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Water metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145496/insights-into-soybean-transcriptome-reconfiguration-under-hypoxic-stress-functional-regulatory-structural-and-compositional-characterization
#1
Thiago J Nakayama, Fabiana A Rodrigues, Norman Neumaier, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Hugo B C Molinari, Thaís R Santiago, Eduardo F Formighieri, Marcos F Basso, José R B Farias, Beatriz M Emygdio, Ana C B de Oliveira, Ângela D Campos, Aluízio Borém, Frank G Harmon, Liliane M Mertz-Henning, Alexandre L Nepomuceno
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145131/removal-of-the-precursors-of-n-nitrosodiethylamine-ndea-an-emerging-disinfection-byproduct-in-drinking-water-treatment-process-and-its-toxicity-to-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Jian Zheng, Tao Lin, Wei Chen
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144418/nmr-based-identification-of-metabolites-in-polar-and-non-polar-extracts-of-avian-liver
#3
Fariba Fathi, Antonio Brun, Katherine H Rott, Paulo Falco Cobra, Marco Tonelli, Hamid R Eghbalnia, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov, John L Markley
Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1...
November 16, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143552/metabonomics-analysis-of-serum-from-rats-given-long-term-and-low-level-cadmium-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
Liyan Hu, Lu Bo, Meiyan Zhang, Siqi Li, Xiujuan Zhao, Changhao Sun
1. This study evaluated the toxicity of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium (Cd) in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups, namely, the control group, low-dose group (0.13 mg/kg·bw), middle-dose group (0.8 mg/kg·bw) and high-dose group (4.89 mg/kg·bw). The rats continuously received CdCl2 via drinking water for 24 weeks. Serum samples were collected for metabonomics analysis. The data generated from the UPLC-MS was analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)...
November 16, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143490/rock-glaciers-in-crystalline-catchments-hidden-permafrost-related-threats-to-alpine-headwater-lakes
#5
Boris P Ilyashuk, Elena A Ilyashuk, Roland Psenner, Richard Tessadri, Karin A Koinig
A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142420/exploring-the-cytotoxic-potential-of-triterpenoids-enriched-fraction-of-bacopa-monnieri-by-implementing-in-vitro-in-vivo-and-in-silico-approaches
#6
Md Nasar Mallick, Washim Khan, Rabea Parveen, Sayeed Ahmad, Sadaf, Mohammad Zeeshan Najm, Istaq Ahmad, Syed Akhtar Husain
Background: Bacopa monnieri (BM) is a herbaceous plant traditionally used from time immemorial in Ayurvedic and folklore medicines. We hypothesized that the extract of the whole plant might contain numerous molecules with having antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing of human cancer cells. Objectives: This work investigated anticancer activity of bioactive fraction of BM. Materials and Methods: The hydroalcoholic extract of BM was fractionated with different solvent, namely, hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), acetone, methanol, and water...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142111/can-birds-do-it-too-evidence-for-convergence-in-evaporative-water-loss-regulation-for-birds-and-mammals
#7
E C Eto, P C Withers, C E Cooper
Birds have many physiological characteristics that are convergent with mammals. In the light of recent evidence that mammals can maintain a constant insensible evaporative water loss (EWL) over a range of perturbing environmental conditions, we hypothesized that birds might also regulate insensible EWL, reflecting this convergence. We found that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) maintain EWL constant over a range of relative humidities at three ambient temperatures. EWL, expressed as a function of water vapour pressure deficit, differed from a physical model where the water vapour pressure deficit between the animal and the ambient air is the driver of evaporation, indicating physiological control of EWL...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142044/thermoregulatory-role-of-insensible-evaporative-water-loss-constancy-in-a-heterothermic-marsupial
#8
Christine Elizabeth Cooper, Philip Carew Withers
'Insensible' evaporative water loss of mammals has been traditionally viewed as a passive process, but recent studies suggest that insensible water loss is under regulatory control, although the physiological role of this control is unclear. We test the hypothesis that regulation of insensible water loss has a thermoregulatory function by quantifying for the first time evaporative water loss control, along with metabolic rate and body temperature, of a heterothermic mammal during normothermia and torpor. Evaporative water loss was independent of ambient relative humidity at ambient temperatures of 20 and 30°C, but not at 25°C or during torpor at 20°C...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141052/association-between-urinary-manganese-and-blood-pressure-results-from-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-2011-2014
#9
Cynthia Wu, Jessica G Woo, Nanhua Zhang
Manganese is a trace mineral required for metabolism, growth and tissue formation, and reproduction. It is mainly obtained through food and water, as well as through occupational exposure. This study used data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, combining the 2011-12 and 2013-14 cycles. We conducted linear regression analyses on urinary manganese and blood pressure. Significant negative associations (p<0.01) between urinary manganese and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure existed after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, race/ethnicity, and status of taking antihypertensive medication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141041/effects-of-a-mixed-berry-beverage-on-cognitive-functions-and-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-a-randomized-cross-over-study-in-healthy-older-adults
#10
Anne Nilsson, Ilkka Salo, Merichel Plaza, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND: Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF), may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes) or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#11
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139127/combined-transcriptome-and-translatome-analyses-reveal-a-role-for-tryptophan-dependent-auxin-biosynthesis-in-the-control-of-dog1-dependent-seed-dormancy
#12
Bing Bai, Ondřej Novák, Karin Ljung, Johannes Hanson, Leónie Bentsink
The importance of translational regulation during Arabidopsis seed germination has been shown previously. Here the role of transcriptional and translational regulation during seed imbibition of the very dormant DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) near-isogenic line was investigated. Polysome profiling was performed on dormant and after-ripened seeds imbibed for 6 and 24 h in water and in the transcription inhibitor cordycepin. Transcriptome and translatome changes were investigated. Ribosomal profiles of after-ripened seeds imbibed in cordycepin mimic those of dormant seeds...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138799/lychee-seed-extract-protects-against-neuronal-injury-and-improves-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-impairment
#13
Yong Tang, Chonglin Yu, Jianming Wu, Haixia Chen, Yuan Zeng, Xiuling Wang, Le Yang, Qibing Mei, Shousong Cao, Dalian Qin
Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β‑amyloid (Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract (LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#14
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138356/the-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-does-not-influence-lithium-induced-diabetes-insipidus-but-does-provoke-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#15
Kevin T Yang, Fei Wang, Xiaohan Lu, Kexin Peng, Tianxin Yang, J David Symons
Earlier we reported that the recombinant soluble (pro) renin receptor sPRR-His upregulates renal aquoporin-2 (AQP2) expression, and attenuates polyuria associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) induced by vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonism. Patients that receive lithium therapy develop polyuria associated NDI that might be secondary to downregulation of renal AQP2. We hypothesized that sPRR-His attenuates indices of NDI associated with lithium treatment. Eight-week-old male C57/BL6 mice consumed chow supplemented with LiCl (40 mmol/kg diets) for 14 days...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137890/exposure-to-the-fungicide-propamocarb-causes-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-disorder-in-mice
#16
Sisheng Wu, Cuiyuan Jin, Yueyi Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide with property of affecting fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis in funguses. In this study, we explored its effects on mice gut microbiota and metabolism by exposing mice to 3, 30, and 300 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 28 days. We observed that the transcription of hepatic genes related to regulate lipid metabolism were perturbed by PM exposure. The microbiota in the cecal contents and feces changed during or after PM exposure at phylum or genus levels...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#17
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136567/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-red-and-white-blooded-high-antarctic-notothenioid-fish-from-the-remote-weddell-sea
#18
Anneli Strobel, Peter Schmid, Patricia Burkhardt-Holm, Helmut Segner, Markus Zennegg
It has been suggested that High-Antarctic waters, despite their remoteness from human activities, are impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and that the local biota are accumulating the contaminants. At present, no data exist on persistent organic pollutant (POP) body burdens for notothenioid fish inhabiting the High-Antarctic Weddell Sea. We determined the pollutant load in white muscle tissue of red- and white-blooded notothenoids from the Weddell Sea (Trematomus loennbergii and Chionodraco hamatus, respectively), and compared them to our previous measurements of POPs in Low-Antarctic notothenioids...
November 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136518/evidence-of-co-metabolic-bentazone-transformation-by-methanotrophic-enrichment-from-a-groundwater-fed-rapid-sand-filter
#19
Mathilde J Hedegaard, Hélène Deliniere, Carsten Prasse, Arnaud Dechesne, Barth F Smets, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen
The herbicide bentazone is recalcitrant in aquifers and is therefore frequently detected in wells used for drinking water production. However, bentazone degradation has been observed in filter sand from a rapid sand filter at a waterworks with methane-rich groundwater. Here, the association between methane oxidation and removal of bentazone was investigated with a methanotrophic enrichment culture derived from methane-fed column reactors inoculated with that filter sand. Several independent lines of evidence obtained from microcosm experiments with the methanotrophic enrichment culture, tap water and bentazone at concentrations below 2 mg/L showed methanotrophic co-metabolic bentazone transformation: The culture removed 53% of the bentazone in 21 days in presence of 5 mg/L of methane, while only 31% was removed in absence of methane...
November 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134586/iron-chloride-flocculation-of-bacteriophages-from-seawater
#20
Bonnie T Poulos, Seth G John, Matthew B Sullivan
Viruses influence ecosystem dynamics by modulating microbial host population dynamics, evolutionary trajectories and metabolic outputs. While they are ecologically important across diverse ecosystems, viruses are challenging to study due to minimal biomass often obtained when sampling natural communities. Here we describe a technique using chemical flocculation, filtration and resuspension to recover bacteriophages from seawater and other natural waters. The method uses iron to precipitate viruses which are recovered by filtration onto large-pore size membranes and then resuspended using a buffer containing magnesium and a reductant (ascorbic acid or oxalic acid) at slightly acid pH (6-6...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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