rodents. Some loud and low-pitched acoustic signals that can travel long distances are appropriate for long-range underground communication and have been suggested to be territorial signals. Long-range vocalizations (LRVs) are important in long-distance communication in Ctenomys tuco-tucos. We characterized the LRV of the Anillaco Tuco-Tuco (Ctenomys sp.) using recordings from free-living individuals and described the behavioral context in which this vocalization was produced during laboratory staged encounters between individuals of both sexes...
2016: PeerJ
Samuel Ginot, Lionel Hautier, Laurent Marivaux, Monique Vianey-Liaud
Studies linking postcranial morphology with locomotion in mammals are common. However, such studies are mostly restricted to caviomorphs in rodents. We present here data from various families, belonging to the three main groups of rodents (Sciuroidea, Myodonta, and Ctenohystrica). The aim of this study is to define morphological indicators for the astragalus and calcaneus, which allow for inferences to be made about the locomotor behaviours in rodents. Several specimens were dissected and described to bridge the myology of the leg with the morphology of the bones of interest...
2016: PeerJ
Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Animals
Margaret M Brosnahan, Emily J Silvela, Jessica Crumb, Donald C Miller, Hollis N Erb, Douglas F Antczak
Invasive trophoblast from Day-34 horse conceptuses survives in extra-uterine sites in allogeneic recipients that are immunologically naïve to donor major histocompatibility complex class I antigens. The ectopic trophoblast retains its in utero characteristics, including similar lifespan, physiologic effect of its secreted product (equine chorionic gonadotrophin) upon the recipient's ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not been considered previously in this experimental system...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Rocío López-Posadas, Cristina Mascaraque, Raquel González, María D Suárez, Antonio Zarzuelo, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
BACKGROUND: Statins have antiinflammatory effects at the cardiovascular level because of inhibition of prenylation, which also probably underlies their therapeutic effects in preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Another inhibitor of prenylation, namely alendronate, reduces colitis in rodents. In this study, we aim to explore the therapeutic potential of second-generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in 3 preclinical models of colitis. METHODS: The trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and dextran sulfate sodium models of rat colitis and the adoptive lymphocyte transfer model of colitis in mice were used...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
G Kerckhofs, M Durand, R Vangoitsenhoven, C Marin, B Van der Schueren, G Carmeliet, F P Luyten, L Geris, K Vandamme
High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shu Nu Chang-Lee, Hsi-Hsien Hsu, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Tsung-Jung Ho, Chih-Hao Tsai, Ming-Cheng Chen, Chuan-Chou Tu, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei- Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily involved in hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. In previous studies on liver tumor tissues, PPARα mRNA expression was found to be significantly higher and overexpression of ERα inhibited the PPARα expression, cell-proliferation and also induced apoptosis in Hep3B cell. However, the role of ERβ is not known yet. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define the role of ERβ on PPARα in Hep3B cells. The effect of PPARα signaling cascade were monitored by inducing Hep3B cells by fenofibrate...
October 18, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
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