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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140297/a-proteomic-approach-to-investigate-the-drought-response-in-the-orphan-crop-eragrostis-tef
#1
Rizqah Kamies, Jill M Farrant, Zerihun Tadele, Gina Cannarozzi, Mohammed Suhail Rafudeen
The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions...
November 15, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#2
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081249/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-amine-functionalized-copper-nanoparticles-exhibit-different-mechanisms-of-bioactivity-in-fundulus-heteroclitus-in-fresh-and-brackish-water
#4
Merryl N Black, Elenor F Henry, Olivia A Adams, J Craig F Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
The bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials should be limited in marine environments, but uptake and toxicity has been noted in marine fish and invertebrates, albeit at exposure doses far exceeding predicted environmental levels. We examined the bioactivity of amine functionalized copper nanoparticles (nCu; 5-10 nm core diameter) to the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh (FW) and brackish water (BW). Free copper dissolution was undetectable in either water type and nCu remained relatively well dispersed in BW, despite the high ionic strength...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079191/a-novel-mitochondria-targeted-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-for-dynamic-and-reversible-detection-of-the-redox-cycles-between-peroxynitrite-and-glutathione
#5
Chunlong Sun, Wen Du, Peng Wang, Yang Wu, Baoqin Wang, Jun Wang, Wenjun Xie
Redox homeostasis is important for maintenance of normal physiological functions within cells. Redox state of cells is primarily a consequence of precise balance between levels of reducing equivalents and reactive oxygen species. Redox homeostasis between peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and glutathione (GSH) is closely associated with physiological and pathological processes, such as prolonged relaxation in vascular tissues and smooth muscle preparations, attenuation of hepatic necrosis, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2...
October 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072367/reappraisal-of-metallothionein-clinical-implications-for-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Yongsoo Park, Jian Zhang, Lu Cai
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are by-products of cellular physiological processes made from the metabolisms of intermediary nutrients. Although physiological defense mechanisms readily convert these species into water or urea, improper balance between their production and removal leads cells to experience oxidative stress (OS), which is harmful to cellular components. This may result in uncontrolled growth or ultimately to cell death. ROS/RNS are also closely related to the development of diabetes and its complications...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051181/disorders-of-erythrocyte-hydration
#7
Patrick G Gallagher
The erythrocyte contains a network of pathways that regulate salt and water content in the face of extracellular and intracellular osmotic perturbations. This allows the erythrocyte to maintain a narrow range of cell hemoglobin concentration, a process critical for normal red blood cell function and survival. Primary disorders that perturb volume homeostasis jeopardize the erythrocyte and may lead to its premature destruction. These disorders are marked by clinical, laboratory, and physiologic heterogeneity...
October 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985426/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-of-catalpa-bungei-to-drought-stress-under-sufficient-and-deficient-nitrogen-conditions
#8
Huili Shi, Wenjun Ma, Junyu Song, Mei Lu, Siddiq Ur Rahman, Thi Tuyet Xuan Bui, Dinh Duy Vu, Huifang Zheng, Junhui Wang, Yi Zhang, Torgny Näsholm
Many semi-arid ecosystems are simultaneously limited by soil water and nitrogen (N). We conducted a greenhouse experiment to address how N availability impacts drought-resistant traits of Catalpa bungei C. A. Mey at the physiological and molecular level. A factorial design was used, consisting of sufficient-N and deficient-N combined with moderate drought and well-watered conditions. Seedling biomass and major root parameters were significantly suppressed by drought under the deficient-N condition, whereas N application mitigated the inhibiting effects of drought on root growth, particularly that of fine roots with a diameter <0...
July 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972451/differential-effects-of-temperature-on-oxygen-consumption-and-branchial-fluxes-of-urea-ammonia-and-water-in-the-dogfish-shark-squalus-acanthias-suckleyi
#9
Marina Giacomin, Patricia M Schulte, Chris M Wood
Environmental temperature can greatly influence the homeostasis of ectotherms through its effects on biochemical reactions and whole-animal physiology. Elasmobranchs tend to be N limited and are osmoconformers, retaining ammonia and urea-N at the gills and using the latter as a key osmolyte to maintain high blood osmolality. However, the effects of temperature on these key processes remain largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of acute exposure to different temperatures (7°, 12°, 15°, 18°, 22°C) on oxygen consumption, ammonia, urea-N, and diffusive water fluxes at the gills of Squalus acanthias suckleyi...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969798/toward-understanding-of-the-high-number-of-plant-aquaporin-isoforms-and-multiple-regulation-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Ana Romina Fox, Laurie C Maistriaux, François Chaumont
Since the discovery of the first plant aquaporin (AQP) in 1993, our conception of the way plants control cell water homeostasis as well as their global water balance has been revisited. Plant AQPs constitute a large family of evolutionarily related channels that, in addition to water, can also facilitate the membrane diffusion of a number of small solutes, such as urea, CO2, H2O2, ammonia, metalloids, and even ions, indicating a wide range of cellular functions. At the cellular level, AQPs are subject to various regulation mechanisms leading to active/inactive channels in their target membranes...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967192/the-polyuria-polydipsia-syndrome-a-diagnostic-challenge
#11
REVIEW
Nicole Nigro, Mathis Grossmann, Cherie Chiang, Warrick J Inder
The main determinants for the maintenance of water homeostasis are the hormone arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and thirst. Disturbances in these regulatory mechanisms can lead to the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, which comprises of three different conditions: central diabetes insipidus (DI) due to insufficient secretion of AVP, nephrogenic DI caused by renal insensitivity to AVP action, and primary polydipsia due to excessive fluid intake and consequent physiologic suppression of AVP. It is crucial to determine the exact diagnosis because treatment strategies vary substantially...
October 2, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956698/relevance-of-lipid-based-products-in-the-management-of-dry-eye-disease
#12
Jean-Sébastien Garrigue, Mourad Amrane, Marie-Odile Faure, Juha M Holopainen, Louis Tong
Components of the ocular surface synergistically contribute to maintaining and protecting a smooth refractive layer to facilitate the optimal transmission of light. At the air-water interface, the tear film lipid layer (TFLL), a mixture of lipids and proteins, plays a key role in tear surface tension and is important for the physiological hydration of the ocular surface and for ocular homeostasis. Alterations in tear fluid rheology, differences in lipid composition, or downregulation of specific tear proteins are found in most types of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED)...
November 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946120/bisphenol-s-exposure-impairs-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
Fei Zhao, Guobin Jiang, Penghao Wei, Hongfang Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Bisphenol S (BPS) is a substitute of the plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA). Its concentrations detected in surface waters and urine samples are on the same order of magnitude as BPA. Human exposure to BPA has been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus; however, whether BPS can disrupt glucose homeostasis and increase blood glucose concentration remains unclear. We extensively investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of BPS on glucose metabolism in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944006/regulation-of-gene-expression-is-associated-with-tolerance-of-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis-to-co2-acidified-sea-water
#14
Allison Bailey, Pierre De Wit, Peter Thor, Howard I Browman, Reidun Bjelland, Steven Shema, David M Fields, Jeffrey A Runge, Cameron Thompson, Haakon Hop
Ocean acidification is the increase in seawater pCO 2 due to the uptake of atmospheric anthropogenic CO 2, with the largest changes predicted to occur in the Arctic seas. For some marine organisms, this change in pCO 2, and associated decrease in pH, represents a climate change-related stressor. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns of nauplii of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis cultured at low pH levels. We have previously shown that organismal-level performance (development, growth, respiration) of C...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920920/er-associated-degradation-is-required-for-vasopressin-prohormone-processing-and-systemic-water-homeostasis
#15
Guojun Shi, Diane Rm Somlo, Geun Hyang Kim, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Shengyi Sun, Nicole Beuret, Qiaoming Long, Jonas Rutishauser, Peter Arvan, Martin Spiess, Ling Qi
Peptide hormones are crucial regulators of many aspects of human physiology. Mutations that alter these signaling peptides are associated with physiological imbalances that underlie diseases. However, the conformational maturation of peptide hormone precursors (prohormones) in the ER remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that conformational maturation of proAVP, the precursor for the antidiuretic hormone arginine-vasopressin, within the ER requires the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) activity of the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871493/plant-and-animal-aquaporins-crosstalk-what-can-be-revealed-from-distinct-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Moira Sutka, Gabriela Amodeo, Marcelo Ozu
Aquaporins (AQPs) can be revisited from a distinct and complementary perspective: the outcome from analyzing them from both plant and animal studies. (1) The approach in the study. Diversity found in both kingdoms contrasts with the limited number of crystal structures determined within each group. While the structure of almost half of mammal AQPs was resolved, only a few were resolved in plants. Strikingly, the animal structures resolved are mainly derived from the AQP2-lineage, due to their important roles in water homeostasis regulation in humans...
October 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#17
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833775/glucagon-like-peptide-1-cleavage-product-glp-1-9-36-amide-enhances-hippocampal-long-term-synaptic-plasticity-in-correlation-with-suppression-of-kv4-2-expression-and-eef2-phosphorylation
#18
Stephen M Day, Wenzhong Yang, Sarah Ewin, Xueyan Zhou, Tao Ma
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous gut hormone and a key regulator in maintaining glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion. Its natural cleavage product GLP-1 (9-36), used to be considered a "bio-inactive" metabolite mainly due to its lack of insulinotropic effects and low affinity for GLP-1 receptors, possesses unique properties such as anti-oxidant and cardiovascular protection. Little is known about the role of GLP-1 (9-36) in central nervous system. Here we report that chronic, systemic application of GLP-1 (9-36) in adult mice facilitated both the induction and maintenance phases of hippocampal Long-term potentiation (LTP), a major form of synaptic plasticity...
August 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#19
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#20
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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