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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100316/optimizing-nutrition-of-the-preterm-infant
#1
William W Jr Hay
The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099227/breast-milk-is-a-potential-vehicle-for-hpv-transmission-to-oral-mucosa-of-the-spouse
#2
Karolina Louvanto, Marja Sarkola, Marjut Rintala, Kari Syrjänen, Seija Grenman, Stina Syrjänen
BACKGROUND: HPV DNA has been detected in breast milk but its origin has remained obscure. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence and persistence of HPV in breast milk in the Finnish Family HPV cohort study. The association of breast milk HPV positivity with the family members' oral HPV status was evaluated. METHODS: We included 308 families to the study where the mother was breast feeding her offspring. Mothers collected the milk samples manually at day 3, and at months 2, 6 and 12...
January 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094880/milk-ejection-patterns-remain-consistent-during-the-first-and-second-lactations
#3
Hazel Gardner, Jacqueline C Kent, Danielle K Prime, Ching-Tat Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
OBJECTIVE: Milk ejection is a critical physiological process for successful lactation in humans and without it little milk can be removed. Individual milk ejection patterns have been shown to remain consistent between breasts at different lactation stages and using different vacuum patterns with an electric breast pump. Little is known about the milk ejection characteristics during the second lactation period in the same mother. The objective of this study was to examine milk ejection characteristics in the same woman over two lactations...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094879/nutritional-inflammatory-and-ecological-correlates-of-maternal-retinol-allocation-to-breast-milk-in-agro-pastoral-ariaal-communities-of-northern-kenya
#4
Masako Fujita, Yun-Jia Lo, Eleanor Brindle
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient required for a range of biological functions throughout life. VA deficiency (VAD) claims an estimated 1 million preschool children's lives annually. Human milk is enriched with VA (retinol) from the maternal blood, which originates from the hepatic reserve and dietary intake. Secreting retinol into milk will benefit the nursing infant through breast milk, but retaining retinol is also important for the maternal health. Previous studies found that the public health intervention of high-dose VA supplementation to lactating mothers did not significantly lower child mortality...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094284/the-composition-of-human-milk-and-infant-faecal-microbiota-over-the-first-three-months-of-life-a-pilot-study
#5
Kiera Murphy, David Curley, Tom F O'Callaghan, Carol-Anne O'Shea, Eugene M Dempsey, Paul W O'Toole, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton
Human milk contains a diverse array of bioactives and is also a source of bacteria for the developing infant gut. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial communities in human milk and infant faeces over the first 3 months of life, in 10 mother-infant pairs. The presence of viable Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in human milk was also evaluated. MiSeq sequencing revealed a large diversity of the human milk microbiota, identifying over 207 bacterial genera in milk samples. The phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the predominant bacterial groups...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091279/aflatoxin-m1-in-human-breast-milk-in-shahrekord-iran-and-association-with-dietary-factors
#6
Tina Jafari, Aziz A Fallah, Soleiman Kheiri, Abdolmajid Fadaei, Sayed Asadollah Amini
This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 250 breast milk samples of lactating mothers, obtained from urban and rural regions of Shahrekord, Iran. Moreover, the association between AFM1 occurrence levels and dietary factors were assessed. AFM1 analysis was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for confirmatory purposes...
January 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079170/growth-and-morbidity-of-gambian-infants-are-influenced-by-maternal-milk-oligosaccharides-and-infant-gut-microbiota
#7
Jasmine C C Davis, Zachery T Lewis, Sridevi Krishnan, Robin M Bernstein, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice, David A Mills, Carlito B Lebrilla, Angela M Zivkovic
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother's HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3'-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078789/-breastfeeding-without-baby-a-longitudinal-qualitative-investigation-of-how-mothers-perceive-feel-about-and-practice-human-milk-expression
#8
Julia P Felice, Sheela R Geraghty, Caroline W Quaglieri, Rei Yamada, Adriana J Wong, Kathleen M Rasmussen
Most American mothers who produce human milk (HM) now pump in place of some or all feeding at the breast, and most American infants are now fed pumped HM. We aimed to investigate mothers' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and practices for pumping and providing pumped HM. Results related to pumping are reported here. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of 20 mothers who pumped, following each from pregnancy through infant HM-feeding cessation up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas...
January 12, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074312/barriers-to-and-facilitators-of-adherence-to-exclusive-breastfeeding-practices-among-hiv-infected-and-non-infected-women-in-jos-nigeria
#9
Bronwynè Coetzee, Mark Tomlinson, Sophia Osawe, Alash'le Amibiku, Ashraf Kagee
Objectives In Nigeria adherence to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices is currently suboptimal and a better understanding of the factors affecting adherence to EBF is needed. We sought to identify and delineate the barriers to and facilitators of adherence to EBF amongst HIV-infected and uninfected women in Nigeria. Methods We explored the barriers and facilitators to EBF amongst 37 (25 HIV-infected and 12 HIV-uninfected) pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Jos, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted with each of the pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy and again 1 month after giving birth...
January 10, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067687/a-case-of-toxic-breast-feeding
#10
Megan L Schultz, Mark Kostic, Sigmund Kharasch
Opiates are frequently prescribed postpartum for pain relief after cesarean delivery, episiotomies, and headaches. It is estimated that greater than 30% of breast-feeding mothers in the United States are prescribed opiates for pain relief associated with childbirth. Many opiates are readily transferred to human milk, although life-threatening events are rare. We report a 6-day-old breast-feeding infant whose mother was taking hydromorphone for pain relief from a cesarean delivery and whose clinical course was suggestive of opiate toxicity...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066113/lactogenic-activity-of-teramnus-labialis-linn-fruit-with-special-reference-to-the-estimation-of-serum-prolactin-and-cortisol-level-in-nursing-rats
#11
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Amrita Bhaiji, Dev Das Santani
AIM: The objective of the study was to investigate the lactogenic activity of methanolic extract of Teramnus labialis (L.) fruit (MTLF) on rats. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nursing rats (200-250 g) with their suckling pups were selected and were divided into five groups (n = 6). Group I treated as control (distil water); Group II treated as standard (domperidone), and Group III, IV, and V were orally administered with MTLF at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight, respectively and continued for l4(th) day of parturition...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061033/breastfeeding-infants-with-ankyloglossia-insight-into-mothers-experiences
#12
Kevin Wong, Punam Patel, Michael B Cohen, Jessica R Levi
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding difficulty from ankyloglossia can affect both the mother and baby in a breastfeeding dyad. With renewed emphasis in today's culture on breast milk, mothers may feel increasing pressure to breastfeed, and the inability for some to do so may cause significant distress. Recently, online parenting forums have seen exponential growth; these forums allow mothers to connect with peers undergoing similar life transitions. The purpose of this study was to review online discussions regarding ankyloglossia to understand mothers' experiences with breastfeeding...
January 6, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057074/how-acceptable-is-it-for-hiv-positive-african-caribbean-and-black-women-to-provide-breast-milk-fluid-samples-for-research-purposes
#13
L Kapiriri, W Tharao, M Muchenje, I M Khatundi, F Ongoiba
BACKGROUND: The African, Caribbean and Black communities have been found to be reluctant to participate in health research in North America. This is partly attributed to historical experiences as well as their cultural beliefs. Cultural beliefs about the uses of breast milk/fluids could further hinder the participation of African, Caribbean, and Black communities in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids samples. METHODS: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews and three group interviews (n = 10) with HIV+ African, Caribbean and Black women living in Ontario, Canada to explore their cultural beliefs about breast milk/fluids and their acceptance of participating in research that involves the provision of breast fluid samples...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056181/an-adoptive-mother-who-became-a-human-milk-donor
#14
Beatriz Flores-Antón, Nadia Raquel García-Lara, Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso
Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052887/impact-of-human-milk-pasteurization-on-gastric-digestion-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Samira C de Oliveira, Amandine Bellanger, Olivia Ménard, Patrick Pladys, Yann Le Gouar, Emelyne Dirson, Florian Kroell, Didier Dupont, Amélie Deglaire, Claire Bourlieu
BACKGROUND: Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. DESIGN: In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM)...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050407/female-college-students-knowledge-attitude-and-future-intention-towards-breastfeeding-implications-for-advocacy
#16
Ramya Padmanabhan, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Palnivel Chinnakalai
INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is important for promoting child's health. Since, breastfeeding decisions are made before pregnancy and are strongly influenced by women's knowledge and attitude, it is important to identify knowledge gaps in youth girls. AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitude and future intention regarding infant feeding among female college students in Puducherry, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was done among 307 college going female students...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050021/systematic-active-surveillance-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-camels-in-egypt
#17
Mohamed A Ali, Mahmoud M Shehata, Mokhtar R Gomaa, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed S Kayed, Ahmed N El-Taweel, Mohamed Atea, Nagla Hassan, Ola Bagato, Yassmin Moatasim, Sara H Mahmoud, Omnia Kutkat, Asmaa M Maatouq, Ahmed Osman, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%...
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045436/retinol-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol-in-the-breast-milk-of-women-after-a-high-risk-pregnancy
#18
Reyna Sámano, Hugo Martínez-Rojano, Rosa M Hernández, Cristina Ramírez, María E Flores Quijano, José M Espíndola-Polis, Daniela Veruete
BACKGROUND: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. METHODS: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034737/strategies-used-by-overweight-and-obese-low-income-mothers-to-feed-their-families-in-urban-brazil
#19
Priscila de Morais Sato, Ramiro Fernandes Unsain, Joel Gittelsohn, João Gabriel Sanches Tavares da Silva, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Perez, Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi
OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare strategies adopted by overweight and obese low-income mothers living in different vulnerable contexts to deal with food constraints and feed their families. DESIGN: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed with exploratory content analysis and the number of segments per theme was used to compare neighborhoods. SETTING: Three low-income neighborhoods in Santos, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 21 overweight or obese mothers...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033240/risk-factors-associated-with-bordetella-pertussis-among-infants-aged-%C3%A2-4-months-in-the-pre-tdap-era-united-states-2002-2005
#20
C Robinette Curtis, Andrew L Baughman, Chas DeBolt, Susan Goodykoontz, Cynthia Kenyon, Barbara Watson, Pamela K Cassiday, Claudia Miller, Lucia C Pawloski, Maria-Lucia C Tondella, Kristine M Bisgard
BACKGROUND: In the United States, infants have the highest reported pertussis incidence and death rates. Improved understanding of infant risk factors is needed to optimize prevention strategies. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled infants ≤4 months of age with incident-confirmed pertussis from 4 sites during 2002-2005 (preceding pertussis-antigen-containing vaccination recommendations for adolescents/adults); each case-patient was age- and site-matched with 2 control subjects...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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