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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541063/getting-together-social-contact-frequency-across-the-life-span
#1
Julia Sander, Jürgen Schupp, David Richter
Frequent social interactions are strongly linked to positive affect, longevity, and good health. Although there has been extensive research on changes in the size of social networks over time, little attention has been given to the development of contact frequency across the life span. In this cohort-sequential longitudinal study, we examined intraindividual changes in the frequency of social contact with family and nonfamily members, and potential moderators of these changes. The data come from the 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study (N = 36,716; age range: 17-85 years)...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537739/modeling-the-effect-of-polymer-chain-stiffness-on-the-behavior-of-polymer-nanocomposites
#2
José Javier Burgos-Mármol, Óscar Álvarez-Machancoses, Alessandro Patti
Due to their central role in industrial formulations spanning from food packaging to smart coatings, polymer nanocomposites have been the object of a remarkable attention over the last two decades. Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) to a polymer matrix modifies the conformation and mobility of the polymer chains at the NP-polymer interface and can potentially provide materials with enhanced properties as compared to pristine polymers. To this end, it is crucial to predict and control the ability of NPs to diffuse and achieve a good dispersion in the polymer matrix...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532482/-ensure-that-you-are-well-aware-of-the-risks-you-are-taking%C3%A2-actions-and-activities-medical-tourists-informal-caregivers-can-undertake-to-protect-their-health-and-safety
#3
Valorie A Crooks, Rebecca Whitmore, Jeremy Snyder, Leigh Turner
BACKGROUND: When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523582/first-in-human-radiation-dosimetry-of-68-ga-nodaga-rgdyk
#4
Silvano Gnesin, Periklis Mitsakis, Francesco Cicone, Emmanuel Deshayes, Vincent Dunet, Augusto F Gallino, Marek Kosinski, Sébastien Baechler, Franz Buchegger, David Viertl, John O Prior
BACKGROUND: Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Five male patients underwent whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scans 10, 60 and 120 min after tracer injection (200 MBq)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520940/age-differences-in-self-continuity-converging-evidence-and-directions-for-future-research
#5
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt
Life-span development is inherently linked to the perception of time and associated temporal construals. Such concepts are multi-faceted in nature and have important practical implications in areas such as time management, financial planning, or medical choices. A large body of research has documented age-related limitations in global time horizons, but age differences in other aspects of temporal construal are comparatively poorly understood. The present article draws attention to developmental trajectories of self-continuity, defined as perceived associations of one's present self with past and future selves...
June 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513073/early-neurocognitive-improvements-following-parathyroidectomy-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#6
Shivani Shah-Becker, Jonathan Derr, Benjamin S Oberman, Aaron Baker, Brian Saunders, Michele M Carr, David Goldenberg
OBJECTIVES: To establish a time frame for postoperative improvements in neurocognitive function in patients who undergo parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism by utilizing repeat neuropsychological assessment at multiple time points before and after surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center between August 2014 and December 2015, including 50 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy...
May 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512302/olfactory-threshold-and-odor-discrimination-ability-in-children-evaluation-of-a-modified-sniffin-sticks-test
#7
Janine Gellrich, Carolin Stetzler, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Thomas Hummel, Valentin A Schriever
The clinical diagnostics of olfactory dysfunction in children turns out to be challenging due to low attention span, insufficient linguistic development and lack of odor experiences. Several smell tests have been developed for adults. Most of these examinations take a relatively long time and require a high level of concentration. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate an odor discrimination and olfactory threshold test using the frequently used "Sniffin' Sticks" in children and adolescents in a simplified two-alternative-forced-choice version (2AFC) and compare it to the original three-alternative-forced-choice test (3AFC)...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511484/efficacy-of-structured-yoga-intervention-for-sleep-gastrointestinal-and-behaviour-problems-of-asd-children-an-exploratory-study
#8
Kumar Narasingharao, Balaram Pradhan, Janardhana Navaneetham
INTRODUCTION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder which appears at early childhood age between 18 and 36 months. Apart from behaviour problems ASD children also suffer from sleep and Gastrointestinal (GI) problems. Major behaviour problems of ASD children are lack of social communication and interaction, less attention span, repetitive and restrictive behaviour, lack of eye to eye contact, aggressive and self-injurious behaviours, sensory integration problems, motor problems, deficiency in academic activities, anxiety and depression etc...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504561/sexual-violence-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-college-women-with-a-mental-health-and-or-behavior-disability
#9
Amy Bonomi, Emily Nichols, Rebecca Kammes, Troye Green
OBJECTIVES: We address questions about (1) how college women with a disability experience sexual violence (SV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) across partners, including disability-specific abuse and (2) how SV/IPV impacts psychological, behavioral, physical, and academic life domains. METHODS/DESIGN: Twenty-seven female college students (mean age, 21.2; 66.6% white; 66.6% heterosexual) were randomly sampled from university registrar records. To be eligible for the study, students had to have at least one experience of SV/IPV since age 18 and a disability (88...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498004/a-sequential-implementation-model-for-workforce-development-a-case-study-of-medical-residency-training-for-substance-use-concerns
#10
Patricia S O'Sullivan, Patrick Yuan, Derek D Satre, Maria Wamsley, Jason Satterfield
PROBLEM: In graduate medical education, residency programs are often educationally isolated from each other, with varying needs and patient populations, so strategies are needed when attempting to implement training in evidence-based practices across multiple residencies. INTERVENTION: Using implementation science as a guide, we adapted a community development model to sequentially implement an evidence-based intervention, Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol and drug use problems, across internal medicine, pediatrics, emergency medicine, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology residency programs...
May 12, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493605/adverse-effects-of-obesity-on-cognitive-functions-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#11
Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
BACKGROUND: The burden of illness associated with bipolar disorder (BD) warrants early pre-emption/prevention. Prediction models limited to psychiatric phenomenology have insufficient predictive power. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of overweight/obesity is associated with greater cognitive decline in individuals at high risk (HR) or ultra high risk (UHR) for BD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the moderational role of body mass index (BMI) on measures of cognitive function...
March 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490603/inferring-single-cell-behaviour-from-large-scale-epithelial-sheet-migration-patterns
#12
Rachel M Lee, Haicen Yue, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Wolfgang Losert
Cell migration plays an important role in a wide variety of biological processes and can incorporate both individual cell motion and collective behaviour. The emergent properties of collective migration are receiving increasing attention as collective motion's role in diseases such as metastatic cancer becomes clear. Yet, how individual cell behaviour influences large-scale, multi-cell collective motion remains unclear. In this study, we provide insight into the mechanisms behind collective migration by studying cell migration in a spreading monolayer of epithelial MCF10A cells...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489138/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-impact-of-methylphenidate-on-working-memory-inhibition-capacity-and-mental-flexibility
#13
Cristiana Bolfer, Sandra Pasquali Pacheco, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, Walter Souza Carreira, Beatriz Borba Casella, Erasmo Barbante Casella
Objective: To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods: Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9-12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482639/chinese-calligraphy-writing-for-augmenting-attentional-control-and-working-memory-of-older-adults-at-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Sam C C Chan, Chetwyn C H Chan, Abiot Y Derbie, Irene Hui, Davynn G H Tan, Marco Y C Pang, Stephen C L Lau, Kenneth N K Fong
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) needs further investigation. OBJECTIVES: Test efficacy of eight-week Chinese calligraphy writing training improving attentional control and working memory. METHODS: Ninety-nine participants with MCI were randomized into the eight-week calligraphy writing (n = 48) or control (tablet computer) training (n = 51). Outcomes of the interventions were attentional control, working memory, visual scan and processing speed...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481118/how-working-memory-enables-fluid-reasoning
#15
Milton J Dehn
The strong relation between fluid reasoning (Gf) and working memory (WM) is well established. Gf depends on WM to hold necessary information in a span of awareness until the reasoning task is completed. The influence of time constraints on the Gf-WM relation indicates that the abilities to control attention and inhibit interference may be the underlying traits that account for the Gf-WM relation. Neuroanatomy also explains the interrelations among these cognitive processes. Neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have confirmed that the same regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are active during Gf and WM functioning...
May 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475942/distinct-cognitive-performance-and-patterns-of-drug-use-among-early-and-late-onset-cocaine-users
#16
Bruna Mayara Lopes, Priscila Dib Gonçalves, Mariella Ometto, Bernardo Dos Santos, Mikael Cavallet, Tiffany Moukbel Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio Henriques Serpa, Sergio Nicastri, André Malbergier, Geraldo F Busatto, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a crucial period for neurodevelopment, but few studies have investigated the impact of early cocaine use on cognitive performance and patterns of substance use. METHODS: We evaluated 103 cocaine dependent inpatients divided in two groups: early-onset users (EOG; n=52), late-onset users (LOG; n=51), and 63 healthy controls. Neuropsychological functioning was evaluated using Digits Forward (DF) and Backward (DB), Trail Making Test (TMT), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Iowa Gambling Test (IGT)...
April 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466232/forecasting-epidemics-through-nonparametric-estimation-of-time-dependent-transmission-rates-using-the-seir-model
#17
Alexandra Smirnova, Linda deCamp, Gerardo Chowell
Deterministic and stochastic methods relying on early case incidence data for forecasting epidemic outbreaks have received increasing attention during the last few years. In mathematical terms, epidemic forecasting is an ill-posed problem due to instability of parameter identification and limited available data. While previous studies have largely estimated the time-dependent transmission rate by assuming specific functional forms (e.g., exponential decay) that depend on a few parameters, here we introduce a novel approach for the reconstruction of nonparametric time-dependent transmission rates by projecting onto a finite subspace spanned by Legendre polynomials...
May 2, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462685/effect-of-heat-exposure-on-cognition-in-persons-with-tetraplegia
#18
John P Handrakis, Zhen Ni Guan, John W Nulty, Oriana Tascione, Dwindally Rosado-Rivera, Daniel White, Charlene Bang, Ann Spungen, William A Bauman
Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) have impaired thermoregulatory mechanisms due to interruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic neuropathways. To determine the effects of heat exposure on core body temperature (Tcore) and cognitive performance in persons with tetraplegia, eight individuals with chronic tetraplegia (C3-C7, AIS A-B) and 9 able-bodied controls were acclimated to 27°C at baseline (BL) before being exposed to 35°C for up to 120 minutes (Heat Challenge). Rectal temperature (Tcore), distal skin temperatures (Tsk<sub>avg</sub>), sweat rate (QS<sub>avg</sub>), microvascular skin perfusion (LDF<sub>avg</sub>), and plasma norepinephrine (NE) were measured...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462547/changing-adolescent-sleep-patterns-factors-affecting-them-and-the-related-problems
#19
Harpreet Kaur, Harpreet Singh Bhoday
Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458764/working-memory-capacity-mind-wandering-and-creative-cognition-an-individual-differences-investigation-into-the-benefits-of-controlled-versus-spontaneous-thought
#20
Bridget A Smeekens, Michael J Kane
Should executive control, as indicated by working memory capacity (WMC) and mind-wandering propensity, help or hinder creativity? Sustained and focused attention should help guide a selective search of solution-relevant information in memory and help inhibit uncreative, yet accessible, ideas. However, unfocused attention and daydreaming should allow mental access to more loosely relevant concepts, remotely linked to commonplace solutions. Three individual-differences studies inserted incubation periods into one or two divergent thinking tasks and tested whether WMC (assessed by complex span tasks) and incubation-period mind wandering (assessed as probed reports of task-unrelated thought [TUT]) predicted post-incubation performance...
November 2016: Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
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