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clostridium dificile

Taylor E Purvis, C Rory Goodwin, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, A Karim Ahmed, Virginie Lafage, Brian J Neuman, Peter G Passias, Khaled M Kebaish, Steven M Frank, Daniel M Sciubba
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Blood transfusions in spine surgery are shown to be associated with increased patient morbidity. The association between transfusion performed using a liberal hemoglobin (Hb) trigger-defined as an intraoperative Hb level of ≥10 g/dL, a postoperative level of ≥8 g/dL, or a whole hospital nadir between 8 and 10 g/dL-and perioperative morbidity and cost in spine surgery patients is unknown and thus was investigated in this study. PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the perioperative outcomes and economic cost associated with liberal Hb trigger transfusion among spine surgery patients...
September 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Paula Ferrada, Rachael Callcut, Martin D Zielinski, Brandon Bruns, Daniel Dante Yeh, Tanya L Zakrison, Jonathan P Meizoso, Babak Sarani, Richard D Catalano, Peter Kim, Valerie Plant, Amelia Pasley, Linda A Dultz, Asad J Choudhry, Elliott R Haut
OBJECTIVES: The mortality of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) requiring surgery continues to be very high. Loop ileostomy (LI) was introduced as an alternative procedure to total colectomy (TC) for CDAD by a single-center study. To date, no reproducible results have been published. The objective of this study was to compare these two procedures in a multicentric approach to help the surgeon decide what procedure is best suited for the patient in need. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter study conducted under the sponsorship of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
James W Antoon, Margaret Hall, Diana Metropulos, Michael J Steiner, Ravi Jhaveri, Jacob A Lohr
BACKGROUND: Oral vancomycin is used to treat refractory colitis due to Clostridium dificile infection. Traditionally, oral vancomycin was thought to not be absorbed systemically, but recent adult studies have demonstrated detectable serum levels in over half of patients with severe colitis. This has not been studied in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the absorption of oral vancomycin and the renal safety profile of oral vancomycin in children hospitalized with colitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, pilot proof of principle study at the North Carolina Children's Hospital in patients 2 years to 18 years of age receiving oral vancomycin for the treatment of C dificile colitis...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
N B Petrukhina, O A Zorina, E V Shikh, A V Shibaeva, A B Shevelev
By using NGS-sequencing libraries of DNA from periodontal swabs with primers specific to V6 region of 16S rDNA prevalence of bacterial genera and species in periodontal and colonic microbiota of patients with periodontitis of different severity and healthy donors was analyzed. Hyper-colonization of the colon with Akkermansia muciniphila was found to be the most important maker of negative predisposition to periodontitis (t=133,7 at р=10(-6)). This result is in a good agreement with communications about positive impact of hyper-colonization of the colon with this species on type 2 diabetes, obesity, atopic dermatitis, and antibiotic-induced diarrhea associated with Clostridium dificile...
2016: Stomatologii︠a︡
Orna Nitzan, Mazen Elias, Avi Peretz, Walid Saliba
Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be caused by an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria in a genetically susceptible host. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis and complications of the two main inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. Alterations in gut microbiota, and specifically reduced intestinal microbial diversity, have been found to be associated with chronic gut inflammation in these disorders. Specific bacterial pathogens, such as virulent Escherichia coli strains, Bacteroides spp, and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, have been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
George Sakoulas, Sang-Jip Nam, Sandra Loesgen, William Fenical, Paul R Jensen, Victor Nizet, Mary Hensler
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the in vitro activity of a merochlorin A, a novel compound with a unique carbon skeleton, against a spectrum of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens and against previously characterized clinical and laboratory Staphylococcus aureus isolates with resistance to numerous antibiotics. METHODS: Merochlorin A was isolated and purified from a marine-derived actinomycete strain CNH189. Susceptibility testing for merochlorin A was performed against previously characterized human pathogens using broth microdilution and agar dilution methods...
2012: PloS One
Frederico G S De Toledo, Stephen N Symes
The clinical presentation of colitis associated with Clostridium difficile infection in immunosuppressed patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has not been completely characterized. Previous reports suggest that these patients present with low blood leukocyte counts, consistent with the impaired myelopoiesis that can occur with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In contrast, we describe the cases of two patients with colitis associated with C difficile infection who developed intense leukemoid reactions despite being in advanced stages of AIDS...
April 2004: Southern Medical Journal
M F Rocha, M E Maia, L R Bezerra, D M Lyerly, R L Guerrant, R A Ribeiro, A A Lima
Clostridium difficile produces a potent enterotoxin and cytotoxin, toxins A and B, respectively, which appear to be responsible for pseudomenbranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In the present study we explored the neutrophil migration evoked by toxin A in the peritoneal cavities and subcutaneous air pouches of rats and examined the role of macrophages and their inflammatory mediators in this process. Toxin A causes a significant dose-dependent neutrophil influx into the peritoneal cavity, with a maximal response at 0...
July 1997: Infection and Immunity
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