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Physiology water homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#1
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624939/additive-effect-of-calcium-depletion-and-low-resource-quality-on-gammarus-fossarum-crustacea-amphipoda-life-history-traits
#2
Marc Rollin, Romain Coulaud, Michael Danger, Bénédicte Sohm, Justine Flayac, Alexandre Bec, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Vincent Felten
Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#3
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593174/current-evidence-for-a-role-of-neuropeptides-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy
#4
REVIEW
Elisabetta Catalani, Clara De Palma, Cristiana Perrotta, Davide Cervia
Neuropeptides drive a wide diversity of biological actions and mediate multiple regulatory functions involving all organ systems. They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous and endocrine systems. Indeed, neuropeptides can function as peptide hormones regulating physiological homeostasis (e.g., cognition, blood pressure, feeding behaviour, water balance, glucose metabolism, pain, and response to stress), neuroprotection, and immunomodulation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567254/circulatory-zinc-transport-is-controlled-by-distinct-interdomain-sites-on-mammalian-albumins
#5
Katarzyna B Handing, Ivan G Shabalin, Omar Kassaar, Siavash Khazaipoul, Claudia A Blindauer, Alan J Stewart, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Wladek Minor
Zinc is an essential nutrient in the body; it is required for the catalytic activity of many hundreds of human enzymes and virtually all biological processes, therefore its homeostasis and trafficking is of crucial interest. Serum albumin is the major carrier of Zn(2+) in the blood and is required for its systemic distribution. Here we present the first crystal structures of human serum albumin (HSA) and equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with Zn(2+). The structures allow unambiguous identification of the major zinc binding site on these two albumins, as well as several further, weaker zinc binding sites...
November 1, 2016: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#6
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558931/freeze-responsive-regulation-of-mef2-proteins-and-downstream-gene-networks-in-muscles-of-the-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#7
Oscar A Aguilar, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog survives frigid North American winters by retreating into a state of suspended animation characterized by the freezing of up to 65% of total body water as extracellular ice and displaying no heartbeat, breathing, brain activity, or movement. Physiological and biochemical adaptations are in place to facilitate global metabolic depression and protect against the consequences of whole body freezing. This study examined the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor family, proteins responsible for coordinating selective gene expression of a myriad of cellular functions from muscle development and remodelling to various stress responses...
July 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#8
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511789/salicylic-acid-mediated-growth-physiological-and-proteomic-responses-in-two-wheat-varieties-under-drought-stress
#9
Marisha Sharma, Sunil K Gupta, Baisakhi Majumder, Vivek K Maurya, Farah Deeba, Afroz Alam, Vivek Pandey
Salicylic acid (SA) induced drought tolerance can be a key trait for increasing and stabilizing wheat production. These SA induced traits were studied in two Triticum aestivum L. varieties; drought tolerant, Kundan and drought sensitive, Lok1 under two different water deficit regimes: and rehydration at vegetative and flowering stages. SA alleviated the negative effects of water stress on photosynthesis more in Kundan. SA induced defense responses against drought by increasing antioxidative enzymes and osmolytes (proline and total soluble sugars)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502574/diner-database-for-insect-neuropeptide-research
#10
Joseph G C Yeoh, Aniruddha A Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A T Dow
Neuropeptides are responsible for regulating a variety of functions, including development, metabolism, water and ion homeostasis, and as neuromodulators in circuits of the central nervous system. Numerous neuropeptides have been identified and characterized. However, both discovery and functional characterization of neuropeptides across the massive Class Insecta has been sporadic. To leverage advances in post-genomic technologies for this rapidly growing field, insect neuroendocrinology requires a consolidated, comprehensive and standardised resource for managing neuropeptide information...
May 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432152/exposure-to-seawater-increases-intestinal-motility-in-euryhaline-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#11
Jeroen Brijs, Grant W Hennig, Albin Gräns, Esmée Dekens, Michael Axelsson, Catharina Olsson
Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 minutes followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 minutes...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412527/aquaporins-as-potential-drought-tolerance-inducing-proteins-toward-instigating-stress-tolerance
#12
Sajad Majeed Zargar, Preeti Nagar, Rupesh Deshmukh, Muslima Nazir, Aijaz Ahmad Wani, Khalid Zaffar Masoodi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Aquaporins (AQPs) are primarily involved in maintaining cellular water homeostasis. Their role in diverse physiological processes has fascinated plant scientists for more than a decade, particularly concerning abiotic stresses. Increasing examples of evidence in various crop plants indicate that the AQPs are responsible for precise regulation of water movement and consequently play a crucial role in the drought stress tolerance. Since drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting agricultural production worldwide, it has become a critical agenda to focus research on the development of drought tolerant crop plants...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376411/gene-regulation-network-behind-drought-escape-avoidance-and-tolerance-strategies-in-black-poplar-populus-nigra-l
#13
Kubilay Yıldırım, Zeki Kaya
Drought is the major environmental problem limiting the productivity and survival of plant species. Here, previously identified three black poplar genotypes having contrasting response to drought were subjected to gradual soil water depletion in a pot trial to identify their physiological, morphological and antioxidation related adaptations. We also performed a microarray based transcriptome analyses on the leaves of genotypes by using Affymetrix poplar Genome Array containing 56,000 transcripts. Phenotypic analyses of each genotype confirmed their differential adaptations to drought that could be classified as drought escape, avoidance and tolerance...
June 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371470/role-of-renal-vascular-potassium-channels-in-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#14
REVIEW
M Salomonsson, J C Brasen, C M Sorensen
The control of renal vascular tone is important for the regulation of salt and water balance, blood pressure and the protection against damaging elevated glomerular pressure. The K(+) conductance is a major factor in the regulation of the membrane potential (Vm ) in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC). The vascular tone is controlled by Vm via its effect on the opening probability of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCC) in VSMC. When K(+) conductance increases Vm becomes more negative and vasodilation follows, while deactivation of K(+) channels leads to depolarization and vasoconstriction...
March 30, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360931/mechanisms-for-the-anti-obesity-actions-of-bofutsushosan-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#15
Shinjiro Kobayashi, Yuki Kawasaki, Tatsuo Takahashi, Hironori Maeno, Masaaki Nomura
BACKGROUND: The Kampo medicine bofutsushosan (BTS; Pulvis ledebouriellae compositae; Fang Feng Tong Sheng San) has been used as an anti-obesity treatment in overweight patients. In this study, we assessed the underlying physiological changes induced by BTS in obese mice maintained on a high-fat diet. METHODS: Male ICR mice were fed a 60% kcal fat diet for 5 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and then fed the same diet with administration of water (control) or aqueous BTS extract (1...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343563/effect-of-thermal-exposure-on-physiological-adaptability-and-seminal-attributes-of-rams-under-semi-arid-environment
#16
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Krishnappa Balaganur, Vijay Kumar Saxena, Palanisamy Thirumurugan, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
Thermal stress in hot semi-arid environment is a major limitation of sheep production in tropical and sub-tropical climatic condition. The animals tend to maintain homeostasis through physiological adjustments in a hot environment (maximum temperature reaches up to 47.5°C). Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of thermal exposure on physiological adaptability and seminal attributes of rams under semi-arid environment. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks involving sixteen Malpura crossbred rams (GMM: Garole X Malpura X Malpura)...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323996/molecular-physiology-of-the-hypocalcemic-action-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Chia-Hao Lin, Huei-Jyun Hu, Pung-Pung Hwang
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone required for phosphorus metabolism, was recently proposed to act on Ca2+ uptake; however, the available evidences of how FGF23 controls the body fluid Ca2+ homeostasis needs to be further clarified. The use of zebrafish as a model system revealed that FGF23 is specifically expressed in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), an organ involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in fish, and its expression is stimulated by ambient water with a high Ca2+ level. The overexpression of FGF23 inhibited Ca2+ uptake by downregulating the mRNA expression of epithelium calcium channel (ECaC)...
March 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290590/the-ca-2-atpase-pump-facilitates-bidirectional-proton-transport-across-the-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum
#18
L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca
Ca(2+) transport across the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays an essential role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, signalling, cell differentiation and muscle contractility. During SR Ca(2+) uptake and release, proton fluxes are required to balance the charge deficit generated by the exchange of Ca(2+) and other ions across the SR. During Ca(2+) uptake by the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), two protons are countertransported from the SR lumen to the cytosol, thus partially compensating for the charge moved by Ca(2+) transport...
March 28, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280549/the-mayfly-nymph-austrophlebioides-pusillus-harker-defies-common-osmoregulatory-assumptions
#19
Renee Dowse, Carolyn G Palmer, Kasey Hills, Fraser Torpy, Ben J Kefford
Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l(-1) added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277954/physiological-responses-to-fasting-and-estivation-for-the-three-toed-amphiuma-amphiuma-tridactylum
#20
Matthew E Smith, Stephen M Secor
Species of Amphiuma enter a state of subterranean estivation with the drying of their aquatic habitat. Characteristic of amphibian fasting and estivation is an initial depression of metabolism and tissue mass and function with fasting, followed by a more pronounced adaptive decrease in metabolism and tissue function with estivation. We hypothesized that Amphiuma likewise experiences a two-stage set of responses to estivation. Therefore, we examined the physiological responses of the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum) to fasting and estivation treatments...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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