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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150872/predicting-the-onset-of-freezing-of-gait-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Emily L Lukasik, Matthew J Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Julie M Hall, Courtney C Walton, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease that ultimately affects approximately 80% of patients, yet very little research has focused on predicting the onset of freezing of gait and tracking the longitudinal progression of symptoms prior to its onset. The objective of the current study was to examine longitudinal data spanning the transition period when patients with PD developed freezing of gait to identify symptoms that may precede freezing and create a prediction model that identifies those "at risk" for developing freezing of gait in the year to follow...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142112/give-one-species-the-task-to-come-up-with-a-theory-that-spans-them-all-what-good-can-come-out-of-that
#2
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko
Does the progress in understanding evolutionary theory depend on the species that is doing the investigation? This question is difficult to answer scientifically, as we are dealing with an n = 1 scenario: every individual who has ever written about evolution is a human being. I will discuss, first, whether we get the correct answer to questions if we begin with ourselves and expand outwards, and second, whether we might fail to ask all the interesting questions unless we combat our tendencies to favour taxa that are close to us...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#3
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117799/subclinical-executive-function-impairment-in-children-with-asymptomatic-treated-phenylketonuria-a-comparison-with-children-with-immunodeficiency-virus
#4
Patrizia Bisiacchi, Vincenza Tarantino, Giovanni Mento
In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of phenylketonuria (PKU) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to examine the specificity of the executive function (EF) impairment reported in these two patologies. A total of 55 age-matched children and adolescents were assessed, including 11 patients with PKU, 16 patients with HIV and 28 healthy controls, underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Although neither the PKU nor the HIV group scored below the normative ranges, both groups showed lower scores in neuropsychological tests engaging EFs than controls...
November 9, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109424/enhancing-reading-performance-through-action-video-games-the-role-of-visual-attention-span
#5
A Antzaka, M Lallier, S Meyer, J Diard, M Carreiras, S Valdois
Recent studies reported that Action Video Game-AVG training improves not only certain attentional components, but also reading fluency in children with dyslexia. We aimed to investigate the shared attentional components of AVG playing and reading, by studying whether the Visual Attention (VA) span, a component of visual attention that has previously been linked to both reading development and dyslexia, is improved in frequent players of AVGs. Thirty-six French fluent adult readers, matched on chronological age and text reading proficiency, composed two groups: frequent AVG players and non-players...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106374/the-rate-of-transient-beta-frequency-events-predicts-behavior-across-tasks-and-species
#6
Hyeyoung Shin, Robert Law, Shawn Tsutsui, Christopher I Moore, Stephanie R Jones
Beta oscillations (15-29Hz) are among the most prominent signatures of brain activity. Beta power is predictive of healthy and abnormal behaviors, including perception, attention and motor action. In non-averaged signals, beta can emerge as transient high-power 'events'. As such, functionally relevant differences in averaged power across time and trials can reflect changes in event number, power, duration, and / or frequency span. We show that functionally relevant differences in averaged beta power in primary somatosensory neocortex reflect a difference in the number of high-power beta events per trial, i...
November 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098783/associations-of-maternal-nutrition-during-pregnancy-and-post-partum-with-maternal-cognition-and-caregiving
#7
Elizabeth L Prado, Ulla Ashorn, John Phuka, Kenneth Maleta, John Sadalaki, Brietta M Oaks, Marjorie Haskell, Lindsay H Allen, Steve A Vosti, Per Ashorn, Kathryn G Dewey
Pregnant and post-partum women require increased nutrient intake and optimal cognition, which depends on adequate nutrition, to enable reasoning and learning for caregiving. We aimed to assess (a) differences in maternal cognition and caregiving between women in Malawi who received different nutritional supplements, (b) 14 effect modifiers, and (c) associations of cognition and caregiving with biomarkers of iron, Vitamin A, B-vitamin, and fatty acid status. In a randomized controlled trial (n = 869), pregnant women daily received either multiple micronutrients (MMN), 20 g/day lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), or a control iron/folic acid (IFA) tablet...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098695/research-recruitment-a-marketing-framework-to-improve-sample-representativeness-in-health-research
#8
Sarah J Howcutt, Anna L Barnett, Sofia Barbosa-Boucas, Lesley A Smith
AIMS: This discussion paper proposes a five-part theoretical framework to inform recruitment strategies. The framework is based on a marketing model of consumer decision-making. BACKGROUND: Respondents in surveys are typically healthier than non-respondents, which has an impact on the availability of information about those most in need. Previous research has identified response patterns, provided theories about why people participate in research and evaluated different recruitment strategies...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098620/clinical-evidence-of-exercise-benefits-for-stroke
#9
Peipei Han, Wen Zhang, Li Kang, Yixuan Ma, Liyuan Fu, Liye Jia, Hairui Yu, Xiaoyu Chen, Lin Hou, Lu Wang, Xing Yu, Masahiro Kohzuki, Qi Guo
Even though stroke is the third, not the first, most common cause of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries, it is one of the most expensive to treat. Part of the expense is due to secondary problems in the post-stroke period including: cognition, memory, attention span, pain, sensation loss, psychological issues, and problems with mobility and balance. Research has identified that exercise has both positive physical and psychosocial effects for post-stroke patients. Therefore, this scientific statement provides an overview on exercise rehabilitation for post-stroke patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096196/task-evoked-pupil-dilation-and-bold-variance-as-indicators-of-locus-coeruleus-dysfunction
#10
Jeremy A Elman, Matthew S Panizzon, Donald J Hagler, Lisa T Eyler, Eric L Granholm, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Michael J Lyons, Linda K McEvoy, Carol E Franz, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Pupillary responses during cognitive tasks are linked to functioning of the locus coeruleus (LC). The LC is an early site of abnormal tau deposition, which may contribute to key aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. We previously found attenuation of pupillary responses to increases in cognitive load in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting pupillary responses may provide a biomarker of early risk for AD associated with LC dysfunction. The LC modulates cortical activity through two modes of operation: tonic and phasic...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095704/medical-education-must-move-from-the-information-age-to-the-age-of-artificial-intelligence
#11
Steven A Wartman, C Donald Combs
Changes to the medical profession require medical education reforms that will enable physicians to more effectively enter contemporary practice. Proposals for such reforms abound. Common themes include renewed emphasis on communication, teamwork, risk-management, and patient safety. These reforms are important but insufficient. They do not adequately address the most fundamental change--the practice of medicine is rapidly transitioning from the information age to the age of artificial intelligence. Employers need physicians who: work at the top of their license, have knowledge spanning the health professions and care continuum, effectively leverage data platforms, focus on analyzing outcomes and improving performance, and communicate the meaning of the probabilities generated by massive amounts of data to patients given their unique human complexities...
November 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091940/planning-and-production-of-grammatical-and-lexical-verbs-in-multi-word-messages
#12
Violaine Michel Lange, Maria Messerschmidt, Peter Harder, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Kasper Boye
Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084106/hyperarousal-symptoms-explain-the-relationship-between-cognitive-complaints-and-working-memory-performance-in-veterans-seeking-ptsd-treatment
#13
Matt R Judah, Jenna B Renfroe, Bethany C Wangelin, Travis H Turner, Peter W Tuerk
OBJECTIVE: Comorbidity and symptom overlap between traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans returning from deployment present challenges with respect to differential diagnosis and treatment. Both conditions frequently manifest with attention and working memory deficits, though the underlying neuropsychological basis differs. This study evaluated whether hyperarousal symptoms explain the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognition in a veteran sample...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075458/forgotten-underwater-forests-the-key-role-of-fucoids-on-australian-temperate-reefs
#14
REVIEW
Melinda A Coleman, Thomas Wernberg
Kelp forests dominated by species of Laminariales are globally recognized as key habitats on subtidal temperate rocky reefs. Forests characterized by fucalean seaweed, in contrast, receive relatively less attention despite being abundant, ubiquitous, and ecologically important. Here, we review information on subtidal fucalean taxa of Australia's Great Southern Reef, with a focus on the three most abundant and widely distributed genera (Phyllospora, Scytothalia, and Sargassum) to reveal the functionally unique role of fucoids in temperate reef ecology...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074222/tumor-volume-on-biopsy-in-low-risk-prostate-cancers-managed-on-active-surveillance
#15
Jeffrey J Tosoian, Mufaddal Mamawala, Hiten D Patel, Ridwan Alam, Jonathan I Epstein, Ashley E Ross, H Ballentine Carter
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary clinical guidelines recommend use of active surveillance (AS) in men with low-risk prostate cancer. Low-risk disease spans any potential volume of Gleason score 6 cancer without sufficient attention to tumor volume in the past. We therefore compared tumor characteristics in low-risk men managed on AS to men undergoing RP. METHODS: We evaluated an institutional cohort of 1633 men with very low-risk (clinical stage=T1c, PSA density<0...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073146/unified-thalamic-model-generates-multiple-distinct-oscillations-with-state-dependent-entrainment-by-stimulation
#16
Guoshi Li, Craig S Henriquez, Flavio Fröhlich
The thalamus plays a critical role in the genesis of thalamocortical oscillations, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To understand whether the isolated thalamus can generate multiple distinct oscillations, we developed a biophysical thalamic model to test the hypothesis that generation of and transition between distinct thalamic oscillations can be explained as a function of neuromodulation by acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) and afferent synaptic excitation. Indeed, the model exhibited four distinct thalamic rhythms (delta, sleep spindle, alpha and gamma oscillations) that span the physiological states corresponding to different arousal levels from deep sleep to focused attention...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072540/cognitive-performance-and-aphasia-recovery
#17
José Fonseca, Ana Raposo, Isabel Pavão Martins
Objectives This study assessed cognitive performance of subjects with aphasia during the acute stage of stroke and evaluated how such performance relates to recovery at 3 months. Materials & methods Patients with aphasia following a left hemisphere stroke were evaluated during the first (baseline) and the fourth-month post onset. Assessment comprised non-verbal tests of attention/processing speed (Symbol Search, Cancelation Task), executive functioning (Matrix Reasoning, Tower of Hanoi, Clock Drawing, Motor Initiative), semantic (Camel and Cactus Test), episodic and immediate memory (Memory for Faces Test, 5 Objects Memory Test, and Spatial Span...
October 26, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070027/absolute-and-relative-reliability-of-acute-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-executive-function-in-seniors
#18
Lars Donath, Sebastian Ludyga, Daniel Hammes, Anja Rossmeissl, Nadin Andergassen, Lukas Zahner, Oliver Faude
BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory) in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors...
October 25, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067134/attention-is-shaped-by-semantic-level-of-event-structure-during-speech-comprehension-an-electroencephalogram-study
#19
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Lin Li, Haiyan Zhao, Xiufang Du
The present electroencephalogram study used an attention probe paradigm to investigate how semantic and acoustic structures constrain temporal attention during speech comprehension. Spoken sentences were used as stimuli, with each one containing a four-character critical phrase, of which the third character was the target character. We manipulated not only the semantic relationship between the target character and the immediately preceding two characters, but also the presence/absence of a pitch accent on the first character...
October 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066873/application-of-a-computer-based-neurocognitive-assessment-battery-in-the-elderly-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#20
Christiane Völter, Lisa Götze, Michael Falkenstein, Stefan Dazert, Jan Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Due to demographic changes, the number of people suffering not only from dementia illness but also from hearing impairment with the need for hearing rehabilitation have increased noticeably. Even with the association between hearing, age, and cognitive decline being well known, this issue has so far not played an important role in daily clinical Ear Nose Throat settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a computer-based battery of tests of neurocognitive abilities in older patients with and without hearing loss...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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