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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069890/apobec1-complementation-factor-a1cf-is-not-required-for-c-to-u-rna-editing-in-vivo
#1
Elizabeth M Snyder, Christopher McCarty, Adrienne Mehalow, Karen Svenson, Stephen Murray, Ron Korstanje, Robert E Braun
Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The importance of A1CF in adult tissues has been unclear as a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele...
January 9, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057082/cognitive-performance-during-passive-heat-exposure-in-japanese-males-and-tropical-asian-males-from-southeast-asian-living-in-japan
#2
Titis Wijayanto, Sayo Toramoto, Yasuhiko Maeda, Su-Young Son, Sonomi Umezaki, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Heat acclimatization studies have reported that tropical natives have better physiological function to tolerate heat exposure compared to those from temperate natives, in which may result in a better ability to show a better resistance to performance losses during heat stress. In this study, we investigate whether the degree of heat acclimatization affects cognitive abilities during heat exposure by comparing heat acclimatization level of subjects from Southeast Asia and temperate natives from Japan...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012654/the-role-of-calcium-concentration-in-the-invasive-capacity-of-corbicula-fluminea-in-crystalline-basins
#4
Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Ignacio Fernández, Simone Varandas, Rui Cortes, M Leonor Cancela, Isabel Pardo
The natural variation of environmental factors in freshwater basins determines their biodiversity. Among them, calcium is a key physiological compound for freshwater invertebrates. It is required for shell formation, muscle contraction, it mediates gene expression and allows counteracting acidosis during stress periods, among other functions. Although the distribution of different freshwater species has been suggested to be linked with the environmental calcium concentration, as yet, no research studies have confirmed this...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008706/consumer-driven-nutrient-dynamics-in-freshwater-ecosystems-from-individuals-to-ecosystems
#5
Carla L Atkinson, Krista A Capps, Amanda T Rugenski, Michael J Vanni
The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1...
December 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003863/resolving-contributions-of-oxygen-consuming-and-ros-generating-enzymes-at-the-synapse
#6
Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Ali M Mahmoud, Abdullah Aaliya, Yasmine Radwan, Basma Yasseen, Abdelrahman Al-Okda, Ahmed Atwa, Eslam Elhanafy, Moaaz Habashy, Sameh S Ali
Disruption of cellular redox homeostasis is implicated in a wide variety of pathologic conditions and aging. A fundamental factor that dictates such balance is the ratio between mitochondria-mediated complete oxygen reduction into water and incomplete reduction into superoxide radical by mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymatic activity. Here we determined mitochondrial as well as NOX-dependent rates of oxygen consumption in parallel with H2O2 generation in freshly isolated synaptosomes using high resolution respirometry combined with fluorescence or electrochemical sensory...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935978/genome-wide-identification-phylogeny-and-expression-of-aquaporin-genes-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#7
Chuanju Dong, Lin Chen, Jingyan Feng, Jian Xu, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Xuejun Li, Peng Xu
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (Aqps) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Among vertebrate species, Aqps are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino acid sequence. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms, especially for aquatic animals such as teleost fish. Studies on teleost Aqps are mainly limited to several model species with diploid genomes. Common carp, which has a tetraploidized genome, is one of the most common aquaculture species being adapted to a wide range of aquatic environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923457/micrornas-in-the-hypothalamus
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed Taouis
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917468/dry-skin-conditions-are-related-to-the-recovery-rate-of-skin-temperature-after-cold-stress-rather-than-to-blood-flow
#9
Yasuko Yoshida-Amano, Tomoko Nomura, Yoshinori Sugiyama, Kayoko Iwata, Yuko Higaki, Masanori Tanahashi
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. METHODS: Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907139/contribution-towards-a-metabolite-profile-of-the-detoxification-of-benzoic-acid-through-glycine-conjugation-an-intervention-study
#10
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Benzoic acid is widely used as a preservative in food products and is detoxified in humans through glycine conjugation. Different viewpoints prevail on the physiological significance of the glycine conjugation reaction and concerns have been raised on potential public health consequences following uncontrolled benzoic acid ingestion. We performed a metabolomics study which used commercial benzoic acid containing flavored water as vehicle for designed interventions, and report here on the controlled consumption of the benzoic acid by 21 cases across 6 time points for a total of 126 time points...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899930/ability-to-remove-na-and-retain-k-correlates-with-salt-tolerance-in-two-maize-inbred-lines-seedlings
#11
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#12
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895051/metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-in-the-larval-chironomid-tanytarsus-minutipalpus-adjustments-to-diel-variations-in-the-extreme-conditions-of-lake-magadi
#13
Lucas F Bianchini, Chris M Wood, Harold L Bergman, Ora E Johannsson, Pierre Laurent, Claudine Chevalier, Mosiany L Kisipan, Geraldine D Kavembe, Michael B Papah, Kevin V Brix, Gudrun De Boeck, John N Maina, Rodi O Ojoo, Adalto Bianchini
Insect larvae are reported to be a major component of the simple but highly productive trophic web found in Lake Magadi (Kenya, Africa), which is considered to be one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth. Previous studies show that fish must display biochemical and physiological adjustments to thrive under the extreme conditions of the lake. However, information for invertebrates is lacking. In the present study, the occurrence of the larval chironomid Tanytarsus minutipalpus is reported in Lake Magadi for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894883/incubation-relative-humidity-induces-renal-morphological-and-physiological-remodeling-in-the-embryo-of-the-chicken-gallus-gallus-domesticus
#14
Greta Bolin, Benjamin Dubansky, Warren W Burggren
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eggs were incubated at one of 25-30% relative humidity, 55-60% relative humidity, and 85-90% relative humidity. Embryos were sampled at days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 to examine embryo and kidney mass, glomerular characteristics, body fluid osmolalities, hematological properties, and whole embryo oxygen consumption...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#15
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881286/renal-adaptive-changes-and-sodium-handling-in-the-fetal-to-newborn-transition
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862984/of-channels-and-pumps-different-ways-to-boost-the-aldosterone
#17
REVIEW
S Bandulik
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is a major factor controlling the salt and water balance and thereby also the arterial blood pressure. Accordingly, primary aldosteronism (PA) characterized by an inappropriately high aldosterone secretion is the most common form of secondary hypertension. The physiological stimulation of aldosterone synthesis in adrenocortical glomerulosa cells by angiotensin II and an increased plasma K(+) concentration depends on a membrane depolarization and an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) activity...
November 15, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861986/experimental-evidence-for-negative-turgor-pressure-in-small-leaf-cells-of-robinia-pseudoacacia-l-versus-large-cells-of-metasequoia-glyptostroboides-hu-et-w-c-cheng-2-h%C3%A3-fler-diagrams-below-the-volume-of-zero-turgor-and-the-theoretical-implication-for-pressure
#18
Dongmei Yang, Junhui Li, Yiting Ding, Melvin T Tyree
The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, Pt , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative Pt in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative Pt does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, PB , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the PB domain because of negative Pt ...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860831/the-integrative-physiology-of-insect-chill-tolerance
#19
Johannes Overgaard, Heath A MacMillan
Cold tolerance is important in defining the distribution of insects. Here, we review the principal physiological mechanisms underlying homeostatic failure during cold exposure in this diverse group of ectotherms. Chillsusceptible insects are characterized by an initial loss of neuromuscular function (chill coma) that is caused by decreased membrane potential and reduced excitability of the neuromuscular system. Chronic or severe chilling causes a disruption of ion and water homeostasis across membranes and epithelia that exacerbate the initial effects of chilling on membrane potential and cellular function, and these perturbations are tightly associated with the development of chill injury and mortality...
November 16, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825820/the-upregulation-of-immune-responses-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-th-silenced-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Ratchaneegorn Mapanao, Chin-Chyuan Chang, Winton Cheng
Catecholamines (CAs) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in CA synthesis. To develop an effective CA-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in TH double-stranded (ds) RNA-injected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Specifically, the relative transcript quantification of TH, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), and other immune-related genes; TH activity in the haemolymph; and the estimation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), glucose, and lactate levels in the haemolymph were examined...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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