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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193045/contribution-of-ribonucleic-acid-rna-to-the-fourier-transform-infrared-ftir-spectrum-of-eukaryotic-cells
#1
Paolo Zucchiatti, Elisa Mitri, Saša Kenig, Fulvio Billè, George Kourousias, Diana Eva Bedolla, Lisa Vaccari
We report on an optimized protocol for the digestion of cellular RNA, which minimally affects the cell membrane integrity, maintaining substantially unaltered the vibrational contributions of the other cellular macromolecules. The design of this protocol allowed us to collect the first Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of intact hydrated B16 mouse melanoma cells deprived of RNA and to highlight the in-cell diagnostic spectral features of it. Complementing the cellular results with the FTIR analysis of extracted RNA, ds-DNA, ss-cDNA and isolated nuclei, we verified that the spectral component centered at ∼1220 cm(-1) is a good qualitative and semiquantitative marker of cellular DNA, since it is minimally affected by cellular RNA removal...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181070/combining-forces-the-promise-and-peril-of-synergistic-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-targeted-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#2
David J Hermel, Patrick Ott
Both immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted agents have dramatically improved clinical outcomes for patients with metastatic melanoma. These two therapeutic approaches harness distinct mechanistic pathways-on the one hand, monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 stimulate the T cell mediated host immune response, while targeted inhibitors of the proto-oncogenes BRAF and MEK disrupt constitutive kinase activity responsible for tumor growth. The prospect of combining these two treatment modalities has been proposed as a potential way to increase overall response rate, extend durability of the anti-tumor response, and circumvent the immune-mediated resistance to targeted therapy...
February 8, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176947/silencing-of-foxp3-enhances-the-antitumor-efficacy-of-gm-csf-genetically-modified-tumor-cell-vaccine-against-b16-melanoma
#3
Antonio Miguel, Luis Sendra, Verónica Noé, Carles J Ciudad, Francisco Dasí, David Hervas, María José Herrero, Salvador F Aliño
The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg), which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166201/downregulation-of-pck2-remodels-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-in-tumor-repopulating-cells-of-melanoma
#4
S Luo, Y Li, R Ma, J Liu, P Xu, H Zhang, K Tang, J Ma, N Liu, Y Zhang, Y Sun, T Ji, X Liang, X Yin, Y Liu, W Tong, Y Niu, N Wang, X Wang, B Huang
For cancer cells to proliferate, a balance must be built between biomass-forming, glucose-metabolized intermediates and ATP production. How intrinsic glucose carbon flow regulates this balance remains unclear. Here we show that mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), the hub molecule linking tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by conversion of mitochondrial oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate, regulates glucose carbon flow direction in stem-like cells that repopulate tumors (tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs))...
February 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152570/niacin-intake-and-risk-of-skin-cancer-in-us-women-and-men
#5
Sang Min Park, Tricia Li, Shaowei Wu, Wen-Qing Li, Martin Weinstock, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
A recent clinical trial found a protective role of niacinamide, a derivative of niacin, against skin cancer recurrence. However, there is no epidemiologic study to assess the association between niacin intake and risk of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], and melanoma). We prospectively evaluated whether total, dietary and supplemental niacin intake was associated with skin cancer risk based on 72,308 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 41,808 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010)...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127433/fibrocellular-non-specific-interstitial-pneumonia-with-favourable-prognosis-in-clinically-amyopathic-dermatomyositis
#7
Takahiro Yoshizawa, Keishi Sugino, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Toshimasa Uekusa, Sakae Homma
We report the case of a 49-year-old man who experienced dry cough and itching eruption for 2 months. The patient had Gottoron's sign, mechanic's hand, and high levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein D, but was negative for anti-aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase antibodies. High-resolution chest computed tomography revealed subpleural band-like or patchy consolidation with predominance in the bilateral lower lobe. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased total cell counts with lymphocytosis...
September 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103270/cold-atmospheric-plasma-created-at-the-tip-of-an-elongated-flexible-capillary-using-low-electric-current-can-slow-the-progression-of-melanoma
#8
Y Binenbaum, G Ben-David, Z Gil, Ya Z Slutsker, M A Ryzhkov, J Felsteiner, Ya E Krasik, J T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet (CAPJ), with ion temperature close to room temperature, has tremendous potential in biomedical engineering, and can potentially offer a therapeutic option that allows cancer cell elimination without damaging healthy tissue. We developed a hand-held flexible device for the delivery of CAPJ to the treatment site, with a modified high-frequency pulse generator operating at a RMS voltage of <1.2 kV and gas flow in the range 0.3-3 l/min. The aims of our study were to characterize the CAPJ emitted from the device, and to evaluate its efficacy in elimination of cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079338/a-single-institute-experience-on-melanoma-prognosis-a-long-term-follow-up
#9
Emi Dika, Marco A Chessa, Giulia Veronesi, Giulia M Ravaioli, Pier A Fanti, Simone Ribero, Giovanni Tripepi, Carlotta Gurioli, Alessandro Traniello Gradassi, Martina Lambertini, Annalisa Patrizi
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of cutaneous melanoma is correlated to histopathologic parameters such as Breslow thickness, the presence of mitosis, ulceration and lymphatic involvement at the moment of the diagnosis. On the other hand, the prognostic value of parameters such as age, sex, and tumor localization are still a matter of debate. We evaluated herein the prognostic factors in melanoma patients during a long term follow- up (60 months). METHODS: Melanoma patients presenting stage IB-III at diagnosis were included...
January 12, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048976/repeat-episcleral-plaque-brachytherapy-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-treated-for-locally-recurrent-posterior-uveal-melanoma
#10
Benjamin King, Vanessa M Morales-Tirado, Henry G Wynn, Brad T Gao, Matthew T Ballo, Matthew W Wilson
PURPOSE: Report the outcomes of survival, local control, visual acuity and eye retention in patients treated with repeat episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPBT) for locally recurrent posterior uveal melanoma (PUM). DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series METHODS: Setting: Institutional Patient Population: 1201 patients that underwent Iodine-125 (I-125) EPBT as primary treatment for PUM between 1985 and 2015 Inclusion criteria: Development of locally recurrent disease and retreatment with I-125 EPBT Observation Procedures: Clinical records review Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity, Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, local control, metastasis and loss of the eye over the duration of follow up RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (13 men) met our inclusion criteria...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042842/novel-2-3-dihydro-1h-pyrrolo-3-2-1-ij-quinazolin-1-ones-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#11
Malose J Mphahlele, Tebogo A Khoza, Peaceful Mabeta
Herein we describe the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel 2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-1-ones for in vitro cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines as well as for potential antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The title compounds were prepared via PdCl₂-mediated endo-dig cyclization of 2-aryl-8-(arylethynyl)-6-bromo-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones. The latter were prepared, in turn, via initial Sonogashira cross-coupling of 2-amino-5-bromo-3-iodobenzamide with aryl acetylenes followed by boric acid-mediated cyclocondensation of the intermediate 2-amino-3-(arylethynyl)-5-bromobenzamides with benzaldehyde derivatives...
December 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039784/verteporfin-based-silica-nanoparticle-for-in-vitro-selective-inhibition-of-human-highly-invasive-melanoma-cell-proliferation
#12
Manuela Rizzi, Stelvio Tonello, Bianca Martins Estevão, Enrica Gianotti, Leonardo Marchese, Filippo Renò
Photodinamic therapy (PDT) has gained an increasing interest as a new tool to treat skin cancers such as melanoma. This clinical approach take advantage from the combination of a photosensitizer and a specific light wavelength able to induce singlet oxygen production. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been widely investigated as drug nanocarriers as their structure and morphology could be customized to produce suitable nanoplatforms enabling high cargo capacity. In the present study MSNs were successfully conjugated with the second generation photosensitizer verteporfin and the resulting nanoplatform (Ver-MSNs) was tested in an in vitro PDT model as a potential tool for melanoma treatment...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026754/automated-melanoma-recognition-in-dermoscopy-images-via-very-deep-residual-networks
#13
Lequan Yu, Hao Chen, Qi Dou, Jing Qin, Pheng Ann Heng
Automated melanoma recognition in dermoscopy images is a very challenging task due to the low contrast of skin lesions, the huge intraclass variation of melanomas, the high degree of visual similarity between melanoma and non-melanoma lesions, and the existence of many artifacts in the image. In order to meet these challenges, we propose a novel method for melanoma recognition by leveraging very deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Compared with existing methods employing either low-level hand-crafted features or CNNs with shallower architectures, our substantially deeper networks (more than 50 layers) can acquire richer and more discriminative features for more accurate recognition...
December 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024187/synthesis-photophysical-properties-and-structures-of-organotin-schiff-bases-utilizing-aromatic-amino-acid-from-the-chiral-pool-and-evaluation-of-the-biological-perspective-of-a-triphenyltin-compound
#14
Tushar S Basu Baul, Pelesakuo Kehie, Andrew Duthie, Nikhil Guchhait, Nune Raviprakash, Raveendra B Mokhamatam, Sunil K Manna, Nerina Armata, Michelangelo Scopelliti, Ruimin Wang, Ulli Englert
Five new organotin(IV) complexes of compositions [Me2SnL(1)] (1), [Me2SnL(2)]n (2), [Me2SnL(3)] (3), [Ph3SnL(1)H]n (4) and [Ph3SnL(3)H] (5) (where L(1)=(2S)-2-((E)-((Z)-4-hydroxypent-3-en-2-ylidene)amino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate, L(2)=(2S)-(E)-2-((2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate and L(3)=(2S)-(E)-2-((1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)amino)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoate were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. The crystal structures of 1-4 were determined. For the dimethyltin derivative 2, a polymeric chain structure was observed as a result of a long Sn∙∙∙O contact involving the exocyclic carbonyl oxygen-atom from the tridentate ligand of a neighboring Sn-complex unit...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024137/-secrets-of-the-red-headed
#15
REVIEW
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Małgorzata Kowalik, Adam Jagodziński
Only 1-2% of people is red-headed but in the Russian Udmurt Republic or United Kingdom they can be met more often. A specific variant of MC1R gene (R allele) is responsible for the red hair. The gene encodes a receptor for melanocortins. These substances stimulate melanocytes to product melanin- a dye of the skin which is transported to keratinocytes. It protects a cellular nucleus from ultraviolet radiation. Melanin has two types: eumelanin which is dark brown or even black and red/orange pheomelanin. The second one is mostly observed in red-headed which is caused by R allele...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009745/safety-and-feasibility-of-minimally-invasive-inguinal-lymph-node-dissection-in-patients-with-melanoma-safe-milnd-report-of-a-prospective-multi-institutional-trial
#16
James W Jakub, Alicia M Terando, Amod Sarnaik, Charlotte E Ariyan, Mark B Faries, Sabino Zani, Heather B Neuman, Nabil Wasif, Jeffrey M Farma, Bruce J Averbook, Karl Y Bilimoria, Travis E Grotz, Jacob B Jake Allred, Vera J Suman, Mary Sue Brady, Douglas Tyler, Jeffrey D Wayne, Heidi Nelson
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive inguinal lymph node dissection (MILND) is a novel approach to inguinal lymphadenectomy. SAFE-MILND (NCT01500304) is a multicenter, phase I/II clinical trial evaluating the safety and feasibility of MILND for patients with melanoma in a group of surgeons newly adopting the procedure. METHODS: Twelve melanoma surgeons from 10 institutions without any previous MILND experience, enrolled patients into a prospective study after completing specialized training including didactic lectures, participating in a hands-on cadaveric laboratory, and being provided an instructional DVD of the procedure...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951487/synthesis-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-monocationic-arylthiophene-derivatives
#17
Mohamed A Ismail, Magdy M Youssef, Reem K Arafa, Shar S Al-Shihry, Wael M El-Sayed
Eleven compounds of substituted 4-(5-arylthiophen-2-yl)benzamidines 4a-k were synthesized from their corresponding mononitriles via treatment with lithium trimethylsilylamide and subsequent de-protection with ethanol/hydrogen chloride. In vitro antiproliferative activities of the new monocationic arylthiophenes were evaluated against 60 human cell lines at NCI, USA. This class of compounds displayed promising submicromolar antiproliferative activities with the most potent compound being 4i (GI50 and TGI of 0...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942349/the-risks-and-benefits-of-sun-exposure-2016
#18
REVIEW
David G Hoel, Marianne Berwick, Frank R de Gruijl, Michael F Holick
Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863187/cytology-of-primary-vaginal-melanoma-an-unusual-report-on-fine-needle-aspiration
#19
Poojan Agarwal, Manju Kaushal
Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely uncommon malignancy comprising of less than 10% malignancies of the female genital tract and 0.3% of all melanomas. Melanoblasts are neural crest derivatives and are notorious for causing primary cutaneous neoplasms. However, they involve virtually every organ of the body including eye, intestines and ocular mucosa, probably due to aberrancies in cell migration. Vagina is a rare site and primary melanoma of the vagina occurs in postmenopausal women with vaginal discharge, bleeding, or mass as common presenting complaints...
November 11, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863025/decision-to-grow-or-to-invade-is-at-the-flick-of-metabolic-switch-pgc1%C3%AE
#20
Kristen S Hill, Minjung Kim
Cancer cells constantly reprogram their metabolism to meet anabolic and catabolic demands in real time. Increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) is associated with highly proliferative tumors, since it confers several advantages to proliferating tumor cells by providing rapid ATP production from glycolysis and macromolecules (building blocks) for cell division. On the other hand, mitochondria-dependent oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) generates the maximal amount of ATP from glucose. Although underappreciated, OxPhos is also utilized to support growth of cancer cells, especially for "oxidative tumors" such as lymphomas, glioblastomas, and melanomas...
November 10, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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