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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922960/cognitive-performance-in-transient-global-hypoxic-brain-injury-due-to-moderate-drowning
#1
Mariana Penteado Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, Gilson Vieira, João Ricardo Sato, Edson Amaro Júnior
INTRODUCTION: Drowning is a serious and frequently neglected public health threat. Primary respiratory impairment after submersion often leads to brain dysfunction. Depending on the period of global hypoxia (respiratory failure), clinical aspects of neurological dysfunction are evident on the first evaluation after the water rescue. Nowadays, many neuropsychological assessments after drowning are inconclusive, with some studies reporting only minor neurological or cognitive impairments...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904081/variable-setpoint-as-a-relaxing-component-in-physiological-control
#2
Geir B Risvoll, Kristian Thorsen, Peter Ruoff, Tormod Drengstig
Setpoints in physiology have been a puzzle for decades, and especially the notion of fixed or variable setpoints have received much attention. In this paper, we show how previously presented homeostatic controller motifs, extended with saturable signaling kinetics, can be described as variable setpoint controllers. The benefit of a variable setpoint controller is that an observed change in the concentration of the regulated biochemical species (the controlled variable) is fully characterized, and is not considered a deviation from a fixed setpoint...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898784/variable-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-daphnia-in-boreal-lakes
#3
Andrea L Conine, Daniel C Rearick, Marguerite A Xenopoulos, Paul C Frost
Variable sensitivity of organisms to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) caused by changes in physico-chemical variables in aquatic ecosystems is receiving increasing attention. Variables such as dissolved organic carbon, pH, light, the presence of algae and bacteria, dissolved oxygen and different ions have all been studied individually, but it is still unclear how these variables in combination alter AgNP toxicity in natural ecosystems. Here we examined AgNP toxicity on survival of wild-caught Daphnia using AgNP suspensions placed in water from several different lakes at the IISD-Experimental Lakes Area, which span a gradient of water quality parameters...
September 6, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891668/visual-attention-and-emotional-reactions-to-negative-stimuli-the-role-of-age-and-cognitive-reappraisal
#4
Maria Wirth, Derek M Isaacowitz, Ute Kunzmann
Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886408/the-fate-of-distractors-in-working-memory-no-evidence-for-their-active-removal
#5
Isabelle Dagry, Pierre Barrouillet
Not all the information processed in working memory (WM) must be retained. Due to the strict limitations of its capacity, the mechanisms that prevent WM from being cluttered and choked by no longer relevant information are of paramount importance. The present study tested the hypothesis put forward by the SOB-CS model of an active and attention-demanding mechanism that would remove no-longer relevant items from WM. Such a mechanism has been advocated to account for the well-known fact that, in complex span tasks, processing distractors at a slower pace results in better recall of memory items...
September 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880682/investigating-patterns-of-memory-impairment-in-ischemic-stroke-in-an-iranian-population
#6
Negar Karimian, Karim Asgari, Hamid Taher Neshat Doost, Hamid Reza Oreizi, Mohammad Reza Najafi
Up until the date of this research, studies have examined poststroke cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and executive functions. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of memory problems in various patterns of memory in ischemic stroke patients in an attempt to determine specific memory profiles of the patients. The goal was to determine the severity and patterns of memory impairments in ischemic stroke patients and to identify specific profiles of memory impairments in stroke patients, in order to help therapists to develop more appropriate memory rehabilitation programs for the patients...
September 7, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877035/academic-medicine-and-medical-professionalism-a-legacy-and-a-portal-into-an-evolving-field-of-educational-scholarship
#7
Frederic W Hafferty
In this Invited Commentary, the author examines two curated Academic Medicine volumes showcasing foundational research and key writings on professionalism in medicine and medical education, collectively spanning from 1994 to 2016. The author reviews the beginnings of the medical professionalism movement and examines how the trends and themes reflected in the first volume-specifically the work to define, assess, and institutionalize professionalism-capture key elements in this movement. He then examines how the trends and themes in the second volume align with and build on those from the first, noting two themes that extend across a number of second volume articles: a unit-of-analysis issue and the challenge of context...
September 5, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873846/introducing-zora-to-children-with-severe-physical-disabilities
#8
Renée van den Heuvel, Monique Lexis, Luc de Witte
The aim of the present study was to explore the potential of a ZORA-robot based intervention in rehabilitation and special education for children with (severe) physical disabilities from the professionals perspective. The qualitative results of this study will be presented. Professionals indicated meaningful application possibilities for ZORA. Overall, ZORA was able to improve motivation, concentration, taking initiative and attention span. Three domains could be identified to be most promising for application of ZORA: (re)learning of movement skills, cognitive skills and communication/social interaction skills...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868081/cognitive-performance-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-vs-healthy-controls-a-neuropsychological-investigation
#9
M Carlotta Palazzo, Chiara Arici, Laura Cremaschi, Marta Cristoffanini, Cristina Dobrea, Bernardo Dell'Osso, A Carlo Altamura
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment may affect patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) beyond the acute episodes, qualifying as a potential endophenotype. However, which cognitive domains are specifically affected in euthymic patients with BD and the potential influence of confounding factors (e.g., age and concomitant pharmacological treatment) are still a matter of debate. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess cognitive performance across specific domains in euthymic bipolar patients, not older than 50 years (to avoid potential age-related bias) versus healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865310/dynamic-range-of-frontoparietal-functional-modulation-is-associated-with-working-memory-capacity-limitations-in-older-adults
#10
Jonathan G Hakun, Nathan F Johnson
Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity...
August 30, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854609/age-differences-in-explicit-and-implicit-age-attitudes-across-the-life-span
#11
William J Chopik, Hannah L Giasson
Purpose of the Study: Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals. Design and Method: Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844148/the-association-of-apolipoprotein-e-gene-polymorphism-with-cognitive-performance-in-nondemented-polish-adults-aged-55-to-75
#12
Małgorzata T Piskunowicz, Katarzyna Linkowska, Szymon Gołota, Tomasz Grzybowski, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Alina Borkowska
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is known as a risk factor for dementia. How APOE ε polymorphism affects cognitive performance in nondemented aging subjects remains less clear. In this study, the relationship between APOE status and cognitive performance across various cognitive domains in adults aged 55 to 75 years ( n = 74) without dementia was investigated. E4 carriers ( n = 11) performed worse versus noncarriers on forward Digit Span and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837499/robot-zora-in-rehabilitation-and-special-education-for-children-with-severe-physical-disabilities-a-pilot-study
#13
Renée J F van den Heuvel, Monique A S Lexis, Luc P de Witte
The aim of this study was to explore the potential of ZORA robot-based interventions in rehabilitation and special education for children with severe physical disabilities. A two-centre explorative pilot study was carried out over a 2.5-month period involving children with severe physical disabilities with a developmental age ranging from 2 to 8 years. Children participated in six sessions with the ZORA robot in individual or in group sessions. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data on aspects of feasibility, usability, barriers and facilitators for the child as well as for the therapist and to obtain an indication of the effects on playfulness and the achievement of goals...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818818/validation-of-a-smartphone-based-approach-to-in-situ-cognitive-fatigue-assessment
#14
Edward Price, George Moore, Leo Galway, Mark Linden
BACKGROUND: Acquired Brain Injuries (ABIs) can result in multiple detrimental cognitive effects, such as reduced memory capability, concentration, and planning. These effects can lead to cognitive fatigue, which can exacerbate the symptoms of ABIs and hinder management and recovery. Assessing cognitive fatigue is difficult due to the largely subjective nature of the condition and existing assessment approaches. Traditional methods of assessment use self-assessment questionnaires delivered in a medical setting, but recent work has attempted to employ more objective cognitive tests as a way of evaluating cognitive fatigue...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796580/diabetes-and-tooth-loss-among-working-age-african-americans-a-national-perspective
#15
Julia F Hastings, Elizabeth Vasquez
Natural teeth are still lost in adults despite improvements in dental care and access to treatment across the life span. The study examined whether tooth loss can be mitigated in adults experiencing diabetes. National online survey data from the Service Utilization among African Americans with Co-morbid Depression and Diabetes (n = 275) were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Diabetes was most prevalent among men (73.5%) and least prevalent among women (40.6%). In general and among the women, those without diabetes have approximately 50% fewer missing teeth than those with diabetes (odds ratio = ...
2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791689/theorizing-and-researching-levels-of-processing-in-self-regulated-learning
#16
Philip H Winne
BACKGROUND: Deep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge...
August 9, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783749/a-yoga-program-for-cognitive-enhancement
#17
Devon Brunner, Amitai Abramovitch, Joseph Etherton
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that yoga practice may improve cognitive functioning. Although preliminary data indicate that yoga improves working memory (WM), high-resolution information about the type of WM subconstructs, namely maintenance and manipulation, is not available. Furthermore, the association between cognitive enhancement and improved mindfulness as a result of yoga practice requires empirical examination. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of a brief yoga program on WM maintenance, WM manipulation and attentive mindfulness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783013/managing-urban-stormwater-for-urban-sustainability-barriers-and-policy-solutions-for-green-infrastructure-application
#18
Krishna P Dhakal, Lizette R Chevalier
Green infrastructure (GI) revitalizes vegetation and soil, restores hydro-ecological processes destroyed by traditional urbanization, and naturally manages stormwater on-site, offering numerous sustainability benefits. However, despite being sustainable and despite being the object of unrelenting expert advocacy for more than two decades, GI implementation remains slow. On the other hand, the practice of traditional gray infrastructure, which is known to have significant adverse impacts on the environment, is still ubiquitous in urban areas throughout the world...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778056/cognitive-predictors-of-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#19
Elizabeth N Kerr, Nora Fayed
The current study sought to understand the contribution of the attention and working memory challenges experienced by children with active epilepsy without an intellectual disability to adaptive functioning (AF) while taking into account intellectual ability, co-occurring brain-based psychosocial diagnoses, and epilepsy-related variables. METHODS: The relationship of attention and working memory with AF was examined in 76 children with active epilepsy with intellectual ability above the 2nd percentile recruited from a tertiary care center...
July 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776749/psychosocial-functioning-self-image-and-quality-of-life-in-children-and-adolescents-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#20
S Cipolletta, G Spina, A Spoto
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder associated with neurocutaneus manifestations, as well as attention and learning problems. The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and self-image of children with NF1. METHOD: Two hundred forty participants were recruited, comprising 60 children and adolescents with NF1, 60 parents of children with NF1, 60 children and adolescents without NF1, and 60 parents of children without NF1...
August 3, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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