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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733328/thermal-imprinting-modifies-bone-homeostasis-in-cold-challenged-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#1
Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita Costa, Enric Gisbert, Patricia I S Pinto, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Deborah M Power
Fish are ectotherms and temperature plays a determinant role in their physiology, biology and ecology and is a driver of seasonal responses. The present study assessed how thermal imprinting during embryonic and larval stages modified the response of adult fish to low water temperature. We targeted the gilthead sea bream that develops a condition known as winter syndrome when it is exposed to low water temperatures. Eggs and larvae of sea bream were exposed to four different thermal regimes and then the response of the resulting adults to a low temperature challenge was assessed...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714415/aquaporin-4-in-astrocytes-is-a-target-for-therapy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Yu-Long Lan, Jian-Jiao Chen, Gang Hu, Jun Xu, Ming Xiao, Shao Li
Current experimental evidence points to the conclusion that aquaporin 4 (AQP4), which is an important water-channel membrane protein found in the brain, could play major roles in various brain conditions pathologically including pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this paper, we review how AQP4 and altered astrocyte functions interact in AD, and provide experimental evidence highlighting the importance of this topic for the future investigations. The interactions of AQP4 are as follows: (i) AQP4 could influence astrocytic calcium signaling and potassium homeostasis...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#3
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706505/cell-cell-interaction-proteins-gap-junctions-tight-junctions-and-desmosomes-and-water-transporter-aquaporin-4-in-meningothelial-cells-of-the-human-optic-nerve
#4
Thi Ngoc Co Zeleny, Corina Kohler, Albert Neutzner, Hanspeter E Killer, Peter Meyer
PURPOSE: Meningothelial cells (MECs) play a central role in the maintenance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and in physiological and pathophysiological processes within the subarachnoid space (SAS) linking them to optic nerve (ON) pathologies. Still, not much is known about their structural properties that might enable MECs to perform specific functions within the ON microenvironment. METHODS: For closer characterization of the structural properties of the human MEC layer in the arachnoid, we performed immunohistological analyses to evaluate the presence of cell-cell interaction markers, namely, markers for tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5), gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43), and desmosomes (Desmoplakin) as well as for water channel marker aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retrobulbar, midorbital, and intracanalicular human ON sections...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703589/metabolic-pathways-regulated-by-chitosan-contributing-to-drought-resistance-in-white-clover
#5
Zhou Li, Yan Zhang, Xinquan Zhang, Emily Merewitz, Yan Peng, Xiao Ma, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan
Increased endogenous chitosan (CTS) could be associated with improved drought resistance in white clover (Trifolium repens). Plants were pretreated with or without 1 mg/mL CTS and then were subjected to optimal or water-limited condition in controlled growth chambers for 6 days. Phenotypic and physiological results indicated that exogenous CTS significantly improved drought resistance of white clover. Metabolome results showed that exogenous CTS induced a significant increase in endogenous CTS content during dehydration accompanied by the maintenance of greater accumulation of sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, and other metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, putrescine, and spermidine)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687198/neu-p11-a-novel-mt1-mt2-agonist-reverses-diabetes-by-suppressing-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-rats
#6
Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, XiaoHong Luo, MaoXing Li, Ying Yue, Moshe Laudon, ZhengPing Jia, RuXue Zhang
Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674550/enhanced-drought-stress-tolerance-by-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-in-a-drought-sensitive-maize-cultivar-is-related-to-a-broader-and-differential-regulation-of-host-plant-aquaporins-than-in-a-drought-tolerant-cultivar
#7
Gabriela Quiroga, Gorka Erice, Ricardo Aroca, François Chaumont, Juan M Ruiz-Lozano
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been shown to improve maize tolerance to different drought stress scenarios by regulating a wide range of host plants aquaporins. The objective of this study was to highlight the differences in aquaporin regulation by comparing the effects of the AM symbiosis on root aquaporin gene expression and plant physiology in two maize cultivars with contrasting drought sensitivity. This information would help to identify key aquaporin genes involved in the enhanced drought tolerance by the AM symbiosis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649750/vasopressin-physiology-assessment-and-osmosentation
#8
Lise Bankir, Daniel G Bichet, Nils G Morgenthaler
Vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the regulation of water and sodium homeostasis by its antidiuretic action on the kidney, mediated by V2 receptors. AVP secretion is stimulated by a rise in plasma osmolality, a decline in blood volume, or stress. V1a receptors are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells but the role of vasopressin in blood pressure regulation is still a matter of debate. AVP may also play a role in some metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, through its action on V1a receptors expressed in the liver...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649202/neuronal-chemosensation-and-osmotic-stress-response-converge-in-the-regulation-of-aqp-8-in-c-elegans
#9
Carla Igual Gil, Mirko Jarius, Jens P von Kries, Anne-Katrin Rohlfing
Aquaporins occupy an essential role in sustaining the salt/water balance in various cells types and tissues. Here, we present new insights into aqp-8 expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show, that upon exposure to osmotic stress, aqp-8 exhibits a distinct expression pattern within the excretory cell compared to other C. elegans aquaporins expressed. This expression is correlated to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium and can be activated physiologically by osmotic stress or genetically in mutants with constitutively active osmotic stress response...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#10
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624939/additive-effect-of-calcium-depletion-and-low-resource-quality-on-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-life-history-traits
#11
Marc Rollin, Romain Coulaud, Michael Danger, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Alexandre Bec, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Vincent Felten
Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#12
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593174/current-evidence-for-a-role-of-neuropeptides-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy
#13
REVIEW
Elisabetta Catalani, Clara De Palma, Cristiana Perrotta, Davide Cervia
Neuropeptides drive a wide diversity of biological actions and mediate multiple regulatory functions involving all organ systems. They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous and endocrine systems. Indeed, neuropeptides can function as peptide hormones regulating physiological homeostasis (e.g., cognition, blood pressure, feeding behaviour, water balance, glucose metabolism, pain, and response to stress), neuroprotection, and immunomodulation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567254/circulatory-zinc-transport-is-controlled-by-distinct-interdomain-sites-on-mammalian-albumins
#14
Katarzyna B Handing, Ivan G Shabalin, Omar Kassaar, Siavash Khazaipoul, Claudia A Blindauer, Alan J Stewart, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Wladek Minor
Zinc is an essential nutrient in the body; it is required for the catalytic activity of many hundreds of human enzymes and virtually all biological processes, therefore its homeostasis and trafficking is of crucial interest. Serum albumin is the major carrier of Zn(2+) in the blood and is required for its systemic distribution. Here we present the first crystal structures of human serum albumin (HSA) and equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with Zn(2+). The structures allow unambiguous identification of the major zinc binding site on these two albumins, as well as several further, weaker zinc binding sites...
November 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#15
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558931/freeze-responsive-regulation-of-mef2-proteins-and-downstream-gene-networks-in-muscles-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#16
Oscar A Aguilar, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog survives frigid North American winters by retreating into a state of suspended animation characterized by the freezing of up to 65% of total body water as extracellular ice and displaying no heartbeat, breathing, brain activity, or movement. Physiological and biochemical adaptations are in place to facilitate global metabolic depression and protect against the consequences of whole body freezing. This study examined the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor family, proteins responsible for coordinating selective gene expression of a myriad of cellular functions from muscle development and remodelling to various stress responses...
July 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#17
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
June 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511789/salicylic-acid-mediated-growth-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-in-two-wheat-varieties-under-drought-stress
#18
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#19
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
May 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432152/exposure-to-seawater-increases-intestinal-motility-in-euryhaline-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Albin Gräns, Esmée Dekens, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 minutes followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 minutes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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