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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791436/the-genomic-landscape-at-a-late-stage-of-stickleback-speciation-high-genomic-divergence-interspersed-by-small-localized-regions-of-introgression
#1
Mark Ravinet, Kohta Yoshida, Shuji Shigenobu, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790568/-social-cognition-and-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-epilepsy-treated-with-eslicarbazepine-acetate
#2
L Abraira, A Sanabria, G Ortega, M Quintana, E Santamarina, J Salas-Puig, M Toledo
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is accompanied by cognitive disorders, frequently aggravated by the use of antiepileptic drugs, which can affect social empathy. AIM: To analyse the impact of treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) on social cognition and prefrontal cognitive functions in adults with focal epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective single-centre study with patients aged between 18 and 65 years with focal seizures treated with ESL...
June 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782956/attentional-engagement-increases-inferior-frontal-gyrus-activity-and-mutes-limbic-activity-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#3
Moon-Soo Lee, Purnima Anumagalla, Prasanth Talluri, Mani N Pavuluri
OBJECTIVES: Attentional deficit has been shown to exist in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder across the life span. Given that emotional dysregulation is central to bipolar disorder, this study hypothesizes that emotional circuitry regions are altered along with anomalies in the attentional systems during cognitive deployment in bipolar disorder. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of attentional activities using GingerALE software was completed for adult and pediatric bipolar disorder populations in all published studies till December 2017...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771126/magnesium-nanoparticle-plasmonics
#4
John Biggins, Sadegh Yazdi, Emilie Ringe
Nanoparticles of some metals (Cu/Ag/Au) sustain oscillations of their electron cloud called localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). These resonances can occur at optical frequencies and be driven by light, generating enhanced electric fields and spectacular photon scattering. However, current plasmonic metals are rare, expensive, and have a limited resonant frequency range. Recently, much attention has been focused on earth-abundant Al, but Al nanoparticles cannot resonate in the IR. The earth-abundant Mg nanoparticles reported here surmount this limitation...
May 17, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765585/a-study-of-the-effects-of-daily-physical-activity-on-memory-and-attention-capacities-in-college-students
#5
Dinh-Van Phan, Chien-Lung Chan, Ren-Hao Pan, Nan-Ping Yang, Hsiu-Chen Hsu, Hsien-Wei Ting, K Robert Lai
This study evaluated the relationship between daily physical activity (DPA) and memory capacity, as well as the association between daily activity and attention capacity, in college students in Taiwan. Participants (mean age = 20.79) wore wearable trackers for 106 days in order to collect DPA. These data were analyzed in association with their memory and attention capacities, as assessed using the spatial span test (SST) and the trail making test (TMT). The study showed significant negative correlations between memory capacity, time spent on the attention test (TSAT), calories burnt, and very active time duration (VATD) on the day before testing ( r = -0...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760717/reduced-neuronal-transcription-of-escargot-the-drosophila-gene-encoding-a-snail-type-transcription-factor-promotes-longevity
#6
Alexander V Symonenko, Natalia V Roshina, Anna V Krementsova, Elena G Pasyukova
In recent years, several genes involved in complex neuron specification networks have been shown to control life span. However, information on these genes is scattered, and studies to discover new neuronal genes and gene cascades contributing to life span control are needed, especially because of the recognized role of the nervous system in governing homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Previously, we demonstrated that several genes that encode RNA polymerase II transcription factors and that are involved in the development of the nervous system affect life span in Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756797/age-differences-in-regulating-negative-emotions-via-attentional-deployment
#7
Maria Wirth, Ute Kunzmann
Although past theoretical work has proposed age-related gains in emotion regulation, the empirical evidence is not entirely consistent. In two laboratory studies, we investigated age differences in regulating negative emotions through attentional deployment by instructing participants to direct their attention either toward negative (up-regulation) or neutral (down-regulation) pictorial content. The regulation process (visual attention) was measured via eye-tracking and the regulation outcome (emotional experience) was assessed via self-report...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756215/attentional-refreshing-moderates-the-word-frequency-effect-in-immediate-and-delayed-recall-tasks
#8
Marlène Abadie, Valérie Camos
Using an online sample experiment, the study described herein addresses the fervent debate about the relationships between working memory and long-term memory (LTM). We manipulated refreshing opportunities and LTM status of memoranda by varying, respectively, the type of span tasks (simple span with short or long lists versus complex span tasks) and the frequency of the memory words (low versus high). In accordance with the hypothesis that refreshing is involved particularly in complex rather than simple span tasks, the frequency effect in immediate recall tests was reduced in the former...
May 14, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755219/effect-of-yogic-breathing-on-accommodate-braille-version-of-six-letter-cancellation-test-in-students-with-visual-impairment
#9
Balaram Pradhan, Soubhagyalaxmi Mohanty, Alex Hankey
Context: Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) was used for students with visual impairment (VI). Aim: This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr) and breath awareness (BA) on students with VI...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754080/lead-in-spray-paint-and-painted-surfaces-in-playgrounds-and-public-areas-in-israel-results-of-a-pilot-study
#10
Tamar Berman, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Shay Reicher, Ruti Ardi, Yaniv Shammai, Lior Aruas, Maya Negev
Exposure to low levels of lead in children can cause cognitive deficits (reduced IQ) and behavioral changes such as reduced attention span and increased antisocial behavior. There are no mandatory limits on lead in paint in Israel, with the exception of paints used on toys and children's furniture. However, paints in playgrounds and public areas may be a source of exposure to lead in young children. In this study, we quantified lead concentrations in painted surfaces in public playgrounds and public areas, and in spray paints in Israel, using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749060/visual-processing-as-a-potential-endophenotype-in-youths-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-sibling-study-design-using-the-counting-stroop-functional-mri
#11
Li-Ying Fan, Chi-Yung Shang, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Tai-Li Chou
Deficits in inhibitory control and visual processing are common in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about endophenotypes for unaffected siblings of youths with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the potential endophenotypes of brain activation and performance in inhibitory control and visual processing among ADHD probands, their unaffected siblings, and neurotypical youths. We assessed 27 ADHD probands, 27 unaffected siblings, and 27 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched neurotypical youths using the counting Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging and two tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): rapid visual information processing (RVP) for inhibitory control and spatial span (SSP) for visual processing...
May 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746569/5000-years-of-dietary-variations-of-prehistoric-farmers-in-the-great-hungarian-plain
#12
Beatriz Gamarra, Rachel Howcroft, Ashley McCall, János Dani, Zsigmond Hajdú, Emese Gyöngyvér Nagy, László D Szabó, László Domboróczki, Ildikó Pap, Pál Raczky, Antónia Marcsik, Zsuzsanna K Zoffmann, Tamás Hajdu, Robin N M Feeney, Ron Pinhasi
The development of farming was a catalyst for the evolution of the human diet from the varied subsistence practices of hunter-gatherers to the more globalised food economy we depend upon today. Although there has been considerable research into the dietary changes associated with the initial spread of farming, less attention has been given to how dietary choices continued to develop during subsequent millennia. A paleogenomic time transect for 5 millennia of human occupation in the Great Hungarian Plain spanning from the advent of the Neolithic to the Iron Age, showed major genomic turnovers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746524/evaluating-verbal-learning-and-memory-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-or-first-episode-psychosis-using-structural-equation-modelling
#13
Laura Egloff, Erich Studerus, Ronan Zimmermann, Ulrike Heitz, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Sarah Ittig, Katharina Beck, Christina Andreou, Stefan Borgwardt, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: Verbal learning and memory are impaired not only in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) but also-to a lower extent-in those with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). However, little is known about the specific nature of these impairments. Hence, we aimed to study learning and memory processes in ARMS and FEP patients by making use of structural equation modelling. METHODS: Verbal learning was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in 98 FEP patients, 126 ARMS patients and 68 healthy controls (HC) as part of the Basel early detection of psychosis (FePsy) study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744894/an-examination-of-refreshing-in-between-category-sequences
#14
Naomi Langerock, David Wisniewski, Marcel Brass, Evie Vergauwe
The present study focused on refreshing within a working memory (WM) context. Refreshing refers to the mechanism that brings back information into the focus of attention in order to counteract forgetting of memory traces. Despite some research on this topic, the exact nature of refreshing remains unclear. The present study investigated refreshing by means of the cognitive load (CL) effect. This effect is typically observed in complex span tasks, which combine processing and storage demands. It refers to the observation that WM performance depends on the CL of concurrent processing, defined as the proportion of time between list items that is occupied by concurrent processing and therefore not available to refresh memory items...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744891/what-makes-working-memory-traces-stable-over-time
#15
Gabriel Jarjat, Violette Hoareau, Gaën Plancher, Pascal Hot, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat
Understanding the factors that make working memory (WM) traces stable over time is important because WM is the keystone of general cognitive achievement. Two views of attentional WM maintenance have been suggested to account for the long-term retention of WM information. First, the distractors in a WM task are thought to foster the creation of episodic memory cues through covert retrieval. Second, the cognitive load (CL) of the distractors is thought to vary long-term memory instantiation. In this study, we propose an additional parsimonious perspective: the total time during which each trace is under the control of attention in WM is the key to long-term retention...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736590/anatomical-predictors-of-cognitive-decline-after-subthalamic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Vincent Planche, Fanny Munsch, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel de Schlichting, Tiphaine Vidal, Jerome Coste, Dominique Morand, Ingrid de Chazeron, Philippe Derost, Bérangère Debilly, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Ana Marques, Franck Durif
We investigated whether pre-operative MRI measures of focal brain atrophy could predict cognitive decline occurring after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For that purpose, we prospectively collected data of 42 consecutive patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Normalized brain structure volumes and cortical thicknesses were measured on pre-operative T1-weighted MRI. Patients were tested for their cognitive performances before surgery and 1 year after...
May 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734088/fabrication-detection-and-analysis-of-dna-labeled-plga-particles-for-environmental-transport-studies
#17
Coy P McNew, Chaozi Wang, M Todd Walter, Helen E Dahlke
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particle carriers of synthetic DNA have recently received increased attention for environmental applications due to their biodegradability, customizability, and nearly limitless number of uniquely identifiable "labels". In this paper, we present methodologies for the preparation of DNA-labeled particles, control of particle size, extraction of DNA-labels, and analysis via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Characterization and analysis of the DNA-labeled particles reveal spherical particles of diameters ranging from 60 to 1000 nm, with consistent zeta potentials around -45 mV, that are stable to aggregation, even in the presence of concentrated mono- and divalent cations...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733106/how-do-stimulant-treatments-for-adhd-work-evidence-for-mediation-by-improved-cognition
#18
Larry W Hawk, Whitney D Fosco, Craig R Colder, James G Waxmonsky, William E Pelham, Keri S Rosch
BACKGROUND: Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate (MPH) are the frontline treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite their well-documented efficacy, the mechanisms by which stimulants improve clinical outcomes are not clear. The current study evaluated whether MPH effects on classroom behavior were mediated by improved cognitive functioning. METHODS: Children with ADHD (n = 82; 9-12 years old) participated in a week-long summer research camp, consisting of cognitive testing, classroom periods, and recreational activities...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729037/using-focused-ethnography-to-explore-and-describe-the-process-of-nurses-shift-reports-in-a-psychiatric-intensive-care-unit
#19
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe the cultural routine of shift reports among nursing staff in a psychiatric intensive care unit, and further to develop a taxonomic, thematic and theoretical understanding of the process. BACKGROUND: Lack of communication among healthcare staff is associated with risks for medical errors. Thus, handovers and shift reports are an essential and integral routine among nurses in order to pass on information about the patients' health status...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725839/executive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#20
Itaru Tamura, Asako Takei, Shinsuke Hamada, Hiroyuki Soma, Michio Nonaka, Sanae Homma, Fumio Moriwaka
The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive functions of patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3(SCA3). We examined 15 patients with genetically confirmed SCA3 and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age, years of education, and intellectual ability. We administered verbal memory (word recall and word recognition) and executive function tasks (word fluency test, forward and backward digit and visual span tests, Kana Pick-out Test, Trail Making Test, and conflicting instructions and a Go/NoGo task from the Frontal Assessment Battery)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
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