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attention span

Ladan Hemmati, Soraya Piroozi, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), postural control is a demanding task in terms of attention. Although the attentional demands of postural control have been investigated in these patients, the attentional demands of postural recovery during dual task performance have not been evaluated in patients with nonspecific CLBP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dual tasking on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in response to an external perturbation in patients with nonspecific CLBP...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Jing Shi, Hua Guo, Fengmei Fan, Hongzhen Fan, Huimei An, Zhiren Wang, Shuping Tan, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
Although differential patterns in clinical characteristics have been consistently noted between male and female patients with bipolar disorder (BD), the effect of sex on the hippocampal structure remains unclear. To address this, the present study investigated the effects of BD and sex on the hippocampal structure, and the relationship between the hippocampal structure and cognitive performance. Morphometric and neurocognitive analyses were performed in 91 subjects (patients with BD: male/female = 33/19; normal controls: male/female = 22/17)...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Chaoyu Song, Feng-Ren Fan, Ningning Xuan, Shenyang Huang, Guowei Zhang, Chong Wang, Zhengzong Sun, Hua Wu, Hugen Yan
Due to the strong quantum confinement effect, few-layer γ-InSe exhibits a layer-dependent bandgap, spanning the visible and near infrared regions, and thus recently draws tremendous attention. As a two-dimensional material, the mechanical flexibility provides an additional tuning knob for the electronic structures. Here, for the first time, we engineer the band structures of few-layer and bulk-like InSe by uniaxial tensile strain, and observe salient shift of photoluminescence (PL) peaks. The shift rate of the optical gap is approximately 90-100 meV per 1% strain for 4- to 8-layer samples, which is much larger than that for the widely studied MoS2 monolayer...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vincenzo Crunelli, Magor L Lőrincz, William M Connelly, François David, Stuart W Hughes, Régis C Lambert, Nathalie Leresche, Adam C Errington
During inattentive wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, the neocortex and thalamus cooperatively engage in rhythmic activities that are exquisitely reflected in the electroencephalogram as distinctive rhythms spanning a range of frequencies from <1 Hz slow waves to 13 Hz alpha waves. In the thalamus, these diverse activities emerge through the interaction of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and local and long-range synaptic inputs. One crucial feature, however, unifies thalamic oscillations of different frequencies: repetitive burst firing driven by voltage-dependent Ca2+ spikes...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Jun Lv, Gao-Fei Qian, Lei Chen, Huan Liu, Hai-Xiao Xu, Gan-Rong Xu, Bo-Bo Zhang, Chan Zhang
Due to the increasing demand for healthy and safe food, Monascus spp. have gained much attention as a sustainable source of natural food colorant. In this study, a novel integrated fermentation system consisting of surfactant and in situ extractant was established for efficiently producing yellow pigments by M. purpureus sjs-6. The maximum production of Monascus yellow pigment (669.2 U/mL) was obtained when 40% soybean oil (as extractant) was supplied at the beginning and 5 g/L Span-80 (as surfactant) was supplied at the 72th h, resulting in production 27...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hasok Chang
Attention to the history of chemistry can help us recognise the characteristics of chemistry that have helped to maintain it as a separate scientific discipline with a unique identity. Three such features are highlighted in this paper. First, chemistry has maintained a distinct type of theoretical thinking, independent from that of physics even in the era of quantum chemistry. Second, chemical research has always been shaped by its ineliminable practical relevance and usefulness. Third, the lived experience of chemistry, spanning the laboratory, the classroom and everyday life, is distinctive in its multidimensional sensuousness...
January 8, 2018: Ambix
Elizabeth Fernandez, Jorge A Bergado Rosado, Daymi Rodriguez Perez, Sonia Salazar Santana, Maydane Torres Aguilar, Maria Luisa Bringas
Many training programs have been designed using modern software to restore the impaired cognitive functions in patients with acquired brain damage (ABD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based training program of attention and memory in patients with ABD, using a two-armed parallel group design, where the experimental group (n = 50) received cognitive stimulation using RehaCom software, and the control group (n = 30) received the standard cognitive stimulation (non-computerized) for eight weeks...
December 30, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
Azadeh Leland, Kamran Tavakol, Joel Scholten, Debra Mathis, David Maron, Simin Bakhshi
Background: This study focussed on the effect of dual versus single tasking on balance, gait and cognition in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We examined the correlation between these parameters, with responses to questions on community reintegration activities. Method: 22 male and female veterans (aged 19-65) walked along a narrow and 6.1-meter long path, both at their self-selected and fastest but safe pace under single and dual tasking conditions...
December 2017: Materia Socio-medica
Christine Bastin
An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object...
December 28, 2017: Memory
Zegeye Getaneh, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Getabalew Engidaye, Masresha Seyoum, Muruts Berhane, Zegeye Abebe, Fikir Asrie, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
Q Li, L Q Zhao, F Y Hu
Objective: To investigate the features of cognitive impairment and potential physiopathologic mechanism using neuropsychological assessment and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA). Methods: A total of 13 patients with LA (LA group) and 13 healthy controls (NC group) from Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital between January and June 2016 were recruited. The two groups were matched for age, sex, education, and vascular risk factors. All the subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment and the scan of rs-fMRI...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Tomohiko Ishibashi, Takafumi Yokota, Yusuke Satoh, Michiko Ichii, Takao Sudo, Yukiko Doi, Tomoaki Ueda, Yasuhiro Nagate, Yuri Hamanaka, Akira Tanimura, Sachiko Ezoe, Hirohiko Shibayama, Kenji Oritani, Yuzuru Kanakura
Information of myeloid lineage-related antigen on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is important to clarify the mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis, as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of myeloid malignancies. We previously reported that special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1), a global chromatin organizer, promotes lymphoid differentiation from HSPCs. To search a novel cell surface molecule discriminating early myeloid and lymphoid differentiation, we performed microarray analyses comparing SATB1-overexpressed HSPCs with mock-transduced HSPCs...
December 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jing Zhao, Menglian Liu, Hanlong Liu, Chen Huang
With reading development, some children fail to learn to read fluently. However, reading fluency difficulty (RFD) has not been fully investigated. The present study explored the underlying mechanism of RFD from the aspect of visual attention span. Fourteen Chinese children with RFD and fourteen age-matched normal readers participated. The visual 1-back task was adopted to examine visual attention span. Reaction time and accuracy were recorded, and relevant d-prime (d') scores were computed. Results showed that children with RFD exhibited lower accuracy and lower d' values than the controls did in the visual 1-back task, revealing a visual attention span deficit...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kathleen D Becker, Shania Johnson, Denise Rucker, Deborah S Finnell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the publication record across eight cohorts of post-master's Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) graduates. BACKGROUND: Dissemination of findings from evidence-based practice is described in the American Association of the Colleges of Nursing (AACN), Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Essential III. Students in DNP programs are expected to generate deliverables (e.g., a manuscript) of evidence to improve practice or patient outcomes...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Nurul Fatihah Mohamad Nasir, Azalina Zainuddin, Shaharum Shamsuddin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is imposing an increasing burden on society. Currently, AD is the leading cause of senile dementia worldwide. Despite the long existence of AD, there is lack of therapies for AD, suggesting that new and effective treatment strategy must be explored. At present, sirtuin pathway has attracted attention from the researchers due to its promising results in laboratory models of aging. In addition, our understanding in the roles of sirtuin 6 in AD has expanded...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Cara Daly, Maeve Leonard, Henry O'Connell, Olugbenga Williams, Fahad Awan, Chris Exton, Margaret O'Connor, Dimitrios Adamis, Colum P Dunne, Walter Cullen, David J Meagher
BACKGROUND: The early and effective detection of neurocognitive disorders poses a key diagnostic challenge. We examined performance on common cognitive bedside tests according to differing delirium syndromal status and clinical (motor) subtypes in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients. METHODS: A battery of nine bedside cognitive tests was performed on elderly medical inpatients with DSM-IV delirium, subsyndromal delirium (SSD), and no delirium (ND). Patients with delirium were compared according to clinical (motor) subtypes...
December 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Gavin A Scott, Nadine K Zabder, Quentin Greba, John G Howland
Working memory (WM) is the ability to temporarily store information for use and manipulation. Working memory is thought to depend on a distributed set of higher cortical areas including the prefrontal and parietal cortex in primates while relatively little research has been conducted in rodents to elucidate the exact role of the parietal cortex (PC) in WM, particularly in relation to the construct of working memory capacity. Previous work in our lab demonstrates that performance of the odour span task (OST), an olfactory incremental delayed nonmatching-to-sample task, relies on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Jenna M Norton, Catherine S Bradley, Sonya S Brady, Linda Brubaker, Daniel Gossett, Jeffrey P Henderson, Donna Mazloomdoost, Carol M Musil, Eric Rovner, Tamara Bavendam
Despite intensive work in the field, urinary incontinence (UI) treatment is characterized by unintended side effects, uncertain durability, high risk of complications, and inconsistent outcomes. Therapy is generally directed toward underlying anatomic and physiologic causes, with little attention to important cognitive, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of UI. Recognition that the variability in UI treatment success is likely driven at least in part by individual variability-combined with a demonstrated need for better outcomes for patients with UI; a torrent of technical advances involving -omic, mobile health, and data science technologies; and growth of intra- and transdisciplinary research-has made the development of a science base to enable better targeting of UI treatments based on individual patient characteristics both interesting and feasible...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Urology
Gabriella A Horvath, Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Tanja Bartel, Simone Race, Margot I Van Allen, Ingrid Blydt-Hansen, Colin J Ross, Wyeth W Wasserman, Mary B Connolly, Clara D M van Karnebeek
PAK3-related intellectual disability is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the p21-activated kinase (PAK) protein. It is characterized by mild to moderate cognitive impairment, micro/normocephaly, and a neurobehavioral phenotype characterized by short attention span, anxiety, restlessness, aggression, and self-abusive behaviors. The authors report a patient with a novel PAK3 mutation, who presented with intellectual disability, severe automutilation, and epilepsy. His magnetic resonance imaging changes were most likely secondary to lacerations from parenchymal contusions...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
Demetrios D Chronopoulos, Aristides Bakandritsos, Martin Pykal, Radek Zbořil, Michal Otyepka
Fluorographene, formally a two-dimensional stoichiometric graphene derivative, attracted remarkable attention of the scientific community due to its extraordinary physical and chemical properties. We overview the strategies for the preparation of fluorinated graphene derivatives, based on top-down and bottom-up approaches. The physical and chemical properties of fluorographene, which is considered as one of the thinnest insulators with a wide electronic band gap, are presented. Special attention is paid to the rapidly developing chemistry of fluorographene, which was advanced in the last few years...
December 2017: Applied Materials Today
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