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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346132/enzymatic-sources-and-physio-pathological-functions-of-soluble-pro-renin-receptor
#2
Qing Zhu, Tianxin Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) belongs to type I transmembrane receptor family and binds both prorenin and renin, representing a potential regulator of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Soluble form of PRR (sPRR) is generated by intracellular protease-mediated cleavage of full-length PRR. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action and production of sPRR. RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been demonstrated that site-1-protease (S1P) plays a dominant role in the generation of sPRR...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339557/chronic-dietary-creatine-enhances-hippocampal-dependent-spatial-memory-bioenergetics-and-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-associated-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Wanda M Snow, Chris Cadonic, Claudia Cortes-Perez, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Michael J Bernstein, Miyoung Suh, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
The brain has a high demand for energy, of which creatine (Cr) is an important regulator. Studies document neurocognitive benefits of oral Cr in mammals, yet little is known regarding their physiological basis. This study investigated the effects of Cr supplementation (3%, w/w) on hippocampal function in male C57BL/6 mice, including spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and oxygen consumption rates from isolated mitochondria in real time. Levels of transcription factors and related proteins (CREB, Egr1, and IκB to indicate NF-κB activity), proteins implicated in cognition (CaMKII, PSD-95, and Egr2), and mitochondrial proteins (electron transport chain Complex I, mitochondrial fission protein Drp1) were probed with Western blotting...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327922/a-constrained-tetrapeptide-as-a-model-of-cu-i-binding-sites-involving-cu4s6-clusters-in-proteins
#4
Edit Mesterházy, Colette Lebrun, Attila Jancsó, Pascale Delangle
Peptide design is an efficient strategy to create relevant models of natural metal binding sites found in proteins. The two short tetrapeptides Ac-Cys-dPro-Pro-Cys-NH2 (CdPPC) and Ac-Cys-Pro-Gly-Cys-NH2 (CPGC) were synthesized and studied as mimics of Cu(I) binding sites involved in Cu homeostasis. Both sequences contain β turn inducing motifs to rigidify the peptide backbone structure and thereby preorganize the metal-binding side chains. The more constrained structure of the peptide CdPPC with respect to CPGC was evidenced by the measurements of the temperature coefficients of the amide protons by 1H NMR, which suggest a solvent-shielded intramolecular hydrogen bond in CdPPC, and no H-bond in CPGC...
January 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300823/physiological-basis-of-chilling-tolerance-and-early-season-growth-in-miscanthus
#5
Simon Fonteyne, Hilde Muylle, Peter Lootens, Pavel Kerchev, Wim Van den Ende, Ariane Staelens, Dirk Reheul, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz
Background and Aims: The high productivity of Miscanthus × giganteus has been at least partly ascribed to its high chilling tolerance compared with related C4 crops, allowing for a longer productive growing season in temperate climates. However, the chilling tolerance of M. × giganteus has been predominantly studied under controlled environmental conditions. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to chilling tolerance in the field and their variation in different miscanthus genotypes is largely unexplored...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291035/the-potential-use-of-physical-resilience-to-predict-healthy-aging
#6
REVIEW
Anna Schorr, Christy Carter, Warren Ladiges
Physical resilience is the ability of an organism to respond to stressors that acutely disrupt normal physiological homeostasis. By definition, resilience decreases with increasing age, while frailty, defined as a decline in tissue function, increases with increasing age. Assessment of resilience could therefore be an informative early paradigm to predict healthy aging compared to frailty, which measures late life dysfunction. Parameters for resilience in the laboratory mouse are not yet well defined, and no single standardized stress test exists...
2018: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288384/comparative-view-of-lung-vascular-endothelium-of-cattle-horses-and-water-buffalo
#7
David Schneberger, Ram S Sethi, Baljit Singh
Endothelium plays an important role in maintaining the vascular barrier and physiological homeostasis. Endothelium also is fundamental to the initiation and regulation of inflammation. Endothelium demonstrates phenotypic and functional heterogeneity not only among various organs but also within an organ. One of the striking examples would be the pulmonary endothelium that participates in creating blood-air barrier. Endothelium in large pulmonary blood vessels is distinct in structure and function from that lining of the pulmonary capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275218/myrcia-sylvatica-essential-oil-mitigates-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-alterations-in-rhamdia-quelen-under-different-stress-events-associated-to-transport
#8
Etiane M H Saccol, Ismael Jerez-Cepa, Giovana M Ourique, Tanise S Pês, Luciane T Gressler, Rosa H V Mourão, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Maria A Pavanato, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The effects of pre-transport handling and addition of essential oil of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) during transport on stress pathways activation in Rhamdia quelen were investigated. Fish (n=400, 25.2±2.9g) were captured in production ponds and transferred to 100-L tank (density 100g L-1). After 24h, 10 fish were sampled (before transport group). The remaining fish were placed in plastic bags (n=30 or 32 fish per bag, density 150g L-1) containing 5L of water (control), ethanol (315μLL-1, vehicle) or EOMS (25 or 35μLL-1), in triplicate, transported for 6h and sampled (n=10 animals per group)...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259710/regulation-of-blood-vascular-permeability-in-the-skin
#9
REVIEW
Sachiko Ono, Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
Regulation of blood vessel permeability is essential for the homeostasis of peripheral tissues. This regulation controls the trafficking of plasma contents, including water, vitamins, ions, hormones, cytokines, amyloids, lipoproteins, carrier proteins, and immunoglobulins. The properties of blood vessels vary among tissues based on their structural differences: continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoidal. These three types of blood vessels have different charge and size barrier properties. The anionic luminal glycocalyx layer on endothelial cells establishes the "charge barrier" that repels the attachment of negatively charged blood cells and plasma molecules...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#10
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232732/high-salt-intake-promotes-different-responses-to-urodilatin-and-uroguanylin-in-the-isolated-rat-kidney
#11
Antonio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Pedro Henrique Sá Costa, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Manassés Claudino Fonteles
Urodilatin (UD) and uroguanylin (UGN) have been implicated in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis, particularly in the balance handling of salt intake. In this sense, the aim of the present work was to study the main effects of these peptides in kidneys from animals subjected to high NaCl (2%) intake, during 10 days in metabolic cages. The control group received only normal water, whereas the treated group drank 2% solution of NaCl (NaCl 2%). In addition, we studied effect of subthreshold UD (0.14 nM) and UGN (0...
December 12, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217107/the-underlying-physiological-basis-of-the-desert-rodent-meriones-shawi-s-survival-to-prolonged-water-deprivation-central-vasopressin-regulation-on-peripheral-kidney-water-channels-aqps-2
#12
A Elgot, O El Hiba, M Belkouch, H Gamrani
Meriones shawi (M. shawi) is a particular semi-desert rodent known by its resistance to long periods of thirst. The aim of the present investigation is to clarify the underlying mechanisms allowing M. shawi to resist to hard conditions of dehydration. For this reason we used two different approaches: i) a morphometric study, which consists in measuring the effect of dehydration on body and kidneys weights as well as the report kidney weight/body weight, ii) By immunohistochemistry, we proceed to study the effect of dehydration on the immunoreactivity of central vasopressin (AVP) and the kidney aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) which is a channel protein that allows water to permeate across cell membranes...
December 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209224/na-h-exchanger-3-is-expressed-in-two-distinct-types-of-ionocyte-and-probably-augments-ammonia-excretion-in-one-of-them-in-the-gills-of-the-climbing-perch-exposed-to-seawater
#13
Xiu L Chen, Biyan Zhang, You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Shit F Chew, Wai P Wong, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
The freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an euryhaline teleost and an obligate air-breather with the ability to actively excrete ammonia. Members of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family help maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and ionic balance through the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+. This study aimed to obtain, from the gills of A. testudineus, the full cDNA coding sequence of nhe3, and to determine the effects of exposure to seawater or 100 mmol l-1 of NH4Cl in fresh water on its mRNA and protein expression levels...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201837/expression-of-aquaporin-1-and-4-in-the-choroid-plexus-and-brain-parenchyma-of-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalic-rats
#14
Taehyung Jeon, Ki-Su Park, Seong-Hyun Park, Jeong-Hyun Hwang, Sung Kyoo Hwang
Objective: Aquaporin (AQP) is a recently discovered protein that regulates water homeostasis. The present study examines changes in AQP 1 and 4 in kaolin induced experimental hydrocephalic rats to elucidate the pathophysiology of water homeostasis in the disease. Methods: Hydrocephalus was induced by percutaneous intracisternal injection of kaolin. The brain parenchyma and choroid plexus were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 30 days after injection. Protein expressions of AQP 1 and 4 were measured by western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) stains...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196765/aquaporin-0-modulates-lens-gap-junctions-in-the-presence-of-lens-specific-beaded-filament-proteins
#15
Sindhu Kumari, Junyuan Gao, Richard T Mathias, Xiurong Sun, Amizhdini Eswaramoorthy, Nicholas Browne, Nigel Zhang, Kulandaiappan Varadaraj
Purpose: The objective of this study was to understand the molecular and physiologic mechanisms behind the lens cataract differences in Aquaporin 0-knockout-Heterozygous (AQP0-Htz) mice developed in C57 and FVB (lacks beaded filaments [BFs]) strains. Methods: Lens transparency was studied using dark field light microscopy. Water permeability (Pf) was measured in fiber cell membrane vesicles. Western blotting/immunostaining was performed to verify expression of BF proteins and connexins...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195224/combined-application-of-compost-and-bacillus-sp-cik-512-ameliorated-the-lead-toxicity-in-radish-by-regulating-the-homeostasis-of-antioxidants-and-lead
#16
Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad Javed Akhtar, Shehzad Mehmood, Kalsoom Akhter, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Saddam Hussain
Lead (Pb) contamination is ubiquitous and usually causes toxicity to plants. Nevertheless, application of compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria synergistically may ameliorate the Pb toxicity in radish. The present study assessed the effects of compost and Bacillus sp. CIK-512 on growth, physiology, antioxidants and uptake of Pb in contaminated soil and explored the possible mechanism for Pb phytotoxicity amelioration. Treatments comprised of un-inoculated control, compost, CIK-512, and compost + CIK-512; plants were grown in soil contaminated with Pb (500mgkg-1) and without Pb in pot culture...
November 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192359/a-field-and-laboratory-study-of-the-responses-of-cytoprotection-and-osmoregulation-to-salinity-stress-in-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis
#17
Jeng-Wei Tsai, Hon-Jung Liew, Jyun-Jiang Jhang, Shiou-Han Hung, Pei-Jie Meng, Ming-Yih Leu, Christopher Lim, Cheng-Hao Tang
The mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) naturally inhabits freshwater (FW; 1-3‰) and seawater (SW; 28-33‰) ponds in constructed wetland. To explore the physiological status and molecular mechanisms for salinity adaptation of the mosquitofish, cytoprotective responses and osmoregulation were examined. In the field study, activation of protein quality control (PQC) mechanism through upregulation of the abundance of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70 and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was found in the mosquitofish gills from SW pond compared to the individuals of FW pond...
December 1, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186911/prostaglandin-e2-in-the-regulation-of-water-transport-in-renal-collecting-ducts
#18
REVIEW
Yuyuan Li, Yuanyi Wei, Feng Zheng, Youfei Guan, Xiaoyan Zhang
The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of the body water balance. The process of targeting the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) on the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct (CD) principal cells is mainly regulated by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is responsible for the maintenance of water homeostasis. Recently, much attention has been focused on the local factors modulating renal water reabsorption by AQP2 in the collecting ducts, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂)...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184212/oxytocin-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-parabrachial-nucleus-regulate-fluid-intake
#19
Philip J Ryan, Silvano I Ross, Carlos A Campos, Victor A Derkach, Richard D Palmiter
Brain regions that regulate fluid satiation are not well characterized, yet are essential for understanding fluid homeostasis. We found that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice (OxtrPBN neurons) are key regulators of fluid satiation. Chemogenetic activation of OxtrPBN neurons robustly suppressed noncaloric fluid intake, but did not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake following salt depletion; inactivation increased saline intake after dehydration and hypertonic saline injection...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180713/metabolic-regulatory-oscillations-in-intertidal-green-seaweed-ulva-lactuca-against-tidal-cycles
#20
Vishal Gupta, Hemant R Kushwaha
The survival of wetland plant species largely relies on physiological adaptations essential for submergence and desiccation. Intertidal seaweeds, unlike terrestrial plants, have unique adaptations to submergence and can also sustain desiccation arising from tidal rhythms. This study determined the differential metabolic regulations in the inter-tidal seaweed species Ulva lactuca against the submergence and desiccation. During desiccation, the relative water content of the algal thalli declined with concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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