Read by QxMD icon Read

attention span

David Portehault, Simon Delacroix, Guillaume Gouget, Rémi Grosjean, Tsou-Hsi-Camille Chan-Chang
The design of inorganic nanoparticles relies strongly on the knowledge from solid-state chemistry not only for characterization techniques, but also and primarily for choosing the systems that will yield the desired properties. The range of inorganic solids reported and studied as nanoparticles is however strikingly narrow when compared to the solid-state chemistry portfolio of bulk materials. Efforts to enlarge the collection of inorganic particles are becoming increasingly important for three reasons. First, they can yield materials more performing than current ones for a range of fields including biomedicine, optics, catalysis, and energy...
March 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Eleftheria Giannouli, Otmar Bock, Wiebren Zijlstra
Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility performance than to mobility capacity as measured with standardized laboratory tests. The final sample used for analysis consisted of 66 older adults (72.3 ± 5.6 years). Cognition was assessed by measures of planning (HOTAP test), spatial working memory (Grid-Span test) and visuospatial attention (Attention Window test)...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Renée C Firman
Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Suvarna V Menon, Joseph R Cohen, Ryan C Shorey, Jeff R Temple
Despite increased attention on parental intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure, a relative paucity of research has examined the developmental consequences of this traumatic experience within a life span approach. The aim of the present study was to examine how parental IPV exposure may relate to mental health during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Furthermore, we examined whether the impact of parental IPV exposure was unique from more commonly studied maltreatment experiences, specifically neglect and physical abuse...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Duojiao Wu, Xiangdong Wang, Hongzhi Sun
Mitochondrial malfunction is related to aging and to the onset of many diseases, such as obesity/diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular principles of biological and toxicological processes the mitochondria can regulate should be disease-specific, cell type-specific, and drug targetable. Mitochondrial biology and toxicology is evolving and undergoing a revolution through fast-developing biotechnologies garnering increasing attention due to the importance of targeted therapies...
March 6, 2018: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
So Hee Dho, Jae Cheong Lim, Lark Kyun Kim
The complement is a part of the immune system that plays several roles in removing pathogens. Despite the importance of the complement system, the exact role of each component has been overlooked because the complement system was thought to be a nonspecific humoral immune mechanism that worked against pathogens. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF or CD55) is a known inhibitor of the complement system and has recently attracted substantial attention due to its role in various diseases, such as cancer, protein-losing enteropathy, and malaria...
February 2018: Immune Network
Pernilla Garmy, Liselotte Jakobsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cancer rehabilitation experiences of working-age cancer survivors. BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors have extremely complex needs, spanning physical, vocational, and sexual domains. Although cancer rehabilitation services have been found to eliminate or reduce these strains, these services are often underutilized. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was employed. METHODS: A survey of persons over the age of 18 with a cancer diagnosis, enrolled in the Social Insurance Agency in a municipality in southern Sweden (n =168, 68% women) was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Sheryl L Olson, Pamela Davis-Kean, Meichu Chen, Jennifer E Lansford, John E Bates, Gregory S Pettit, Kenneth A Dodge
We compared long-term growth patterns in teachers' and mothers' ratings of Overt Aggression, Covert Aggression, Oppositional Defiance, Impulsivity/inattention, and Emotion Dysregulation across developmental periods spanning kindergarten through grade 8 (ages 5 to 13 years). We also determined whether salient background characteristics and measures of child temperament and parenting risk differentially predicted growth in discrete categories of child externalizing symptoms across development. Participants were 549 kindergarten-age children (51% male; 83% European American; 17% African American) whose problem behaviors were rated by teachers and parents each successive year of development through 8th grade...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Florence Gaillardin, Stéphane Baudry
This study assessed the influence of attention division, working memory and executive function on stair ascent and descent in young and older adults. Twenty young (25.5 ± 2.1 yrs) and 20 older adults (68.4 ± 5.4 yrs) ascended and descended a 3-step staircase with no simultaneous cognitive task (single-motor task) or while performing a cognitive task (dual-task condition). The cognitive task involved either 1) recalling a word list of the subject's word-span minus 2 words (SPAN-2) to assess the attention division effect, 2) a word list of subject's word-span (SPAN-O) to assess the working memory effect, or 3) recalling in alphabetical order, a word list of the subject's word-span (SPAN-A) to assess the executive function effect...
February 24, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Peter Verwilst, Hyeong Seok Kim, Soobin Kim, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
Historically, in Alzheimer's disease research, a lot of attention has been paid to the development of highly selective fluorophores for beta amyloid plaques. With a shift in the understanding of the disease and the importance of a network of cross-talk interactions, the development of small-molecule fluorescent dyes with high selectivity for (hyperphosphorylated) tau protein aggregates in neurofibrillary tangles has been gaining increasing attention. Fluorescent dyes for the selective labelling of tau aggregates in histological AD brain sections have been described, spanning the entire visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum...
February 27, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Martin Andreas, Kathrin Freystaetter, Martin H Bernardi, Andreas Zuckermann
A 31-year-old male patient underwent a heart transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy. He experienced accelerated acute antibody-mediated rejection despite being negative for human leukocyte antigen antibodies (0% panel-reactive antibodies prior to surgery). Further assessment revealed a common antigen between a homograft implanted 17 years earlier during the Ross procedure and the heart donor. The homograft likely induced specific antibody formation. Interestingly, panel-reactive antibody levels measured 7 years prior to transplantation were 7%...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Perceived age discrimination across age in Europe: From an ageing society to a society for all ages" by Christopher Bratt, Dominic Abrams, Hannah J. Swift, Christin-Melanie Vauclair and Sibila Marques ( Developmental Psychology , 2018[Jan], Vol 54[1], 167-180). In the article, the copyright license has been changed to the Creative Commons CC-BY Attribution License. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-47508-001...
March 2018: Developmental Psychology
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
P J Bishop, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, J A Hancock, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd, C J Clemente
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range...
2018: PloS One
Simon A Babayan, Wei Liu, Graham Hamilton, Elizabeth Kilbride, Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Melanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen
Parasitic helminths are extremely resilient in their ability to maintain chronic infection burdens despite (or maybe because of) their hosts' immune response. Explaining how parasites maintain these lifelong infections, identifying the protective immune mechanisms that regulate helminth infection burdens, and designing prophylactics and therapeutics that combat helminth infection, while preserving host health requires a far better understanding of how the immune system functions in natural habitats than we have at present...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sarah E Berger, Regina T Harbourne, Melissa N Horger
This chapter discusses what cognition-action trade-offs in infancy reveal about the organization and developmental trajectory of attention. We focus on internal attention because this aspect is most relevant to the immediate concerns of infancy, such as fluctuating levels of expertise, balancing multiple taxing skills simultaneously, learning how to control attention under variable conditions, and coordinating distinct psychological domains. Cognition-action trade-offs observed across the life span include perseveration during skill emergence, errors and inefficient strategies during decision making, and the allocation of resources when attention is taxed...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Jing Zhao, Menglian Liu, Hanlong Liu, Chen Huang
It has been suggested that orthographic transparency and age changes may affect the relationship between visual attention span (VAS) deficit and reading difficulty. The present study explored the developmental trend of VAS in children with developmental dyslexia (DD) in Chinese, a logographic language with a deep orthography. Fifty-seven Chinese children with DD and fifty-four age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine VAS. Phonological and morphological awareness tests, and reading tests in single-character and sentence levels were used for reading skill measurements...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah L Karalunas, Elizabeth Hawkey, Hanna Gustafsson, Meghan Miller, Marybeth Langhorst, Michaela Cordova, Damien Fair, Joel T Nigg
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are commonly comorbid, share genetic liability, and often exhibit overlapping cognitive impairments. Clarification of shared and distinct cognitive effects while considering comorbid symptoms across disorders has been lacking. In the current study, children ages 7-15 years assigned to three diagnostic groups:ADHD (n = 509), ASD (n = 97), and controls (n = 301) completed measures spanning the cognitive domains of attention/arousal, working memory, set-shifting, inhibition, and response variability...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Robert Fiorentino, Lauren Covey, Alison Gabriele
The present study examines the processing of referential ambiguity and referential failure using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences with pronouns (he, she) which contained either one, two, or no potential gender-matching antecedents. Participants also took tests of working memory (count span/reading span) and attentional control (Number Stroop). In contexts of referential ambiguity with two potential gender-matching antecedents, two different responder types emerged, with some participants yielding a sustained negativity (Nref) and others a sustained positivity...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"