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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#1
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
July 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734063/atp-and-astrocytes-play-a-prominent-role-in-the-control-of-the-respiratory-pattern-generator-in-the-lamprey
#2
Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Donatella Mutolo
The role of ATP and astrocytes in respiratory rhythm modulation has been recently investigated in neonatal rodents. However, no information on the role of ATP and astrocytes within the respiratory network of the lamprey is available, particularly within the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory central pattern generator. To address these issues, the present study was carried out on isolated brainstems of the adult lamprey. Bath application of ATP caused marked increases in respiratory frequency followed by decreases in the respiratory motor output, mediated by the ATP metabolite adenosine at the level of the pTRG...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729967/tesevatinib-ameliorates-progression-of-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-rodent-models-of-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease
#3
William E Sweeney, Philip Frost, Ellis D Avner
AIM: To investigate the therapeutic potential of tesevatinib (TSV), a unique multi-kinase inhibitor currently in Phase II clinical trials for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), in well-defined rodent models of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). METHODS: We administered TSV in daily doses of 7.5 and 15 mg/kg per day by I.P. to the well characterized bpk model of polycystic kidney disease starting at postnatal day (PN) 4 through PN21 to assess efficacy and toxicity in neonatal mice during postnatal development and still undergoing renal maturation...
July 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729672/plasmodium-berghei-p47-is-essential-for-ookinete-protection-from-the-anopheles-gambiae-complement-like-response
#4
Chiamaka Valerie Ukegbu, Maria Giorgalli, Hassan Yassine, Jose Luis Ramirez, Chrysanthi Taxiarchi, Carolina Barillas-Mury, George K Christophides, Dina Vlachou
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease affecting millions of people every year. The rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei has served as a model for human malaria transmission studies and played a pivotal role in dissecting the mosquito immune response against infection. The 6-cysteine protein P47, known to be important for P. berghei female gamete fertility, is shown to serve a different function in Plasmodium falciparum, protecting ookinetes from the mosquito immune response. Here, we investigate the function of P...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729647/neural-determinants-of-human-goal-directed-vs-habitual-action-control-and-their-relation-to-trait-motivation
#5
Hamdi Eryilmaz, Anais Rodriguez-Thompson, Alexandra S Tanner, Madeline Giegold, Franklin C Huntington, Joshua L Roffman
Instrumental learning is mediated by goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729245/a-novel-mouse-model-of-radiation-induced-cancer-survivorship-diseases-of-the-gut
#6
Cecilia Magdalena Bull, Dilip Malipatlolla, Marie Kalm, Fei Sjöberg, Eleftheria Alevronta, Rita Grandér, Pedram Sultanian, Linda Persson, Martina Boström, Yohanna Eriksson, John Swanpalmer, Agnes E Wold, Klas Blomgren, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Gunnar Steineck
A deeper understanding of the radiation-induced pathophysiological processes that develop in the gut is imperative in order to prevent, alleviate or eliminate cancer survivorship diseases after radiotherapy to the pelvic area. Most rodent models of high-dose gastrointestinal radiation injury are limited by high mortality. We therefore established a model that allows for the delivering of radiation in fractions at high doses, while maintaining long-term survival. Adult male C57/BL6 mice were exposed to small-field irradiation, restricted to 1,5 cm of the colorectum using a linear accelerator...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728557/the-impact-of-illegal-waste-sites-on-a-transmission-of-zoonotic-viruses
#7
Darja Duh, Sandra Hasic, Elena Buzan
BACKGROUND: Illegal waste disposal impacts public health and causes aesthetic and environmental pollution. Waste disposed in places without permitted and controlled facilities can provide a ready source of nutrition and shelter for rodents and thus promote the spread of their ecto- and endoparasites. The presence of two distinct zoonotic viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), was searched at illegal waste sites. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with both viruses in rodents and to discuss the virus-rodent relations in such environments...
July 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727854/toxoplasma-gondii-entry-association-and-physiological-influence-on-the-central-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Oscar A Mendez, Anita A Koshy
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the world's most successful parasites, in part because of its ability to infect and persist in most warm-blooded animals. A unique characteristic of T. gondii is its ability to persist in the central nervous system (CNS) of a variety of hosts, including humans and rodents. How, what, and why T. gondii encysts in the CNS has been the topic of study for decades. In this review, we will discuss recent work on how T. gondii is able to traverse the unique barrier surrounding the CNS, what cells of the CNS play host to T...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727839/cardiac-autonomic-modulation-induced-by-doxorubicin-in-a-rodent-model-of-colorectal-cancer-and-the-influence-of-fullerenol-pretreatment
#9
Nejka Potočnik, Martina Perše, Anton Cerar, Rade Injac, Žarko Finderle
The very effective anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is known to have cardiotoxic side effects, which could be accompanied by autonomic modulation. Autonomic disbalance might even be an initiating mechanism underlying DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and can be studied noninvasively by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). A number of strategies have been assessed to predict chemotherapy-induced cardiac dysfunction while HRV, a potential detecting tool, has not yet been tested. Thus, we aimed to determine the effect of DOX treatment on HRV in a rat model of colorectal cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727809/optical-modelling-of-a-supplementary-tunable-air-spaced-goggle-lens-for-rodent-eye-imaging
#10
Elie de Lestrange-Anginieur, Xiaoyun Jiang, Qiushi Ren
Aberration variations severely degrade retinal imaging in small animal eyes. Previously, the approach of a goggle lens with a matching corneal index was proposed to overcome the on-axis resolution limit of static imaging systems, which allows the use of the full eye pupil. But this technique didn't address the problem of the large power variation, and the ensuing aberration on and off-axis, when dealing with small animal eyes. In this study, we present the concept of a tunable goggle lens, designed to compensate individual ocular aberration for different rodent eye powers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727808/automatic-mouse-ultrasound-detector-a-mud-a-new-tool-for-processing-rodent-vocalizations
#11
Sarah M Zala, Doris Reitschmidt, Anton Noll, Peter Balazs, Dustin J Penn
House mice (Mus musculus) emit complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during social and sexual interactions, which have features similar to bird song (i.e., they are composed of several different types of syllables, uttered in succession over time to form a pattern of sequences). Manually processing complex vocalization data is time-consuming and potentially subjective, and therefore, we developed an algorithm that automatically detects mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727234/kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-that-accumulates-with-age-induces-bone-loss
#12
Mona El Refaey, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Sadanand Fulzele, Eileen J Kennedy, Wendy B Bollag, Mohammed Elsalanty, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Nathaniel G Bendzunas, Xing-Ming Shi, Jianrui Xu, William D Hill, Maribeth H Johnson, Monte Hunter, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Age-dependent bone loss occurs in humans and in several animal species, including rodents. The underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, although an age-associated increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species has been frequently implicated. We previously reported that aromatic amino acids function as antioxidants and are anabolic for bone and that they may potentially play a protective role in an aging environment. We hypothesized that upon oxidation the aromatic amino acids would not only lose their anabolic effects but also potentially become a catabolic byproduct...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727221/scar-formation-following-excisional-and-burn-injuries-in-a-red-duroc-pig-model
#13
Britani N Blackstone, Jayne Y Kim, Kevin L McFarland, Chandan K Sen, Dorothy M Supp, J Kevin Bailey, Heather M Powell
Scar research is challenging because rodents do not naturally form excessive scars, and burn depth, size, and location cannot be controlled in human longitudinal studies. The female, red Duroc pig model has been shown to form robust scars with biological and anatomical similarities to human hypertrophic scars. To more closely mimic the mode of injury, recreate the complex chemical milieu of the burn wound environment and enhance scar development, an animal model of excessive burn-induced scarring was developed and compared with the more commonly used model, which involves excisional wounds created via dermatome...
July 20, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727015/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-related-to-bovine-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-the-longissimus-muscle
#14
M Baik, H J Kang, S J Park, S W Na, M Piao, S Y Kim, D M Fassah, Y S Moon
The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726849/o2-controllable-hydrogels-for-studying-cellular-responses-to-hypoxic-gradients-in-three-dimensions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Daniel M Lewis, Michael R Blatchley, Kyung Min Park, Sharon Gerecht
Oxygen (O2) acts as a potent upstream regulator of cell function. In both physiological and pathophysiological microenvironments, the O2 concentration is not uniformly distributed but instead follows a gradient that depends on distance from oxygen-carrying blood vessels. Such gradients have a particularly important role in development, tissue regeneration, and tumor growth. In this protocol, we describe how to use our previously reported gelatin-based O2-controllable hydrogels that can provide hypoxic microenvironments in vitro...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726801/accumbens-mechanisms-for-cued-sucrose-seeking
#16
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Michael Scofield, Victoria Chareunsouk, Cara Monforton, Peter W Kalivas
Many studies support a perspective that addictive drugs usurp brain circuits used by natural rewards, especially for the dopamine-dependent reinforcing qualities of both drugs and natural rewards. Reinstated drug seeking in animal models of relapse relies on glutamate spillover from cortical terminals synapsing in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) to stimulate metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) interneurons. Contrasting the release of dopamine that is shared by sucrose and drugs of abuse, reinstated sucrose seeking does not induce glutamate spillover...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726276/the-colonic-groove-of-the-plains-viscacha-lagostomus-maximus-histochemical-evidence-of-an-abrupt-change-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-goblet-cells
#17
María Florencia Tano de la Hoz, Mirta Alicia Flamini, Carolina Natalia Zanuzzi, Alcira Ofelia Díaz
The ascending colon of most rodent species shows a longitudinal colonic groove that works as a retrograde transport pathway for a mixture of bacteria and mucus toward the cecum. We describe the morphology and glycosylation pattern of the colonic groove of Lagostomus maximus to analyze the role of mucins in this anatomical feature. We also studied the distribution pattern of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) to evaluate their regulatory influence on gut motility. The groove originated near the cecocolic junction and extended along the mesenteric side of the ascending colon, limited at both ends by nonpapillated ridges...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726253/%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-7-containing-receptors-mediate-the-pro-proliferative-effects-of-nicotine-in-the-a549-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#18
Vanessa Mucchietto, Francesca Fasoli, Susanna Pucci, Milena Moretti, Roberta Benfante, Annalisa Maroli, Simona Di Lascio, Cristiano Bolchi, Marco Pallavicini, Cheryl Dowell, Michael McIntosh, Francesco Clementi, Cecilia Gotti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tobacco smoke contains many classes of carcinogens and although nicotine is unable to initiate tumorigenesis in humans and rodents, it promotes tumour growth and metastasis in lung tumours by acting on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to identify molecularly, biochemically and pharmacologically which nAChR subtypes are expressed and functionally activated by nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used A549 and H1975 adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from lung tumour to test the in vitro effects of nicotine, and nAChR subtype-specific peptides and compounds...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#19
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725891/fecal-excretion-of-maillard-reaction-products-and-the-gut-microbiota-composition-of-rats-fed-with-bread-crust-or-bread-crumb
#20
C Helou, P M Anton, C Niquet-Léridon, M Spatz, F J Tessier, P Gadonna-Widehem
A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
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