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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772474/mitochondria-rich-cells-adjustments-and-ionic-balance-in-the-neotropical-fish-prochilodus-lineatus-exposed-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#1
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767680/propensity-for-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-african-american-women-may-be-explained-by-low-energy-expenditure-in-early-pregnancy
#2
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Abby D Altazan, Marshall St Amant, Robbie A Beyl, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy. Objective: We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758100/diagnostic-approach-to-low-renin-hypertension
#3
Silvia Monticone, Isabel Losano, Martina Tetti, Fabrizio Buffolo, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in maintaining water and electrolytes homeostasis and its deregulation contributes to the development of arterial hypertension. Since the historical description of the "classical" RAAS, a dramatic increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of both essential and secondary hypertension has occurred. Approximatively 25% of the patients affected by arterial hypertension display low renin levels, a definition that is largely arbitrary and depends on the investigated population and the specific characteristics of the assay...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751252/drought-induced-changes-of-leaf-to-root-relationships-in-two-tomato-genotypes
#4
Tommaso Michele Moles, Lorenzo Mariotti, Leandro Federico De Pedro, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Piero Picciarelli, Andrea Scartazza
Water deficit triggers a dynamic and integrated cross-talk between leaves and roots. Tolerant plants have developed several physiological and molecular mechanisms to establish new cell metabolism homeostasis, avoiding and/or escaping from permanent impairments triggered by drought. Two tomato genotypes (a Southern Italy landrace called Ciettaicale and the well-known commercial cultivar Moneymaker) were investigated at vegetative stage to assess leaf and root metabolic strategies under 20 days of water deficit...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712884/imbalance-of-gut-microbiome-and-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Judith N Lezutekong, Anish Nikhanj, Gavin Y Oudit
The main function of the intestinal barrier is to regulate the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from the lumen into circulation and to prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms and toxic luminal substances. To maintain this function, an ideal microbiota balance is required and gut microbiota are critical for the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. There is a demonstrable link between dysbiosis and intestinal dysfunction and diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease...
April 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703638/-skin-hydration-and-hydrating-products
#6
H Duplan, T Nocera
One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum...
April 24, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698766/effects-of-salinity-and-hypoxia-induced-hyperventilation-on-oxygen-consumption-and-cost-of-osmoregulation-in-the-estuarine-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus
#7
Rasmus Ern, Andrew J Esbaugh
Understanding the physiological responses of fishes to salinity changes and aquatic hypoxia is essential for the conservation of marine species. Salinity changes affect the osmotic gradient across the gill epithelium, while hypoxia increases gill ventilation and the flow of water over the gills. Both processes affect the diffusive movement of ions and water across the gill epithelium, and the rate of active ion transport required for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Consequently, salinity and hypoxia may affect the energetic cost of osmoregulation, and consequently the energy available for other physiological functions such as migration, growth, and reproduction...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687889/slc9-gene-family-function-expression-and-regulation
#8
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685720/immunohistochemical-expression-of-apoptosis-related-biomarkers-in-normal-tissues-of-camel-camelus-dromedarius-a-survey-in-a-desert-dwelling-mammalian-model
#9
Abdel-Hamid K Osman, Thomas Caceci, Mitchiko Shintani
Programmed cell death is a fundamental event that takes place during organ development and plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. Since various body organs of the camel are under high ecological and physiological stress during food and water deprivation, desiccation, and the long exposure to solar radiation in these desert nomads, we aimed to examine the immunohistochemical expression of apoptosis-related biomarkers in some of its normal body organs to illustrate a basic track for further pathological investigation...
April 20, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#10
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651942/an-expedient-synthesis-of-cmf-019-s-5-methyl-3-1-pentan-3-yl-2-thiophen-2-ylmethyl-1h-benzo-d-imidazole-5-carboxamido-hexanoic-acid-a-potent-apelin-receptor-apj-agonist
#11
Lena Trifonov, Michal Afri, Krzysztof Palczewski, Edward E Korshin, Arie Gruzman
BACKGROUND: Apelin receptor (APJ) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by the endogenous peptide apelin. The apelin-APJ system has emerged as an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis. Recently, a potent benzimidazole-derived apelin peptidomimetic, CMF-019, was patented but without a comprehensive description of its synthesis and a complete spectroscopic characterization of the intermediates. OBJECTIVE: Here, a detailed preparation of CMF-019 through a modified and improved synthetic pathway is described...
April 12, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621145/zebrafish-as-a-model-system-for-investigating-the-compensatory-regulation-of-ionic-balance-during-metabolic-acidosis
#12
REVIEW
Lletta Lewis, Raymond W M Kwong
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) have become an important model for integrative physiological research. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-osmotic environment; to maintain ionic and acid-base homeostasis, they must actively take up ions and secrete acid to the water. The gills in the adult and the skin at larval stage are the primary sites of ionic regulation in zebrafish. The uptake of ions in zebrafish is mediated by specific ion transporting cells termed ionocytes. Similarly, in mammals, ion reabsorption and acid excretion occur in specific cell types in the terminal region of the renal tubules (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601782/hepatic-phd2-hif-1%C3%AE-axis-is-involved-in-postexercise-systemic-energy-homeostasis
#13
Beibei Luo, Dao Xiang, Die Wu, Changcheng Liu, Yiqun Fang, Peijie Chen, Yi-Ping Hu
Exercise plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic liver disease and associated metabolic disorders. A single bout of exercise induces tissue blood flow redistribution, which decreases splanchnic circulation and leads to physiologic hypoxia in the gastrointestinal system and liver. The transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and its regulator, prolylhydroxylase 2 (PHD2), play pivotal roles in the response to oxygen flux by regulating downstream gene expression levels in the liver...
March 30, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582401/trpv4-a-sensor-for-homeostasis-and-pathological-events-in-the-cns
#14
REVIEW
Hemant Kumar, Soo-Hong Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Xiang Zeng, Inbo Han
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) was originally described as a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel. TRPV4 is now recognized as a polymodal ionotropic receptor: it is a broadly expressed, nonselective cation channel (permeable to calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium) that plays an important role in a multitude of physiological processes. TRPV4 is involved in maintaining homeostasis, serves as an osmosensor and thermosensor, can be activated directly by endogenous or exogenous chemical stimuli, and can be activated or sensitized indirectly via intracellular signaling pathways...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527645/ion-homeostasis-osmoregulation-and-physiological-changes-in-the-roots-and-leaves-of-pistachio-rootstocks-in-response-to-salinity
#15
Mohammad Akbari, Nasser Mahna, Katam Ramesh, Ali Bandehagh, Silvia Mazzuca
Pistachio, one of the important tree nuts, is cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions where salinity is the most common abiotic stress encountered by this tree. However, the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in this plant are not well understood. In the present study, five 1-year-old pistachio rootstocks (namely Akbari, Badami, Ghazvini, Kale-Ghouchi, and UCB-1) were treated with four saline water regimes (control, 8, 12, and 16 dS m-1 ) for 100 days. At high salinity level, all rootstocks showed decreased relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCHC), and carotenoids in the leaf, while ascorbic acid (AsA) and total soluble proteins (TSP) were reduced in both leaf and root organs...
March 12, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503618/new-perspectives-on-the-potential-role-of-aquaporins-aqps-in-the-physiology-of-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Rosaria Meli, Claudio Pirozzi, Alessandra Pelagalli
Aquaporins (AQPs) are emerging, in the last few decades, as critical proteins regulating water fluid homeostasis in cells involved in inflammation. AQPs represent a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that regulate osmotically water flux in various tissues and sometimes the transport of small solutes, including glycerol. Extensive data indicate that AQPs, working as water channel proteins, regulate not only cell migration, but also common events essential for inflammatory response. The involvement of AQPs in several inflammatory processes, as demonstrated by their dysregulation both in human and animal diseases, identifies their new role in protection and response to different noxious stimuli, including bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487231/widespread-distribution-and-functional-specificity-of-the-copper-importer-ccoa-distinct-cu-uptake-routes-for-bacterial-cytochrome-c-oxidases
#18
Bahia Khalfaoui-Hassani, Hongjiang Wu, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Yang Zhang, Federica Sandri, Andreia F Verissimo, Hans-Georg Koch, Fevzi Daldal
Cytochrome c oxidases are members of the heme-copper oxidase superfamily. These enzymes have different subunits, cofactors, and primary electron acceptors, yet they all contain identical heme-copper (CuB ) binuclear centers within their catalytic subunits. The uptake and delivery pathways of the CuB atom incorporated into this active site, where oxygen is reduced to water, are not well understood. Our previous work with the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus indicated that the copper atom needed for the CuB site of cbb 3 -type cytochrome c oxidase ( cbb 3 -Cox) is imported to the cytoplasm by a major facilitator superfamily-type transporter, CcoA...
February 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479603/selected-anthraquinones-as-potential-free-radical-scavengers-and-p-glycoprotein-inhibitors
#19
S Jeremić, A Amić, M Stanojević-Pirković, Z Marković
Disruption of homeostasis can increase the amount of free radicals formed during metabolic processes. This phenomenon known as oxidative stress can have numerous negative outcomes. The role of dietary antioxidants is to help the prevention of oxidative stress. We investigated free radical scavenging capacity of six structurally similar anthraquinones (alizarin, purpurin, chrysophanol, emodin, aloe-emodin and 1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone) for inactivating a set of ten hydroxy and peroxy free radicals. The antioxidant capacity of anthraquinones was estimated by considering Gibbs free energy of three studied reaction mechanisms: hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), single-electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET)...
March 14, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479060/a-gabaergic-cell-type-in-the-lateral-habenula-links-hypothalamic-homeostatic-and-midbrain-motivation-circuits-with-sex-steroid-signaling
#20
Limei Zhang, Vito S Hernández, Jerome D Swinny, Anil K Verma, Torsten Giesecke, Andrew C Emery, Kerim Mutig, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Lee E Eiden
The lateral habenula (LHb) has a key role in integrating a variety of neural circuits associated with reward and aversive behaviors. There is limited information about how the different cell types and neuronal circuits within the LHb coordinate physiological and motivational states. Here, we report a cell type in the medial division of the LHb (LHbM) in male rats that is distinguished by: (1) a molecular signature for GABAergic neurotransmission (Slc32a1/VGAT) and estrogen receptor (Esr1/ERα) expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as the mRNA for vesicular glutamate transporter Slc17a6/VGLUT2, which we term the GABAergic estrogen-receptive neuron (GERN); (2) its axonal projection patterns, identified by in vivo juxtacellular labeling, to both local LHb and to midbrain modulatory systems; and (3) its somatic expression of receptors for vasopressin, serotonin and dopamine, and mRNA for orexin receptor 2...
February 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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