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Water metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437772/shifts-in-soil-microbial-metabolic-activities-and-community-structures-along-a-salinity-gradient-of-irrigation-water-in-a-typical-arid-region-of-china
#1
Lijuan Chen, Changsheng Li, Qi Feng, Yongping Wei, Hang Zheng, Yan Zhao, Yongjiu Feng, Huiya Li
Saline water irrigation can change soil environment, which thereby influence soil microbial process. Based on a field experiment, the shifts in soil microbial metabolic activities and community structures under five irrigation salinities were studied using Biolog and metagenomic methods in this study. The results demonstrated that microbial metabolic activities were greatly restrained in saline water irrigated soils, as average well color development (AWCD) reduced under all saline water irrigation treatments...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437649/occurrences-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps-in-drinking-water-and-water-sewage-treatment-plants-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Yi Yang, Yong Sik Ok, Ki-Hyun Kim, Eilhann E Kwon, Yiu Fai Tsang
In recent years, many of micropollutants have been widely detected because of continuous input of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment and newly developed state-of-the-art analytical methods. PPCP residues are frequently detected in drinking water sources, sewage treatment plants (STPs), and water treatment plants (WTPs) due to their universal consumption, low human metabolic capability, and improper disposal. When partially metabolized PPCPs are transferred into STPs, they elicit negative effects on biological treatment processes; therefore, conventional STPs are insufficient when it comes to PPCP removal...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437605/aqueously-released-graphene-oxide-embedded-in-epoxy-resin-exhibits-different-characteristics-and-phytotoxicity-of-chlorella-vulgaris-from-the-pristine-form
#3
Xiangang Hu, Weilu Kang, Li Mu
The environmental release of nanoparticles is attracting increasing attention. Graphene oxide (GO) embedded in epoxy resin (ER) is a popular composite that has been used in various fields, but the environmental release of GO-ER composites and the effects on organisms in the environment remain unknown. The present work found that GO-ER composites in water for 2-7 days resulted in the release of 0.3-2.1% GO-ER at nanoscale (2-3 nm thickness and approximately 70-130 nm lateral length). Interestingly, pristine GO quenched 30-45% hydroxyl and 12% nitroxide free radicals, whereas this capacity was not observed for the released particles from GO-ER...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437447/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-car3-is-not-required-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-and-does-not-protect-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#4
Sarah W Renner, Lauren M Walker, Lawrence J Forsberg, Jonathan Z Sexton, Jay E Brenman
Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3) is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437263/a-randomised-trial-to-evaluate-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-administration-on-insulin-resistance-in-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-patients
#5
Bora Lee, Sarah Soh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Ha Y Kim, Hyelin Lee, Young-Lan Kwak
BACKGROUND: In fasting cardiac surgery patients, preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) drink intake attenuated insulin resistance and improved cardiac metabolism, although its beneficial effects were not evident after cardiac surgery possibly due to cardiopulmonary bypass-related extreme systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative CHO intake affected insulin resistance and free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations in off-pump coronary revascularisation...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436827/reductive-precipitation-of-sulfate-and-soluble-fe-iii-by-desulfovibrio-vulgaris-electron-donor-regulates-intracellular-electron-flow-and-nano-fes-crystallization
#6
Chen Zhou, Yun Zhou, Bruce E Rittmann
Fully understanding the metabolism of SRB provides fundamental guidelines for allowing the microorganisms to provide more beneficial services in water treatment and resource recovery. The electron-transfer pathway of sulfate respiration by Desulfovibrio vulgaris is well studied, but still partly unresolved. Here we provide deeper insight by comprehensively monitoring metabolite changes during D. vulgaris metabolism with two electron donors, lactate and pyruvate, in presence or absence of citrate-chelated soluble Fe(III) as an additional competing electron acceptor...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436616/reduced-infectivity-of-waterborne-viable-but-nonculturable-helicobacter-pylori-strain-ss1-in-mice
#7
Kevin F Boehnke, Kathryn A Eaton, Clinton Fontaine, Rebecca Brewster, Jianfeng Wu, Joseph N S Eisenberg, Manuel Valdivieso, Laurence H Baker, Chuanwu Xi
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne VBNCH. pylori could cause gastric infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed five mouse experiments to assess the infectivity of VBNCH...
April 24, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436444/transcriptome-profiling-of-sulfate-deprivation-responses-in-two-agarophytes-gracilaria-changii-and-gracilaria-salicornia-rhodophyta
#8
Wei-Kang Lee, Parameswari Namasivayam, Janna Ong Abdullah, Chai-Ling Ho
Seaweeds survive in marine waters with high sulfate concentration compared to those living at freshwater habitats. The cell wall polymer of Gracilaria spp. which supplies more than 50% of the world agar is heavily sulfated. Since sulfation reduces the agar quality, it is interesting to investigate the effects of sulfate deprivation on the sulfate contents of seaweed and agar, as well as the metabolic pathways of these seaweeds. In this study, two agarophytes G. changii and G. salicornia were treated under sulfate deprivation for 5 days...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#9
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#10
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431764/seasonal-monitoring-of-blue-mussel-mytilus-spp-populations-in-a-harbor-area-a-focus-on-responses-to-environmental-factors-and-chronic-contamination
#11
C Lacroix, E Duvieilbourg, N Guillou, J Guyomarch, C Bassoulet, D Moraga, G Chapalain, M Auffret
Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress...
April 12, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430653/preventive-effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-tofogliflozin-on-diethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-tumorigenesis-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#12
Koki Obara, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Takayasu Ideta, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Leprdb/+Leprdb obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine-containing water for 2 weeks and were treated with tofogliflozin throughout the experiment...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430024/cacao-phylloplane-the-first-battlefield-against-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease
#13
Dayanne Silva Monteiro Almeida, Karina Peres Gramacho, Thyago H Santana Cardoso, Fabienne Micheli, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Priminho Pirovani
The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGTs) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with/without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant and susceptible genotype CCN51 and Catongo presented a mean index of 1600 and 700 SGTs•cm-2, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429829/molecular-adaptation-in-the-world-s-deepest-living-animal-insights-from-transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-hadal-amphipod-hirondellea-gigas
#14
Yi Lan, Jin Sun, Renmao Tian, Douglas H Bartlett, Runsheng Li, Yue Him Wong, Weipeng Zhang, Jian-Wen Qiu, Ting Xu, Li-Sheng He, Harry G Tabata, Pei-Yuan Qian
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the deepest point in the oceans of our planet. Understanding how animals adapt to this harsh environment characterized by high hydrostatic pressure, food-limited, dark, and cold is of great scientific interest. Of the animals dwelling in the Challenger Deep, amphipods have been captured using baited traps. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the amphipod Hirondellea gigas collected at a depth of 10,929 m from the East Pond of the Challenger Deep...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#15
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#16
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429154/developing-elite-neurospora-crassa-strains-for-cellulosic-ethanol-production-using-fungal-breeding
#17
Joshua C Waters, Andrew Nixon, Morgan Dwyer, Justin C Biffinger, Kwangwon Lee
The demand for renewable and sustainable energy has generated considerable interest in the conversion of cellulosic biomass into liquid fuels such as ethanol using a filamentous fungus. While attempts have been made to study cellulose metabolism through the use of knock-out mutants, there have been no systematic effort to characterize natural variation for cellulose metabolism in ecotypes adapted to different habitats. Here, we characterized natural variation in saccharification of cellulose and fermentation in 73 ecotypes and 89 laboratory strains of the model fungus Neurospora crassa...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428757/circadian-rhythm-in-kidney-tissue-oxygenation-in-the-rat
#18
Tonja W Emans, Ben J Janssen, Jaap A Joles, C T Paul Krediet
Blood pressure, renal hemodynamics, electrolyte, and water excretion all display diurnal oscillation. Disturbance of these patterns is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Kidney oxygenation is dependent on oxygen delivery and consumption that in turn are determined by renal hemodynamics and metabolism. We hypothesized that kidney oxygenation also demonstrates 24-h periodicity. Telemetric oxygen-sensitive carbon paste electrodes were implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g), either in renal medulla (n = 9) or cortex (n = 7)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427307/molecular-dynamics-thermodynamic-and-mutational-binding-studies-for-tumor-specific-lyp-1-in-complex-with-p32
#19
Selin Seda Timur, Gözde Yalçın, Özge Çevik, Cenk Andaç, R Neslihan Gürsoy
Recent studies in tumor homing peptides have shown the specificity of LyP-1 (CGNKRTRGC) to tumor lymphatics. In this present work, we evaluated the possible interactions between cyclic LyP-1 and its receptor, p32, with molecular dynamics and docking studies in order to lead the design of novel LyP-1 derivatives, which could bind to p32 more effectively and perform enhanced antitumor effect. The total binding enthalpy energies have been obtained by MM-PBSA thermodynamic computations and the favorability of p32...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425966/endurance-training-with-or-without-glucose-fructose-ingestion-effects-on-lactate-metabolism-assessed-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-on-sedentary-men
#20
Robin Rosset, Virgile Lecoultre, Léonie Egli, Jérémy Cros, Valentine Rey, Nathalie Stefanoni, Valérie Sauvinet, Martine Laville, Philippe Schneiter, Luc Tappy
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of glucose-fructose on lactate appearance, oxidation, and clearance were measured at rest and during exercise, pre-training, and post-training. Pre-training, resting lactate appearance was 3...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
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