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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632427/speed-of-processing-and-executive-functions-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-quick-in-finding-the-word-but-not-the-ladybird
#1
Cristina Romani, Anita MacDonald, Sara De Felice, Liana Palermo
A reduction in processing speed is widely reported in phenylketonuria (PKU), possibly due to white matter pathology. We investigated possible deficits and their relationships with executive functions in a sample of 37 early-treated adults with PKU (AwPKUs). AwPKUs were not characterized by a generalized speed deficit, but instead their performance could be explained by two more specific impairments: (a) a deficit in the allocation of visuo-spatial attention that reduced speed in visual search tasks, in some reading conditions and visuo-motor coordination tasks; and (b) a more conservative decision mechanism that slowed down returning an answer across domains...
June 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631973/the-lifespan-self-esteem-scale-initial-validation-of-a-new-measure-of-global-self-esteem
#2
Michelle A Harris, M Brent Donnellan, Kali H Trzesniewski
This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631349/tuning-sulfur-oxidation-states-on-thioether-bridged-peptide-macrocycles-for-modulation-of-protein-interactions
#3
Gabriella Perell, Rachel Staebell, Mehrdad Hairani, Alessandro Cembran, William Charles Krause Pomerantz
Thioethers, sulfoxides, and sulfonium ions, despite diverse physicochemical properties, all engage in non-covalent interactions with proteins. Thioether-containing macrocycles are also attracting attention as protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitors. Here we use a model PPI between -helical MLL and KIX to evaluate oxidation effects on sulfur-containing macrocycle structure, stability, and protein affinity. Desolvation effects from varied polarity states were evaluated computationally and experimentally at the side chain, amino acid and peptide level...
June 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#4
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621146/dissociation-of-executive-and-attentional-elements-of-the-digit-span-task-in-a-population-of-older-adults-a-latent-class-analysis
#5
Denise R LaBelle, Bern G Lee, Justin B Miller
The prevailing model for working memory proposes the existence of a "central executive" responsible for coordinating and prioritizing incoming information from sensory and association cortices. The Digit Span task is commonly used by clinicians to parse attentional and executive components of working memory; however, the interrelatedness of these constructs in the context of advanced age and neurodegenerative disease remains an area of active investigation. The current study details a procedure and rationale for the use of latent class analysis, a data-driven, person-centered method, in the investigation of older adults and dementia...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615756/neurocognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia
#6
Virupaksha Shanmugam Harave, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairments of attention and executive functioning are trait abnormalities in schizophrenia, and these are considered to be endophenotypes. These deficits have been convincingly linked to prefrontal cortical functioning. In this study, we examined the cognitive performance in the domains of attention and executive functioning among first-degree relatives of Indian people with schizophrenia (high-risk [HR] patients) compared to healthy controls (HC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Siblings of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, HR patients (n = 17), were compared with HC (n = 30) (matched as a group for age, sex, years of education, and handedness) using the following neurocognitive tests for attention and executive function - digit span test (DST), trail making test, letter-number sequencing (LNS), and spatial span test...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610255/new-records-of-harvestmen-arachnida-opiliones-from-minnesota-usa
#7
A Kenji Shoemaker, Mercedes Burns, Sarah L Boyer
Harvestmen (Opiliones) are a diverse order of arachnids composed of more than 6,600 described species which together span an almost global distribution. Although these animals may occur in extremely high abundance in both pristine and disturbed habitats, much of harvestman diversity remains undescribed, undocumented, and/or in need of taxonomic attention. In the current study, we focus on the harvestman diversity of the state of Minnesota, USA, where a lack of local expertise and effort has left the species richness of the state largely undocumented...
June 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609152/age-related-cognitive-effects-of-videogame-playing-across-the-adult-life-span
#8
Ping Wang, Xing-Ting Zhu, Han-Hui Liu, Yi-Wen Zhang, Yang Hu, Hui-Jie Li, Xi-Nian Zuo
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies found positive influences of videogame playing on cognition. However, the age-related and task-related effects of videogame experience across the adult life span are still unknown. The current study aimed to systematically investigate this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study used the cross-sectional approach. A total of 166 participants (84 videogame players [VGPs], 82 nonvideogame players [NVGPs]) at the age of 18-80 in the present study were recruited, including 62 young adults aged from 18 to 34 (35 VGPs, 27 NVGPs), 55 middle-aged adults aged between 35 and 59 (24 VGPs, 31 NVGPs), and 49 older adults aged between 60 and 80 (25 VGPs, 24 NVGPs)...
June 13, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605630/cognitive-outcome-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-children-a-controlled-longitudinal-study
#9
Valentina Sibilia, Carmen Barba, Tiziana Metitieri, Giovanni Michelini, Flavio Giordano, Lorenzo Genitori, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants of cognitive outcome two years after surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy in a cohort of 31 children when compared to a control group of 14 surgical candidates who had yet to undergo surgery two years after the first neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Controlled longitudinal study including three evaluations of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) scores or GDQ (General Developmental Quotient) for each group depending on the patient's age: prior to surgery (T0), one year (T1) and two years (T2) after surgery for the surgical group; baseline (T0) and one year (T1) and 2years (T2) after the first evaluation for the control-group...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604052/lifespan-changes-in-attention-revisited-everyday-visual-search
#10
Allison A Brennan, Alison J Bruderer, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Todd C Handy, James T Enns
This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598955/the-comorbidity-of-daydreaming-disorder-maladaptive-daydreaming
#11
Eli Somer, Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Colin A Ross
To determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, daydreaming disorder (more commonly known as maladaptive daydreaming [MD]), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteria for MD on a structured interview. We determined high rates of comorbidity: 74.4% met criteria for more than three additional disorders, and 41...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592136/relationship-of-depression-with-executive-functions-and-visuospatial-memory-in-elderly
#12
Monika Klojčnik, Voyko Kavcic, Karin Bakracevic Vukman
Cognitive deficits are a potential part of the clinical picture of depression, especially when it comes to late-life depression. The present study was carried out to establish whether distinctive cognitive deficiencies can be linked with depression in the late-life period, especially in executive functioning, working memory, and visuospatial memory. Our sample consisted of 71 seniors in the age range between 69 and 85 years. A battery of neurocognitive tests was used, including tests of executive functioning (Trail Making Test [TMT], part B, Stroop color word test, semantic word fluency test, and partially Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test [ROCF]), tests of attention and working memory (TMT, part A and digit span), and test of visuospatil ability and memory (ROCF)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582314/angiopoietins-and-tie2-in-vascular-inflammation
#13
Samir M Parikh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a subset of the organism-wide reaction to severe infection, the host vascular response has received increasing attention in recent years. The transformation that small blood vessels undergo to facilitate the clearance of pathogens may become harmful to the host if it occurs too broadly or if it is sustained too long. Adverse clinical manifestations of leaky and inflamed blood vessels include edema impairing the function of critical organs and circulatory shock. RECENT FINDINGS: The study suggests that this host vascular response may be both measurable and potentially targetable...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579482/precuneus-degeneration-and-isolated-apathy-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Jung Hwan Shin, Seong A Shin, Jee-Young Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Jae-Sung Lim, Yu Kyeong Kim
INTRODUCTION: To investigate isolated apathy in a set of consecutively enrolled Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia, depression, and significant motor response fluctuations, by conducting neuropsychological and neuroimaging analyses. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Clinical information and data were collected from a predefined neuropsychological test battery, including the mini-mental status examination, apathy scale, geriatric depression scale, digit span test, Boston naming test, Seoul verbal learning test, controlled oral word association test, go-no-go test, and the Rey figure copy test...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579056/-computerized-oculomotor-training-in-dyslexia-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial-in-pediatric-population
#15
H Peyre, C-L Gérard, I Dupong Vanderhorst, S Larger, C Lemoussu, J Vesta, E Bui Quoc, N Gouleme, R Delorme, M P Bucci
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported abnormal oculomotor capacities leading to reading/writing difficulties among dyslexic children. However, no randomized clinical trial has been conducted to determine whether oculomotor training improves reading/writing skills of these children. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of computer-based oculomotor training among dyslexic children. METHOD: Crossover randomized trial with enrollment from January 12, 2015 to July 24, 2015, and follow-up to February 4, 2016...
June 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575507/advances-in-the-myb-bhlh-wd-repeat-mbw-pigment-regulatory-model-addition-of-a-wrky-factor-and-co-option-of-an-anthocyanin-myb-for-betalain-regulation
#16
Alan Lloyd, Austen Brockman, Lyndsey Aguirre, Annabelle Campbell, Alex Bean, Araceli Cantero, Antonio Gonzalez
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites derived from the general phenylpropanoid pathway and are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. The functions of flavonoids are diverse, including defense against phytopathogens, protection against UV light damage and oxidative stress, regulation of auxin transport and allelopathy. One of the most conspicuous functions of flavonoids has long attracted the attention of pollinators and scientist alike: the vivid shades of red, pink, orange, blue and purple on display in the flowers of angiosperms...
May 30, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570327/gastroenterology-and-neurology
#17
Ronald F Pfeiffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Just as gastrointestinal dysfunction may develop in the setting of neurologic disease, neurologic dysfunction may become evident in the setting of gastrointestinal disease. This article describes the range of neurologic features that have been described in three primary gastrointestinal diseases: celiac disease and gluten-related disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and Whipple disease. Particular emphasis is placed on the controversial and evolving clinical picture of neurologic dysfunction in disorders of gluten sensitivity...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568967/globalisation-and-national-trends-in-nutrition-and-health-a-grouped-fixed-effects-approach-to-intercountry-heterogeneity
#18
Lisa Oberlander, Anne-Célia Disdier, Fabrice Etilé
Using a panel dataset of 70 countries spanning 42 years (1970-2011), we investigate the distinct effects of social globalisation and trade openness on national trends in markers of diet quality (supplies of animal proteins, free fats and sugar, average body mass index, and diabetes prevalence). Our key methodological contribution is the application of a grouped fixed-effects estimator, which extends linear fixed-effects models. The grouped fixed-effects estimator partitions our sample into distinct groups of countries in order to control for time-varying unobserved heterogeneity that follows a group-specific pattern...
June 1, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562247/neurodevelopment-the-impact-of-nutrition-and-inflammation-during-preconception-and-pregnancy-in-low-resource-settings
#19
Betty R Vohr, Elysia Poggi Davis, Christine A Wanke, Nancy F Krebs
The rapid pace of fetal development by far exceeds any other stage of the life span, and thus, environmental influences can profoundly alter the developmental course. Stress during the prenatal period, including malnutrition and inflammation, impact maternal and fetal neurodevelopment with long-term consequences for physical and mental health of both the mother and her child. One primary consequence of maternal malnutrition, inflammation, and other sources of prenatal stress is a poor birth outcome, such as prematurity or growth restriction...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559437/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-a-regulator-of-metabolic-disease-and-health-span
#20
Ting Xie, Po Sing Leung
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent endocrine regulator with physiological effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and thus garners much attention on its translational potential for the management of obesity and related metabolic syndromes. FGF21 is mainly expressed in several metabolically active tissue organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and pancreas with profound effects and therapeutically relevance. Emerging experimental and clinical data point to the demonstrated metabolic benefits of FGF21 which includes, but not limit to, weight loss, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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